Scott Tindale

Scott Tindale
Loyola University Chicago | LUC · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

97
Publications
74,848
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5,653
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
1777 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Additional affiliations
September 1984 - present
Loyola University Chicago
Position
  • Individual and Group Decision Making
Education
August 1979 - May 1984

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
In humans and other gregarious animals, collective decision-making is a robust behavioural feature of groups. Pooling individual information is also fundamental for modern societies, in which digital technologies have exponentially increased the interdependence of individual group members. In this Review, we selectively discuss the recent human and...
Preprint
Full-text available
In contemporary organizations, many—if not most—teams work on cognitive or information processing tasks (Hinsz, Tindale, & Vollrath, 1997). The past 50 years of research have taught us much about how information is accessed, created, attended to, and processed as teams attempt to complete various tasks. However, many of the information processing e...
Article
Individuals often underutilize the advice they receive from others, a phenomenon known as egocentric advice discounting. Recent research suggests that this tendency may be even stronger in groups (Minson & Mueller, 2012; Schultze, Mojzisch, & Schulz-Hardt, 2019). Using a quantity estimation task, we tested five hypotheses about advice taking by gro...
Preprint
Group decisions are ubiquitous in everyday life. Even when decisions are made individually, decision-makers often receive advice or suggestions from others. Thus, decisions are often social in nature and involve multiple group members. The literature on group decision-making is conceptualized as falling along two dimensions: how much interaction or...
Preprint
Groups are used to make many important societal decisions. Similar to individuals, by paying attention to the information available during the decision processes and the consequences of the decisions, groups can learn from their decisions as well. In addition, group members can learn from each other by exchanging information and being exposed to di...
Preprint
Unethical behavior is often viewed as an individual-level phenomenon. However, group membership can influence individuals’ choices to behave ethically or not (Messick, 2006). This chapter discusses whether and when groups will be more likely than individuals to use deception. We focus on three areas of research. The first involves comparing individ...
Preprint
Today’s modern world affords many benefits, one of which is the ability to have near-instantaneous interactions with groups and cultures other than our own. Though advantageous in many situations, one challenge for these groups is navigating what they perceive to be right and wrong in a cooperative manner despite having different modes of morality....
Article
Today’s modern world affords many benefits, one of which is the ability to have near-instantaneous interactions with groups and cultures other than our own. Though advantageous in many situations, one challenge for these groups is navigating what they perceive to be right and wrong in a cooperative manner despite having different modes of morality....
Article
This article memorializes Richard l. Moreland, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh. He passed away away on November 18, 2017. Dick’s lifelong intellectual passion was the study of small group behavior. Much of this work was carried out in close collaboration with John Levine. Together, they developed an ambitious theory...
Article
Over the 20 years that Group Processes & Intergroup Relations has been in existence, evolutionary theory has begun to play a larger role in our understanding of human social behavior. Theory and research on group decision-making is no exception and the present paper attempts to briefly highlight how an evolutionary/adaptationist perspective has inf...
Article
Groups are used to make many important societal decisions. Similar to individuals, by paying attention to the information available during the decision processes and the consequences of the decisions, groups can learn from their decisions as well. In addition, group members can learn from each other by exchanging information and being exposed to di...
Article
Evolutionary psychology adds many insights to the literature on group dynamics and small-group processes. First, groups are a fundamental aspect of human evolution, suggesting that humans have evolved a range of adaptations to deal with specific threats and opportunities afforded by living in groups. Second, an evolutionary perspective integrates k...
Chapter
In the past few decades, judgment and decision making research had focused on the social components of decision contexts and had led to both new theoretical developments and interesting research findings. Collective decisions can be made in various ways following a number of different procedures that can vary from each other in diverse ways. This c...
Article
Misinformation can have a negative impact on decision making. Little empirical attention has, however, been given to the effect of rumors, a type of misinformation, on person judgments. Although rumors have been shown to affect other areas of organizational functioning (e.g., corporate reputation, employee morale), there is a lack of research inves...
Chapter
An evolutionary perspective brings many insights to the literature on group behavior. First, groups are a fundamental aspect of hominid evolution, suggesting that humans have evolved a range of adaptations to deal with challenges arising within group-living contexts. Second, an evolutionary perspective integrates knowledge from numerous behavioral...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and sport team performance and the moderating role of task interdependence in that relationship. Two types of collegiate teams—softball (N = 25) and tennis (N = 15)—were utilized to represent different levels of task interdependence with softball being considere...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue of GPIR is a tribute to the many contributions to the scientific study of group processes made by James H. Davis, who died on November 16, 2010. In this brief introductory piece, we will provide a bit of background on Jim’s life and work, describe his characteristic method of inquiry, which we might term the Davisonian approach,...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the research on small group performance shows that groups tend to outperform individuals in most task domains. However, there is also evidence that groups sometimes perform worse than individuals, occasionally with severe negative consequences. Theoretical attempts to explain such negative performance events have tended to point to characte...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the effects of shared stereotypes and processing goals on jury decision making. Participants were asked to read a case of a man accused of child molestation and decide if the defendant was guilty or not guilty. The study manipulated the judge's instructions (preponderance of evidence or guilty beyond a reasonable doubt), the sex...
Article
Minority and majority influence were studied simultaneously within the context of freely interacting groups. It was hypothesized that minorities would act as a rein, reducing the degree of polarization in majority members' attitudes. The direction and magnitude of attitude change on a social issue in unanimous groups were compared to those of group...
Article
The potential of group (vs. individual) forecasting is analyzed from the perspective of the social psychology of groups. The social decision scheme theory (SDST) is summarized, and several simulations are presented to demonstrate the dependence of group aggregation accuracy upon factors such as group size, the accuracy and distribution of individua...
Article
Essentialism is an ontological belief that there exists an underlying essence to a category. This article advances and tests in three studies the hypothesis that communication about a social category, and expected or actual mutual validation, promotes essentialism about a social category. In Study 1, people who wrote communications about a social c...
Article
Decision-making groups often exchange and integrate distributed information to a lesser extent than is desirable for high-quality decisions. One important reason for this lies in group members’ understanding of the decision task—their task representations—specifically the extent to which they understand the importance of exchange and integration of...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of ethical climate on the use of deception during negotiation for both individuals and groups. It aims to focus on the use of “ethical climate” as a shared task representation at the group level. Design/methodology/approach Participants were 458 undergraduate students who earned cours...
Article
Information about source consensus may either create expectancies of message validity that bias subsequent processing, or may determine the amount of message processing. The authors propose that which of the two effects occurs depends on the framing of consensus information. Undergraduates (N = 242) read strong, ambiguous, or weak arguments on an i...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the predictors of three types of problem-focused coping strategies (i.e., amount of help seeking, pursuing an order of protection, and staying away from the abuser) among battered women. Predictor variables are categorized as abuse characteristics and three types of coping resources (i.e., personal, material, and social c...
Article
This article investigates differences in the ways that groups and individuals apply information-processing strategies and fall prey to biases in their judgments. Judgments were made on probabilistic inference problems that involved base-rate and case-specific information. Consistent with hypotheses, when individuals neglect base-rate information in...
Chapter
Full-text available
How Shared Cognitions DevelopThe Impact of Shared Cognitions on Group Process and PerformanceSummary and Future Direction
Chapter
Formal Models of Jury Decision MakingProcedures Prior to Trial: Jury SelectionProcedures During Trial: Evidence Presentation and Judges' InstructionsProcedural Effects During DeliberationConcluding Comments
Article
This study attempted to test assumptions derived from the sex-role spillover model of sexual harassment developed by Gutek and Morasch (1982). One hundred fourteen male and 120 female undergraduates were asked to read scenarios describing potentially sexually oriented behaviors toward women in three different types of job settings (job types: femal...
Article
This essay introduces the special issue of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (2004, Vol 7[4]) on evolutionary approaches to group research. We discuss how and why the evolutionary/adaptive perspective is essential for social psychology, especially for group research. We argue that studies of social/group behaviors armed with the adaptive met...
Article
Full-text available
Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on...
Article
Full-text available
The 'Emerging Perspectives' offers answers by a top group of experts to the question, 'Where is judgment and decision research heading as we forge into the 21st century?' The chapters represent perspectives developed by some of the most innovative thinkers in the field. The book is organized around five themes: Fortifying traditional models of deci...
Article
The Holocaust is arguably one of the most significant (albeit horrifying) social events of the twentieth century. Thus, it is not surprising that social scientists from many disciplines have attempted to explain how a civilized European country could adopt a mandate, and then take significant strides toward carrying it out, to eradicate a group of...
Article
Previous research has shown that groups, as compared to individuals, perform better on integrative bargaining tasks (Thompson, Peterson, & Brodt, 1996), but worse on dilemma tasks (i.e., the “discontinuity effect”; Schopler & Insko, 1992). After reaching agreement on either a cooperative or a competitive integrative bargaining task in one of three...
Article
Sharing important resources widely beyond direct kin group members is one of the core features characterizing human societies. Moreover, generalized exchange involving many community members (e.g., meat sharing in bands) seems to be a uniquely human practice. This paper explores a computational algorithm for the psychology of social sharing that ma...
Article
Full-text available
One of the key findings concerning how groups process information is the ‘common knowledge effect’—information shared by many group members plays a larger role in group process and performance than unshared information. However, in an information rich environment, assigning all information to all members may overload each member’s cognitive capabil...
Article
Many if not most political decisions are made by groups. Small group caucuses often help to choose political candidates, legislative bodies (e.g., Congress) decide which laws to enact, and leaders with their advisors (e.g., U.S. Security Council) make strategic and military decisions. Although some groups are just advisory, where responsibility for...
Book
Early studies of political behavior examined the sociological, attitudinal, and rational determinants of political behavior. However, none of these approaches provided a descriptive model of how people process political information and make political decisions under naturalistic conditions that involve limited cognitive capacity and motivation. For...
Article
Full-text available
Although much of the research on small groups in social psychology has emphasized cognitive, information-processing tasks (decision-making and problem solving), only recently have groups been conceptualized as information-processing systems. Partially due to this new conceptualization, group research is on the rise, yet much of this research is dis...
Article
A self-discrepancy is a gap between the perceived real self and other standards like the ideal self. One hundred and eighty-one college students completed a self-report measure of self-discrepancies and decisional and behavioral procrastination. Regression analysis showed that overall dysfunctional procrastination (the composite measure of both kin...
Article
Review of book: R. Scott Tindale et. al (Eds.) Theory and Research on Small Groups. New York: Plenum Press. 1998, 277 pp. Reviewed by Mark F. Stasson, Michael J. Markus, and Jason W. Hart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Review of book: R. Scott Tindale et. al (Eds.) Theory and Research on Small Groups. New York: Plenum Press. 1998, 277 pp. Reviewed by Mark F. Stasson, Michael J. Markus, and Jason W. Hart.
Article
Past research has shown that individuals prefer to continue investing resources into a failing endeavor once a considerable investment has been made, even when abandoning the project would be more rational economically. This phenomenon has been labeled the sunk cost effect (Arkes & Blumer, 1985). Since investment decisions are often made by groups,...
Article
Full-text available
A selective review of research highlights the emerging view of groups as information processors. In this review, the authors include research on processing objectives, attention, encoding, storage, retrieval, processing, response, feedback, and learning in small interacting task groups. The groups as information processors perspective underscores s...
Article
Full-text available
A selective review of research highlights the emerging view of groups as information processors. In this review, the authors include research on processing objectives, attention, encoding, storage, retrieval, processing response, feedback, and learning in small interacting task groups. The groups as information processors perspective underscores se...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed whether moderately obese individuals, especially women, would be discriminated against in a mock employment interview. Potential confounding factors were controlled by having 320 Ss rate videotapes of a job interview that used the same professional actors appearing as normal weight or made up to appear overweight by the use of t...
Article
Validating the existence of heuristic influence on decision making and in real-world applications would create a powerful tool for understanding, predicting, and perhaps even correcting decisions made under situations of uncertainty. [This book] thoroughly examines these social psychological constructs and explores their importance in the areas o...
Chapter
Twenty years ago, Tversky and Kahneman published an article in Science in which they outlined three heuristics (or cognitive short-cuts) that people use to judge probabilities and to make decisions under uncertain circumstances (Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). They discussed the importance of these heuristics by reference to judgments about the guilt of...
Book
This volume presents the latest research on applying heuristics and biases to the areas of health, law, education, and organizations. Authors adopt a cross-disciplinary approach to study various theories.
Article
Subjects had their initial frames of reference concerning a decision problem (Asian Disease problem; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981, Science,211, 453–458) manipulated in order to compose four-person groups containing members with different frames of reference. Three different group compositions (number of members with "gain-oriented" vs "loss-oriented" f...
Article
This experiment examined the role that ambiguity and uncertainty play in the use of base rate and individuating information in probability judgments. Subjects responded to a number of inference problems that varied in terms of base rates and the accuracy of the source of the individuating information. The ambiguity in the decision situation was als...
Article
L. K. Michaelsen et al (see record 1990-04483-001) argue that, by using experienced groups working on relevant tasks with real rewards, an assembly bonus effect (group performance that is better than the performance of any individual group member or any combination of individual member efforts [B. E. Collins and H. Guetzkow, 1964]) was demonstrat...
Article
L. K. Michaelsen et al (see record 1992-19773-001) were not convinced by the present authors' computer simulations and replication study that the original study of Michaelsen et al (see record 1990-04483-001) did not provide evidence of an assembly bonus effect. Therefore, the authors logically reiterate the position that, at the very least, demo...
Article
Michaelsen, Watson, and Black (1989) argued that, by using experienced groups working on relevant tasks with real rewards, they were able to demonstrate an assembly bonus effect (Collins & Guetzkow, 1964)-group performance that is better than the performance of any individual group member or any combination of individual member efforts. Using compu...
Article
L. K. Michaelsen et al (see record 1992-19773-001) were not convinced by the present authors' computer simulations and replication study that the original study of Michaelsen et al (see record 1990-04483-001) did not provide evidence of an assembly bonus effect. Therefore, the authors logically reiterate the position that, at the very least, demons...
Chapter
One of the key functions of applied social psychological research is to provide policymakers with information relevant to potential outcomes associated with new or changing policies. Unfortunately, most policy decisions are made in a limited time frame, which rarely allows for appropriate studies to be conducted. Thus, if research results are used...
Book
Many authors have argued that applying social psychology to the solution of real­ world problems builds better theories. Observers have claimed, for example, that of human behavior applied social psychology reveals more accurate principles because its data are based on people in real-life circumstances (Helmreich, 1975; Saxe & Fine, 1980), provides...
Article
The findings of many studies conducted before 1978 suggest that Type A behavior (TAB) contributes to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). In contrast, many recent studies have found no association between these variables. Through meta-analysis, several reasons for null findings are identified. First, a type of range restriction bias, di...
Article
Although a fair amount of research has focused on the effects of either individual-level or group-level feedback on motivation and performance, little empirical work has attempted to understand how these two levels of feedback operate together. Based on Weiner's (1985) model of attribution processes and motivation, this study assessed the degree to...
Article
Full-text available
Using freely interacting mock juries, this study tested the predictions of 3 different models of social influence: social impact theory, the other–total ratio, and the social influence model. All 3 models use faction size as the basis for their predictions. On the basis of the predeliberation verdict preferences of 879 female students, groups were...
Book
Volume 1 of the Loyola - SPSSI series on social psychological applications to social issues.
Article
Recent theories of individual decision making have emphasized the role of environmental feedback on decision performance and confidence. However, in relation to group decision making, feedback has received only minor attention. This study compared individual and group decision performance and confidence on a multicue personnel decision task under t...
Article
The experiment reported investigates contrasting hypotheses of how characteristics of individuating and base rate information influence the use of this information in probabilistic judgments. Undergraduate students were provided a series of probabilistic inference problems that systematically varied the accuracy of the source of the individuating i...
Article
Using referred samples to study predictors of disease produces statistical problems that reduce the likelihood of obtaining statistically significant results even when a substantial relationship is present between a risk factor and a disease. The present paper refers to these problems as disease based spectrum (DBS) bias. DBS bias is present when s...
Article
The implications of the overlapping, hierarchical (linking-pin) structure proposed by and were evaluated through the use of “thought experiments” (Davis, 1980; Davis & Kerr, 1986); i.e., using formal models to logically deduce the potential implications of theoretical assumptions. A series of computer simulations, based on Social Decision Scheme th...