Scott W. Schmucker

Scott W. Schmucker
Sandia National Laboratories

B.S., M.S., Ph.D.

About

74
Publications
6,057
Reads
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1,111
Citations
Citations since 2016
50 Research Items
795 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Additional affiliations
April 2012 - June 2015
United States Naval Research Laboratory
Position
  • Postdoctoral Graduate Research Associate
October 2010 - present
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Graphene Fluoride on Copper
October 2010 - present
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of Fluorinated Graphene on Copper
Education
August 2004 - May 2012
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering
August 2000 - May 2004
Case Western Reserve University
Field of study
  • Computer Engineering

Publications

Publications (74)
Preprint
Previously it was shown that P:$\delta$-layers - atomically thin sheets of phosphorus dopants in silicon - produce a distinct Drude tail feature in ellipsometry measurements [1,2]. However, the ellipsometric spectra could not be properly fit by modeling the $\delta$-layer as a discrete layer of classical Drude metal. In particular, even for large b...
Article
As transistor features shrink beyond the 2 nm node, studying and designing for atomic scale effects become essential. Being able to combine conventional CMOS with new atomic scale fabrication routes capable of creating 2D patterns of highly doped phosphorus layers with atomic precision has implications for the future of digital electronics. This wo...
Preprint
Full-text available
As transistor features shrink beyond the 2 nm node, studying and designing for atomic scale effects become essential. Being able to combine conventional CMOS with new atomic scale fabrication routes capable of creating 2D patterns of highly doped phosphorous layers with atomic precision has implications for the future of digital electronics. This w...
Article
Atomically precise ultradoping of silicon is possible with atomic resists, area-selective surface chemistry, and a limited set of hydride and halide precursor molecules, in a process known as Atomic Precision Advanced Manufacturing (APAM). It is desirable to expand this set of precursors to include dopants with organic functional groups and here we...
Preprint
Diborane (B$_2$H$_6$) is a promising molecular precursor for atomic precision p-type doping of silicon that has recently been experimentally demonstrated [T. {\v{S}}kere{\v{n}}, \textit{et al.,} Nature Electronics (2020)]. We use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine the reaction pathway for diborane dissociating into a species...
Article
Accessing Atomic-scale Phosphorus Dopant Distribution in Precise Silicon Devices by Advanced STEM Imaging and Spectroscopy - Ping Lu, Evan Anderson, Scott Schmucker, Fabian Pena, Esther Frederick, Jeffrey Ivie, Ezra Bussmann, Deanna Lopez, Lisa Tracy, Tzu-Ming Lu, George Wang, Daniel Ward, Shashank Misra
Article
Scientists have long studied the physics of highly disordered conducting systems, seeking to understand the multitude of quantum phenomena that govern how electrons move through material systems. Recently, research into silicon-based quantum computing has made disordered conducting systems, such as Si:P monolayers embedded in isotopically pure Si,...
Article
Full-text available
Atomically precise donor-based quantum devices are a promising candidate for solid-state quantum computing and analog quantum simulations. However, critical challenges in atomically precise fabrication have meant systematic, atomic scale control of the tunneling rates and tunnel coupling has not been demonstrated. Here using a room temperature grow...
Article
Atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM) is a technique for placing dopant atoms with single atomic-lattice site precision on silicon surfaces. APAM devices are created by patterning the placement of dopants into a two-dimensional sheet of phosphorus atoms on the silicon surface, incorporating the dopants into the lattice, and then capping th...
Preprint
An exponential increase in the performance of silicon microelectronics and the demand to manufacture in great volumes has created an ecosystem that requires increasingly complex tools to fabricate and characterize the next generation of chips. However, the cost to develop and produce the next generation of these tools has also risen exponentially,...
Preprint
Scaling to smaller transistors is increasingly difficult and expensive, necessitating the investigation of alternative fabrication paths that extend to the atomic scale. Atomically precise donor devices can be created using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). However, these devices are not currently compatible with industry standard fabrication...
Article
The ability to place atoms one by one at specific atomic sites was first used to create functioning electronic devices in the late 1990s. Since then, the process known as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM) has been further developed and both academic and commercial interest in its potential has grown. This article describes the nuances...
Article
Full-text available
Atomically precise fabrication has an important role to play in developing atom‐based electronic devices for use in quantum information processing, quantum materials research, and quantum sensing. Atom‐by‐atom fabrication has the potential to enable precise control over tunnel coupling, exchange coupling, on‐site charging energies, and other key pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Atomically precise donor-based quantum devices are a promising candidate for scalable solid-state quantum computing. Atomically precise design and implementation of the tunnel coupling in these devices is essential to realize gate-tunable exchange coupling, and electron spin initialization and readout. Current efforts in atomically precise lithogra...
Article
Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) enables the fabrication of two-dimensional δ-doped structures in Si with atomistic precision, with applications from tunnel field-effect transistors to qubits. The combination of a very small contact area and the restrictive thermal budget necessary to maintain the integrity of the δ layer make developing a robus...
Article
Hydrogen atoms on a silicon surface, H-Si (100), behave as a resist that can be patterned with perfect atomic precision using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). When a hydrogen atom is removed in this manner, the underlying silicon presents a chemically active site, commonly referred to as a dangling bond. It has been predicted that individual...
Article
Atomically thin MoS2 has generated intense interest for emerging electronics applications. Its two-dimensional nature and potential for low-power electronics are particularly appealing for space-bound electronics, motivating the need for a fundamental understanding of MoS2 electronic device response to the space radiation environment. In this lette...
Article
A reagent-based treatment method was developed for the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) from aqueous dispersions of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Based on a survey of various reagents, organic solvents emerged as the most effective at interrupting the SDS:SWCNT interaction without producing deleterious side reactions or causing prec...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the optical, chemical, and electrical properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) using the precursor ammonia-borane ($H_3N-BH_3$) as a function of $Ar/H_2$ background pressure ($P_{TOT}$). Films grown at $P_{TOT}$ less than 2.0 Torr are uniform in thickness, highly crystalline, and consist solely o...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperthermal ion implantation offers a controllable method of producing high-quality substitutionally doped graphene with nitrogen, an n-type dopant that has great potential for graphene electronics and spintronics applications where high carrier concentration, uniform doping, and minimal vacancy defect concentration is desired. Here we examine the...
Article
We investigate hyperthermal ion implantation (HyTII) as a means for substitutionally doping layered materials such as graphene. In particular, this systematic study characterizes the efficacy of substitutional N-doping of graphene using HyTII over an N(+) energy range of 25 eV to 100 eV. Scanning tunneling microscopy results establish the incorpora...
Article
Solution-processed semiconductor and dielectric materials are attractive for future light-weight, low-voltage, flexible electronics, but their response to ionizing radiation environments is not well understood. Here, we investigate the radiation response of graphene field-effect transistors employing multilayer, solution-processed zirconia self-ass...
Article
Single-layer graphene derived from chemical vapor deposition(CVD) holds promise for scalable radio frequency (RF) electronic applications. However, prevalent low-frequency flicker noise (1/fnoise) in CVDgraphenefield-effect transistors is often up-converted to higher frequencies, thus limiting RF device performance. Here, we achieve an order of mag...
Article
Layered two-dimensional crystal systems can exhibit complex interlayer interactions, which are influenced by local crystal structure and/or electronic variations. Here, we study the influence of defects in twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) using Raman spectroscopy. We explore the varied influence of defects on three characteristic Raman modes of both...
Article
Graphene (Gr)–polystyrene (PS) and graphene (Gr)–ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) laminates were fabricated using a transfer print approach that relies on differential adhesion to remove graphene from Cu foil without chemical etching. The polymer surfaces were prepared using plasma functionalization followed by N-ethylamino-4-azid...
Chapter
The growth of graphene and other two-dimensional materials by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been an increasingly active area of research since graphene was first isolated in 2004. Materials such as hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, graphene, and other two-dimensional materials can now routinely be grown by CVD on various substrat...
Patent
Full-text available
The invention provides methods for sharpening the tip of an electrical conductor. The methods of the invention are capable of producing tips with an apex radius of curvature less than 2 nm. The methods of the invention are based on simultaneous direction of ionized atoms towards the apex of a previously sharpened conducting tip and application of a...
Article
Graphene transfer is critical for successful graphene-device integration. Even though multiple transfer approaches have been developed, an optimal solution is still not available. In this paper, we demonstrate dry transfer of graphene transfer Cu foil to polystyrene using mild heat and pressure. Two different printing systems are evaluated: a wafer...
Article
Direct, tunable coupling between individually assembled graphene layers is a next step toward designer two-dimensional (2D) crystal systems, with relevance for fundamental studies and technological applications. Here we describe the fabrication and characterization of large-area (>cm(2)), coupled bilayer graphene on SiO(2)/Si substrates. Stacking t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wafer-scale, high-quality graphene growth, functionalization, and transfer to arbitrary surfaces are required to make the next generation of novel carbon-based nanoelectronics. To that end, we perform chemical vapor deposition of graphene on Cu and find that the Cu surface crystallography affects the graphene growth. Hexagonal, low-index Cu(111) gi...
Article
Full-text available
Fabrication of ultrasharp probes is of interest for many applications, including scanning probe microscopy and electron-stimulated patterning of surfaces. These techniques require reproducible ultrasharp metallic tips, yet the efficient and reproducible fabrication of these consumable items has remained an elusive goal. Here we describe a novel bia...
Thesis
Full-text available
Graphene fluoride is a two-dimensional fluorocarbon, and the wide-gap analogue of graphene. Among chemical derivatives of graphene, graphene fluoride is unique in its ease of synthesis and stability, as well as the extensive study of its bulk form, graphite fluoride. Only in the last few years, however, has graphene fluoride been isolated experimen...
Article
Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Cu is appealing due to supposed large-area monolayer growth and the low cost of the Cu foil substrate. However, this Cu substrate is inherently polycrystalline, with low and high index facets, annealing twins, and rough sites. We characterize CVD graphene growth on the Cu surfaces by combining Ra...
Article
Chemical vapor deposition of graphene on Cu often employs polycrystalline Cu substrates with diverse facets, grain boundaries (GBs), annealing twins, and rough sites. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and Raman spectroscopy on graphene and Cu, we find that Cu substrate crystallography affects graphen...
Article
We have performed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements as well as ab initio calculations for graphene monolayers on clean and hydrogen(H)-passivated silicon (100) (Si(100)/H) surfaces. In order to experimentally study the same graphene piece on both substrates, we develop a method to depassivate hydrogen from under...
Article
We probe by ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM) the structural and electronic properties of monolayer fluorinated graphene (CxF, x 4) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on copper substrates and fluorinated by xenon difluoride gas [1]. The chemical composition and structure of the resulting film is probed by x-ray photoele...
Patent
The invention provides methods for sharpening the tip of an electrical conductor. The methods of the invention are capable of producing tips with an apex radius of curvature less than 2 nm. The methods of the invention are based on simultaneous direction of ionized atoms towards the apex of a previously sharpened conducting tip and application of a...
Article
The atomic and electronic structures of pyramidal model STM tips of transition metals (W, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) method. The calculated density of states show that d electrons of the apex atoms in the M4 (M = W, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) model tips behave differently near the Fermi level, with the dz2 state...
Article
H depassivation lithography is a process by which a monolayer of H absorbed on a Si(1 0 0) 2 × 1 surface may be patterned by the removal of H atoms using a scanning tunneling microscope. This process can achieve atomic resolution where individual atoms are targeted and removed. This paper suggests that such a patterning process can be carried out a...
Article
Graphene growth on copper has attracted much interest due to the large graphene domain sizes and the high percentage of monolayer graphene coverage^1. To use this grown graphene for other applications, one must characterize both the graphene coverage and number of graphene layers. We identify graphene coverage on as-grown copper samples by oxidizin...
Article
We report transmission electron microscopy studies of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foils.footnotetextLi, X., et al., Science, 324, 5932, 1312-1314 (2009) An understanding of the quality and transferability of these graphene films is prerequisite to their application in device structures. In our work, graphene has been fabri...
Article
The Field-Directed Sputter Sharpening (FDSS) method for fabrication of atomic-scale metallic probes is explained as a localized reduction in ion flux at the probe apex, leading to a reduction in apex atom migration by surface diffusion and a corresponding decline in equilibrium radius of curvature. The resulting apices are found to exhibit reproduc...
Article
The growth of graphene on metal substrates, in particular, single-layer graphene on copper, suggests technological applications requiring graphene transfer from the growth substrate. However, it is difficult to transfer a large area of single-layer graphene with high quality, although using a multistep polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) based process l...
Article
Lithographic precision is as or more important than resolution. For decades, the semiconductor industry has been able to work with ±5% precision. However, for other applications such as micronanoelectromechanical systems, optical elements, and biointerface applications, higher precision is desirable. Lyding etal [Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 11 (1999)] ha...