Scott Patten

Scott Patten
The University of Calgary | HBI · Department of Community Health Sciences

MD, PhD

About

934
Publications
260,875
Reads
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90,949
Citations
Introduction
I have been involved in psychiatric epidemiological research for > 25 years. Currently, my main interests are in synthesizing available data about the condition into a coherent epidemiological picture. My suspicion is that some of our conventional frameworks for parsing the relationships (i.e. incidence-prevalence-mortality frameworks) are excessively complex and sometimes misleading. The time of emergence of mental disorders is often in adolescence and young adulthood - so I am particularly interested in those phases of life.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - December 2013
The University of Calgary
Position
  • Hotchkiss Brain Institute
January 2002 - December 2012
The University of Calgary

Publications

Publications (934)
Article
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Aim We undertook this systematic review to determine the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine as a treatment for behavioral, psychological, and motor symptoms associated with neurocognitive disorders. Methods We conducted a PRISMA-guided systematic review to identify studies using cannabis-based medicine to treat behavioral, psychologica...
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To date, minimal research has explored the perceptions of secondary school staff regarding their realized and potential contributions to the redress of mental health stigma and support of students with mental health concerns within school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the practicable roles school staff perceive of...
Article
Objective: To conduct a scoping review to identify programs and interventions to support youth with mental health conditions (MHCs) with their transition to postsecondary institution (PSI). Method: A database search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, SocINDEX, ERIC, CINHAL, and Education Research Complete was undertaken. In this review, MHC was defined...
Article
Background: Understanding of the lived experience is an important educational strategy for improving attitudes toward stigmatized patient groups. This study evaluated the influence of a personal story intervention on nursing students' attitudes toward people who use opioids and measured attitudinal change from students' regular mental health and a...
Article
Up to 57% of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with chronic physical health conditions experience mental health conditions, the presence of which contributes to increased morbidity and poor quality of life. AYA with co-occurring physical and mental health conditions, therefore, may experience additional challenges as they transition from pediatric...
Article
Objective To compare the utility of the Mild Behavioral Impairment-Checklist (MBI-C) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) to capture NPS in subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. Methods In this cross-sectional memory clinic study, linear regression models compared MBI-C (n = 474) and NPI...
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Objective: A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with eating disorders (EDs) have experienced deteriorating symptoms, increased isolation, and an increase in hospital admissions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite this, no systematic reviews have been conducted examining the COVID-19 and ED peer-reviewed literature. Theref...
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Objective Use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (non-benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics) is controversial due to adverse health outcomes in the general population. However, little is known about their use in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We estimated the incidence and prevalence of benzodiazepine and Z-drug use (jointly BZD) in the MS population...
Article
Objective To develop group-based trajectories of depressive symptoms in immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) to understand their evolution and identify any associated factors, with the overall goal of identifying those at highest risk of higher depressive symptom burden. Method 922 participants had an IMID or anxiety/depression. The PHQ-9 w...
Article
Objective The study objective was to assess whether machine learning methods could improve predictive performance of the PHQ-9 for depression in patients with neurological disease. Specifically, we assessed whether a predictive algorithm deriving from all nine items could outperform the tradition of summing the items and applying a cut-point. Meth...
Article
Objectives Schizophrenia is characterized by high levels of disability often resulting in increased healthcare utilization and spending. With expanding healthcare costs across all healthcare sectors, there is a need to understand how healthcare spending has changed over time. We conducted a population-based study using administrative health data fr...
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Many countries are experiencing an ongoing opioid crisis characterized by high rates of opioid use problems, overdose, poisoning, and death. Stigma has been identified as a central problem for seeking and receiving quality services from health providers and first respondents. The Mental Health Commission of Canada developed a scale that could be us...
Article
Background Lack of family visitation in ICU can have long-term consequences on ICU patients post-discharge. Efect of family visitation on the incidence of patient psychiatric disorders is unknown. Research Question What is the association between family visitation in the ICU and incidence of psychiatric outcomes in ICU patients 1-year post-hospita...
Article
Child Advocacy Centers are interdisciplinary hubs that play a vital role in responding to child maltreatment, especially sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases increasingly involve an online component, but no studies have examined the experience of Child Advocacy Center staff in dealing with online sexual exploiftation. This study surveyed 37 staff at fi...
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Objectives To analyze work productivity loss and costs, including absenteeism (time missed from work), presenteeism (reduced productivity while working), and unpaid work loss, among a sample of employed people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) in Canada, as well as its association with clinical, sociodemographic, and work-related factors. Methods We...
Article
Objective: We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of single-item global ratings (GR) of satisfaction with epilepsy surgery. Methods: We recruited 240 patients from four centers in Canada and Sweden who underwent epilepsy surgery ≥1 year earlier. Participants completed a validated questionnaire on satisfaction with epilepsy surgery (the...
Article
Background The incidence of stroke in developed countries is increasing selectively in young individuals, but whether this is secondary to traditional vascular risk factors is unknown. Methods We used the Canadian Community Health Survey from 2000 to 2016 to create a large population-representative cohort of individuals over the age of 30 and free...
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Background: The mental disorders included in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 were depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, idiopathic developmental intellectual disabili...
Article
Background Sex offenders often use the internet to communicate with children to facilitate in-person sexual abuse or to create and distribute sexual images of children. Mental healthcare providers are a major source of referrals to child welfare authorities and are well-positioned to identify sexual exploitation. Objective This study investigated...
Article
Objective The relationship between antiseizure medications (ASMs), which improve health outcomes by controlling seizures, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood and may involve intermediate variables. We evaluated the potential mediators of the association between ASMs and HRQOL. Methods Data are from an outpatient registr...
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Aim: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) often present with substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs). However, the prevalence of substance use and SUDs in AN has not been studied in-depth, especially the differences in the prevalence of SUDs between AN types [e.g., AN-R (restrictive type) and AN-BP (binge-eating/purge type]. Therefore, t...
Article
Purpose Pre-existing psychiatric disorders may lead to negative outcomes following intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. We evaluated the association of pre-existing psychiatric disorders with subsequent healthcare utilization and mortality in patients discharged from ICU. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied adult patients admitted to...
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Background Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings because of the COVID-19 pandemic have negative consequences. The objective of this scoping review is to identify impacts of restricted visitation policies in acute care settings, and describe perspectives and mitigation approaches among patients, families, and healthcare professionals...
Article
Mild Behavioral Impairment is characterized by later life emergent and persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). MBI domains include impaired drive/motivation, affective dysregulation, impulse dyscontrol, social inappropriateness, and psychosis. We aimed to compare the relationship between NPS and cognition in patients with subjective cognitive d...
Article
Background: The emergence of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) as a novel coronavirus in late 2019 necessitated public health measures that have impacted the provision of care for people living with dementia and their families. The rapid shift to virtual care across health and social care sectors meant that providers did not have the opportunity to benefit fr...
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Data pooling from pre-existing multiple datasets can be useful to increase study sample size and statistical power to answer a research question. However, individual datasets may contain variables that measure the same construct differently, posing challenges for data pooling. Variable harmonization, an approach that can generate comparable dataset...
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Aim: Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) may present with impulse control disorders (ICDs) and behavioural addictions (BAs), which may result in additional suffering and treatment resistance. However, the prevalence of ICDs and BAs in EDs has not been systematically examined. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess t...
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Objectives To understand users’ perceptions about receiving their personalized depression risk score and to gain an understanding about how to improve the efficiency of risk communication from the user perspective. Methods A qualitative study embedded in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on evaluating the impact of providing personalized depress...
Article
Shortened versions of self-reported questionnaires may be used to reduce respondent burden. When shortened screening tools are used, it is desirable to maintain equivalent diagnostic accuracy to full-length forms. This manuscript presents a case study that illustrates how external data and individual participant data meta-analysis can be used to as...
Chapter
This chapter details the consequences associated with mental health stigma among healthcare providers and the need for reliable and valid measurement of this stigma. The chapter details the development and initial validation of a novel scale to measure stigma within this domain: the Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers. Consistent w...
Article
Objective: To conduct a scoping review to identify programs and interventions to support youth with mental health conditions (MHCs) with their transition to postsecondary institution (PSI). Method: A database search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, SocINDEX, ERIC, CINHAL, and Education Research Complete was undertaken. In this review, MHC was defin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Neurological disability progression occurs across the spectrum of people living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although there are a handful of disease-modifying treatments approved for use in progressive phenotypes of MS, there are no treatments that substantially modify the course of clinical progression in MS. Characterizing the determi...
Article
Background: Excess sleep is associated with higher risk of stroke, but whether the risk is modified by age and if it remains elevated after accounting for the competing risk of death is not well understood. Methods: We used nine years of the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2000 to 2016 to obtain self-reported sleep duration and created...
Article
Objective: To determine whether childhood maltreatment is associated with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders (IMIDs; multiple sclerosis [MS], inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]). We further aimed to determine the relationship between maltreatment and psychiatric comorbidity in IMIDs and whether these relationships...
Article
Background: Despite their popularity, the efficacy of interventions targeting gut microbiota to improve depressive symptoms is unknown. Our objective is to summarize the effect of microbiome-targeting interventions on depressive symptoms. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Database...
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Background Extensive literature has shown an association of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) with adverse health outcomes; however, its ability to predict events or stratify risks is less known. Individuals with mental illness and ACE exposure have been shown to visit emergency departments (ED) more often than those in the general population. T...
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Eating disorders (EDs) are often reported to have the highest mortality of any mental health disorder. However, this assertion is based on clinical samples, which may provide an inaccurate view of the actual risks in the population. Hence, in the current retrospective cohort study, mortality of self-reported lifetime history of EDs in the general p...
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Objectives: To evaluate the impact of providing personalized depression risk information on self-help and help-seeking behaviors among individuals who are at high risk of having a major depressive episode (MDE). Materials and methods: In a mixed methods randomized controlled trial, participants who were at high risk of having a MDE, were recruit...
Article
Background: Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests an association between cannabis use and bipolar disorder (BD). To date, the prevalence of comorbid cannabis use disorder (CUD) has not been well described, nor has the association between CUD and the clinical course of BD. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of CUD comorbidity among individuals...
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Introduction Flexible visitation policies in hospitals are an important component of care that contributes to reduced stress and increased satisfaction among patients and their family members. Early evidence suggests restricted visitation policies enacted in hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic are having unintended consequences on patients, fami...
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Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) in a Canadian rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort and factors associated with SUD in RA. Methods Participants with RA (N = 154) were recruited via rheumatology clinics as part of a larger cohort study of psychiatric comorbidity in immune-mediated in...
Article
p>Objective: To evaluate, across multiple sample sizes, the degree that data-driven methods result in (1) optimal cutoffs different from population optimal cutoff and (2) bias in accuracy estimates. Study design and setting: A total of 1,000 samples of sample size 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 each were randomly drawn to simulate studies of different sam...
Article
Background and Purpose The association between physical activity (PA) and lower risk of stroke is well established, but the relationship between leisure sedentary time and stroke is less well studied. Methods We used 9 years of the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2000 and 2012 to create a cohort of healthy individuals without prior stroke...
Article
Objective To determine the relationship between physical activity and mortality in community-dwelling stroke survivors. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain self-reported physical activity (PA) across four survey cycles and was linked to administrative databases to obtain prior diagnosis of stroke and subsequent all-caus...
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We aimed to examine rates of breast and cervical cancer screening in women with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID), including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) versus a matched cohort with IMID; and examine the association of psychiatric comorbidity with screening in these populations....
Article
Objective The 19-item Epilepsy Surgery Satisfaction Questionnaire (ESSQ-19) is a validated and reliable post hoc means of assessing patient satisfaction with epilepsy surgery. Prediction models building on these data can be used to counsel patients. Methods The ESSQ-19 was derived and validated on 229 patients recruited from Canada and Sweden. We...
Article
Objective While screening tools are available for the early identification of eating disorders, it may not be feasible to employ them in an emergency department (ED). Establishing a risk profile may improve the screening process. The purpose of this study was to investigate ED service utilization among patients with eating disorders and create a ri...
Article
Objectives Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used widely to elicit patient's self-appraisal of their health status and quality of life. One fundamental assumption when measuring PROMs is that all individuals interpret questions about their health status in a consistent manner. However, subgroups of patients with a similar health conditi...
Article
Introduction Health utility instruments are increasingly being used to measure impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stroke. Population-based studies of HRQoL after stroke and assessment of differences by age and functional domain are needed. Methods We used the Canadian Community Health Survey linked with administrative datab...
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PurposeIn response to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, hospitals in Canada enacted temporary visitor restrictions to limit the spread of COVID-19 and preserve personal protective equipment supplies. This study describes the extent, variation, and fluctuation of Canadian adult intensive care unit (ICU) visitation policies before and during the first...
Article
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent forms of mental illness. Multivariate risk predictive (MVRP) algorithms provide a new means of identifying high-risk individuals for mental health disorders. Self-help behaviors may provide accessible methods to mitigate depression risk. The objective of this study is to investigate the m...
Article
Background No trials have tested multifaceted mental health interventions recommended by public health organisations during COVID-19. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network COVID-19 Home-isolation Activities Together (SPIN-CHAT) Program on anxiety symptoms and other mental hea...
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Importance Self-harm and suicidal behavior are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. The comparative performance of psychotherapies for suicidality is unclear because few head-to-head clinical trials have been conducted. Objective To compare the efficacy of psychotherapies for the treatment of self-har...
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Objectives: Determine effect of mental health interventions on psychologic outcomes in informal caregivers of critically ill patients. Data sources: Searches conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases from inception to October 31, 2019. Study selection: Interventions for informal caregivers of critically ill patients in adult ICU, PICU,...
Article
Objective To evaluate, across multiple sample sizes, the degree that data-driven methods result in (1) optimal cutoffs different from population optimal cutoff and (2) bias in accuracy estimates. Study design and setting 1,000 samples of sample size 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 each were randomly drawn to simulate studies of different sample sizes from...
Article
Background: Individuals with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, are at increased risk for influenza and related complications. We examined and compared the uptake of influenza vaccination among people with and without these diseases, as well as the influence of ps...
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To assess whether exposure to increased levels of outdoor air pollution is associated with psychological depression, six annual iterations of the Canadian Community Health Survey (n ≈ 127,050) were used to estimate the prevalence of a major depressive episode (2011–2014) or severity of depressive symptoms (2015–2016). Survey data were linked with o...
Article
Objective Childhood maltreatment is associated with pain catastrophizing. Both childhood maltreatment and pain catastrophizing are prevalent in certain immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) populations. However, it is unknown whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the high rates of pain catastrophizing in IMID cohorts. We assessed the...
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Background: In June 2013, the city of Calgary, Alberta and surrounding areas sustained significant flooding which resulted in large scale evacuations and closure of businesses and schools. Floods can increase stress which may negatively impact perinatal outcomes and mental health, but previous research is inconsistent. The objectives of this study...
Article
Background Sexual exploitation of children online is an issue of growing public concern. This form of exploitation typically involves adults using the internet to communicate with children for sexual purposes or to distribute sexually explicit material involving children. To date, there is no research on the knowledge and skills of educators to rec...
Article
"Vaping" refers to the inhalation of aerosols produced in devices that heat liquid solutions. The aerosols may contain various additives, flavours, nicotine and other drugs such as cannabis. Nicotine is the most common psychoactive substance in vaping devices (or e-cigarettes) in Canada. While vaping has been viewed primarily as a cessation method...
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Background We aimed to determine the relationship between childhood abuse and mental ill-health in firefighters deployed to a devastating fire that engulfed Fort McMurray Methods A stratified sample of 282 firefighters was selected from a cohort of 1234 for assessment by Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and the Ch...
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Background Major depressive disorder is common, debilitating, and affects feelings, thoughts, mood, and behaviors. Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for the development of depression and adolescence is marked by an increased incidence of mental health disorders. This protocol outlines the planned scope and methods for a systematic revi...