Scott Rathwell

Scott Rathwell
University of Lethbridge · Department of Kinesiology & Physical Education

PhD

About

53
Publications
15,339
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372
Citations
Introduction
Scott Rathwell is an assistant professor in the Department of Kinesiology & Physical Education at the University of Lethbridge. Scott's research focuses on the nuances involved in coaching adult/Masters athletes, and how university sport can promote personal and psycho social growth.
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
Cape Breton University
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 2012 - June 2017
University of Ottawa
Position
  • PhD Student
September 2010 - August 2012
McGill University
Position
  • Master's Student

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Full-text available
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is a qualitative research methodology used to understand participants’ subjective realities through personal interpretations of their lived experiences and the meanings they attach to these experiences (Smith, 2011). IPA has been used predominantly in health psychology, with rising interest within the...
Article
Full-text available
Using an online cross-sectional randomized design, we explored whether messages emphasizing benefits of sport (sport gain-framed messages) would activate and elaborate hoped-for possible sport selves in 40- to 59-year-olds. One group viewed a video containing sport gain framed messages, and a comparison group completed a sport and physical activity...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing the psychosocial themes in a specific sport context allows us to understand athletes’ experiences and informs approaches of coaches (Côté et al., 1995) and sport programmers (Danish et al., 2005). Few qualitative studies focus on psychosocial conditions of adult athletes in coached sport settings. The purpose of this study was to capture im...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the characteristics head coaches looked for when hiring their head assistant coach, the main roles and responsibilities assigned to assistants, and the techniques and behaviors used to develop them. Data were obtained through interviews with six accomplished Canadian University head...
Article
Full-text available
Limited tools assess positive development through university sport. Such a tool was validated in this investigation using two independent samples of Canadian university athletes. In Study one, 605 athletes completed 99 survey items drawn from the YES 2.0. Separate a priori measurement models were evaluated (i.e., 99 items, YES 2.0, YES-S). Confirma...
Article
Full-text available
Playing the piano at expert levels typically involves significant levels of trial-and-error learning since the majority of practice occurs in isolation. To better optimize musical outcomes, pianists might be well served by emulating some of the practices found in sports, where motor learning strategies are grounded in biomechanics and ergonomics in...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS; Rathwell et al., 2020) provides researchers with a self-report tool to measure the frequency of use of adult-oriented coaching practices. Studies involving the AOSCS have reported several types of validity and reliability (Motz et al., in press; Rathwell et al., 2020), yet the psychometric invariance...
Article
Although psychological distress has been shown to increase during adolescence, participation in organized activities may have protective effects. The present study aimed to identify whether there is a relationship between high school student-athletes’ breadth of participation in organized activities and psychological distress, using a latent class...
Article
https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/WHDS92ERJ2FW7CW6FWK7/full?target=10.1080/1612197X.2022.2043927 ---- The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS; Rathwell et al., 2020) reliably assesses coaching practices tailored to Masters athletes (MAs). It recognizes the uniqueness of coaching adults (Callary et al., 2021) and has good face validity and...
Article
Full-text available
Este artigo tem como objetivos refletir sobre as políticas e a cultura vigentes no sistema desportivo português e propor a integração de uma abordagem centrada nos fatores determinantes para o desenvolvimento dos jovens. As propostas apresentadas visam promover uma reflexão acerca das políticas implementadas pela tutela, com o intuito de melhorar o...
Article
The purpose of this article is to propose the integration of an assets-based approach to development in the Portuguese sport system. The propositions advanced are aimed at instigating reflections on policy-level initiatives that can be undertaken with the intent of bettering the state of sport in Portugal. We argue that changes from an assets-based...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades, qualitative methods have dominated Positive Development through sports research. Therefore, valid and reliable quantitative measurement tools are scarce. Additionally, most Positive Development research has focused on youth sport contexts. University sport has been considered a crucial period for a Positive Development approa...
Presentation
Full-text available
https://www.scapps.org/jems/index.php/1/article/view/2610 -- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_FdhDYwyn0 --- Adult-oriented coaching practices have been described qualitatively by Masters athletes (MAs) as a preferred method to receive coaching (Callary et al., 2017) and to foster hallmarks of Quality Masters Sport Experiences (QMSE; Young et al.,...
Poster
Full-text available
https://www.scapps.org/jems/index.php/1/article/view/2611 -- Recent qualitative evidence (Callary et al., 2017) suggests that adult-oriented coaching practices may enhance Masters athletes' (MAs) sport experiences. Most cognitively mediated coaching models posit that when athletes' preferences for coaching practices align with the coaching practice...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the views of Canadian Masters athletes (MAs; M age = 51, range 38–62; three men and five women) from 12 sports (10 individual and two team sports) on sport psychology for performance, experiential, and lifestyle enhancement. Using Braun and Clarke’s procedures for thematic analysis, the authors interpreted data from semistructur...
Article
Full-text available
Piano performance motor learning research requires more “artful” methodologies if it is to meaningfully address music performance as a corporeal art. To date, research has been sparse and it has typically constrained multiple performance variables in order to isolate specific phenomena. This approach has denied the fundamental ethos of music perfor...
Article
Objectives Researchers have advocated for coaches to intentionally teach life skills to their athletes given the accrued developmental benefits. The purpose of this research was to develop and offer initial evidence of validity and reliability for a measure assessing the extent to which coaches are intentional in their approaches to teaching life s...
Chapter
Full-text available
https://www.routledge.com/Coaching-Masters-Athletes/Callary-Young-Rathwell/p/book/9780367442385 This chapter explores the different roles played by athletes, including, but not limited to player-coaches, athletes on boards of directors, social conveners, and treasurers. These roles play into how coaches divert and adjust their power and control ov...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the role of coaches in fostering Positive Development (PD) has been explored within the context of university sport. However, research in non-English speaking countries such as Brazil, which is highly representative of university sport in LatinAmerica,is still scarce.The purpose of this study was to analyze Brazilian coaches’percep...
Article
Coach education has been positioned as an important catalyst in enabling coaches to maximise the positive influence of high school sport on student-athlete development. The purpose of the study was to conduct a subsequent season follow-up evaluation, examining longer-term changes in coach-athlete relationship, coach interpersonal behaviours, and li...
Article
Adult sportspersons (Masters athletes, aged 35 years and older) have unique coaching preferences. No existing resources provide coaches with feedback on their craft with Masters athletes. Three studies evaluated an Adult-Oriented Coaching Survey. Study 1 vetted the face validity of 50 survey items with 12 Masters coaches. Results supported the vali...
Article
Objectives High school sport is considered a suitable context in which to develop life skills, yet most coaches are not equipped with the knowledge/tools needed to deliberately teach life skills. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Coaching for Life Skills online training program in helping coaches create environments...
Article
Full-text available
Exploratory research suggests Masters athletes (MAs; adult athletes >35 years) derive benefits from the coached context. This study sought to compare groups of MAs with varying degrees of coaching for reports of psychological need satisfaction and frustration. A total of 561 individual sport MAs completed surveys assessing psychological need satisf...
Article
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Objectives: The effective tailoring of instructional approaches to adult learners is beneficial in educational domains. No tool exists to assess coaches' use of adult-tailored methods in Masters (>35+ years-old) sport. This study tested the content (face) and factorial (convergent, discriminant) validity of a self-report survey, derived from instru...
Poster
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Athletic identity (AI) is associated with increased motivation across a broad age range of exercisers. The study of AI and Masters athletes (MAs) has received less attention. The relationship between AI and motivation was tested with a large sample of MAs (n = 455; Mage = 51.97, SD = 11.51). MAs completed the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) a...
Poster
Full-text available
Qualitative studies highlight the use of adult-oriented coaching as an alternative to traditional pedagogical practices when coaching Masters athletes (MAs; Callary et al., 2017). Studies have yet to quantitatively assess associations between various adult-oriented coaching practices and MAs' psychosocial outcomes. Four-hundred-and two MAs (Mage =...
Chapter
University sport is a unique context for examining positive development (PD) because it falls somewhere on a continuum between high school sport, and professional sport. University sport is different than high school sport because the talent level is much greater, with many university athletes representing their country at the Olympics (e.g., women...
Article
High school sport is one of the most popular school-based extracurricular activities in North America, situated as a developmental activity during which coaches can foster quality relationships with students to promote basic psychological needs satisfaction and teach life skills. The primary purpose of the study was to examine associations between...
Article
The practice of high school sport is, in large part, justified based on the premise that participation exposes student-athletes to an array of situations that, when experienced positively, allow them to learn and refine the life skills necessary to become active, thriving, and contributing members of society. The purpose of this paper is to examine...
Article
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We examined the level and prevalence of mental health functioning (MHF) in intercollegiate student-athletes from 30 Canadian universities, and the impact of time of year, gender, alcohol use, living situation, year of study, and type of sport on MHF. An online survey completed in November 2015 (N = 388) and March 2016 (n = 110) revealed that overal...
Article
Many forms of mainstream coach education continue to sparingly address content specifically related to positive youth development and/or life skills, instead maintaining a focus on the technical and tactical aspects of sport. The purpose of the paper is to present the evaluation findings of the pilot implementation of the Coaching for Life Skills p...
Article
We examined the level and prevalence of mental health functioning (MHF) in intercollegiate student-athletes from 30 Canadian universities, and the impact of time of year, gender, alcohol use, living situation, year of study, and type of sport on MHF. An online survey completed in November 2015 (N = 388) and March 2016 (n = 110) revealed that overal...
Chapter
Full-text available
Paralleling the graying of the baby boomer generation, there has been remarkable growth in the number of Masters athletes (adult sport participants generally 35+ years old) and Seniors athletes (55+) worldwide. The phenomenon of the aging or older athlete is an opportunity to study the psychological conditions and considerations that distinguish ol...
Article
Masters Athletes (MAs; adult athletes typically over 35 years old who prepare in order to compete at levels ranging from very recreational competition to serious competition) want coaches to cater their approaches to working with adults. Using adult learning principles, we previously found that some coaches cater their approaches in ways to accommo...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests Canadian university sport programs can foster positive development. Further, university coaches have claimed to focus on their athletes' personal and psychosocial development. Despite coaches' claims, little is known about university coaches' strategies for enhancing positive development. The aim of the present study was to explor...
Article
Full-text available
Governing bodies of university sport have adopted more holistic approaches to the development of their athletes (Canadian Interuniversity Sport, 2013; NCAA, 2015). To our knowledge, there has been little empirical effort made to describe and assess positive development in the Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) context. In this study, we qualitati...
Article
Full-text available
Coaches working with Masters Athletes (MAs) are tasked with facilitating learning and enhancing performance and quality of experience specifically for an adult cohort. In education, the Andragogy in Practice Model (APM) characterizes adult learners and provides teachers with principles for how to best facilitate learning (Knowles, Holton III, & Swa...
Article
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Gould and Carson (2008) called for research to uncover the underlying mechanisms related to how positive development occurs through sport. The purpose of this study was to identify who is responsible for university student-athletes’ development of life skills, through the lens of student-athletes. Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducte...
Article
Full-text available
Although experts have noted that adolescent athletes should be educated about concussions to improve their safety, there is no agreement on the most effective strategy to disseminate concussion education. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and assess a concussion education program. More precisely, four interactive oral presentatio...
Article
Full-text available
Although countries’ gender equality is associated with important health outcomes, especially for females, it remains unclear whether gender equality is associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Data from 34 countries was acquired from the International Social Survey Program, the Pew Research Forum, the United Nations, and the World Ban...
Article
Investigations into the strategies that are used by participants when they control their knowledge of results (KR) schedule during practice have predominantly relied on multiple-choice questionnaires. More recently, open-ended questions have been used to allow participants to produce their own descriptions rather than selecting a strategy from a pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore the match between what a female Masters dragon boat racer wants and needs from a coach, and what a female dragon boat coach working with Masters athletes does with her team.
Article
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Much work addresses coaches’ contributions to younger athletes; however, the psycho-social coaching needs of adult Masters athletes remain unexamined. This study explored the lived experiences of 10 Masters swimmers (5 male, 5 female; age range = 45-65 years) through interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis delved into benefits that swi...
Article
Full-text available
Masters Athletes (MAs) are a highly unique cohort who participate in competitive sport in adulthood. Understanding the factors facilitating one athlete’s personal commitment may illustrate the nature of adaptive strategies for remaining active in sport. In this case study, Andrew (pseudonym), a 52- year-old nationally ranked Canadian runner, provin...

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Projects (2)
Project
The aim of this study is to establish foundational data on the mental health functioning, stress, mood states, perceptions of coaching climate and self-regulation capacity of Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) student-athletes.