Scott B Morris

Scott B Morris
Illinois Institute of Technology | IIT · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

64
Publications
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Introduction
Scott B Morris is a Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Illinois Institute of Technology. Scott does research on the design and evaluation of employee selection systems, psychometrics and quantitative methods.

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
When a meta-analysis on results from experimental studies is conducted, differences in the study design must be taken into consideration. A method for combining results across independent-groups and repeated measures designs is described, and the conditions under which such an analysis is appropriate are discussed. Combining results across designs...
Article
Full-text available
Though individual assessments are widely used in selection settings, very little research exists to support their criterion-related validity. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted of 39 individual assessment validation studies. For the current research, individual assessments were defined as any employee selection procedure that involved (a)...
Book
Compliance with federal equal employment opportunity regulations, including civil rights laws and affirmative action requirements, requires collection and analysis of data on disparities in employment outcomes, often referred to as adverse impact. While most human resources (HR) practitioners are familiar with basic adverse impact analysis, the cou...
Article
Full-text available
The standard error (SE) stopping rule, which terminates a computer adaptive test (CAT) when the SE is less than a threshold, is effective when there are informative questions for all trait levels. However, in domains such as patient-reported outcomes, the items in a bank might all target one end of the trait continuum (e.g., negative symptoms), and...
Chapter
Full-text available
To understand and communicate research findings, it is important for researchers to consider two types of information provided by research results: the magnitude of the effect and the degree of uncertainty in the outcome. Statistical significance tests have long served as the mainstream method for statistical inferences. However, the widespread mis...
Article
The stigma of leprosy will have reduced effects if people cannot reliably perceive it. Two factors impact these perceptions: familiarity and entitativity. One hundred and forty-five participants tested this assertion using an online platform to complete measures of stigma about leprosy as well as measures of familiarity and entitativity. The group...
Article
Pay inequality remains a pervasive problem within the workforce. However, it can be challenging for even well-meaning and responsible organizations to effectively assess which jobs should be considered equivalent and paid the same based on both legal criteria (which have shifted over time and differ across specific statutes and jurisdictions) and s...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological checklists for improving research quality and reporting consistency - Volume 13 Issue 1 - Lillian T. Eby, Kristen M. Shockley, Talya N. Bauer, Bryan Edwards, Astrid C. Homan, Russell Johnson, Jonas W. B. Lang, Scott B. Morris, Frederick L. Oswald
Article
Adverse impact as disability discrimination: Illustrating the perils through self-control at work - Volume 12 Issue 2 - Mahima Saxena, Scott B. Morris
Article
Objective: The efficacy of cognition-focused interventions (CFIs) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been questioned recently. To date, the specific effects of cognitive rehabilitation (CR), cognitive training (CT), and cognitive stimulation [CS] have not been analyzed due to inconsistencies in the use of the comparison groups. This...
Article
Objective: The impact of a peer navigator program (PNP) on efforts to address the health needs of Latinos with serious mental illness was examined in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Latinos with a serious mental illness (N=110) were randomly assigned to the PNP (integrated care with a peer navigator [PN]) or to a treatment-as-usual contr...
Article
We describe a new estimator (labeled Morris) for meta-analysis. The Morris estimator combines elements of both the Schmidt-Hunter and Hedges estimators. The new estimator is compared to (a) the Schmidt-Hunter estimator, (b) the Schmidt-Hunter estimator with variance correction for the number of studies (“k correction”), (c) the Hedges random-effect...
Article
Tett, Hundley, and Christiansen (2017) raise an important issue related to meta-analysis and our frequent overinterpretation of point estimates to the diminishment of variability of the estimate. We view this as analogous to the situation in which weather forecasters communicate the likely track of hurricanes. Such predictions involve point estimat...
Article
Tett, Hundley, and Christiansen (2017) argue that the concept of validity generalization in meta-analysis is a myth, as the variability of the effect size appears to decrease with increasing moderator specificity such that the level of precision needed to deem an estimate “generalizable” is actually reached at levels of situational specificity that...
Article
Objective: : The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative developed an array of patient reported outcome (PRO) measures. To reduce the number of questions administered, PROMIS utilizes unidimensional item response theory and unidimensional computer adaptive testing (UCAT), which means a separate set of questions...
Article
Full-text available
Utilization of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) had been limited by the lack of psychometrically sound measures scored in real-time. The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative developed a broad array of high-quality PRO measures. Towards reducing the number of items administered in measuring PROs, PROMI...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Utilization of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) had been limited by the lack of psychometrically sound measures scored in real-time. The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative developed a broad array of high-quality PRO measures. Towards reducing the number of items administered in measuring PROs, PROMI...
Article
Persons with schizophrenia often receive suboptimal physical health care, but the reasons are poorly understood. Vignettes have been used to examine how a patient's race, gender, or physical health influences a provider's practice; in this study, we used vignettes to examine the effect of a mental health diagnosis (schizophrenia) on providers' clin...
Chapter
A variety of procedures for making personnel selection decisions that are designed to reflect job-relevant factors also tend to result in substantial differences in employment outcomes across racial/ethnic and gender groups. These statistical disparities, regardless of their cause, are generally described under the heading of “adverse impact.” Adve...
Article
Objectives: A previous analysis showed the positive impact of education and contact with persons with lived experience on public stigma toward mental illness, with contact yielding significantly greater effect sizes than education. This study reported a further analysis of those data that examined effects of education and contact at follow-up. Me...
Article
Objective: This study compared the attitudes of mental health and primary care providers toward persons with schizophrenia at 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Method: This study utilized a cross-sectional anonymous survey, including clinical vignettes describing identical patient scenarios for a hypothetical patient with and without schizophr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The current study examined the measurement equivalence on a measure of personal empowerment for Black and White consumers of mental health services. Method: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess measurement equivalence of the 28-item Empowerment Scale (Rogers, Chamberlin, Ellison, & Crean, 1997), using data from 1,035 White...
Article
People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal e...
Article
This study of federal court decisionmaking asks whether characteristics of a jurist including age, race, gender, and work experience, can affect results in the context of the nation's most frequently litigated administrative law dispute-social security disability claims. SSDI cases by and large are similar, turning most frequently on claims of ment...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose When implementing affirmative action programs involving race and gender, human resource practitioners must balance efforts to increase workforce diversity against the need to avoid illegal reverse discrimination. The tension between non-discrimination law and preferential treatment is explored. In reverse discrimination case law, affirmativ...
Article
As the workplace becomes increasingly global, organizations are more likely to employ individuals with non-native accents. The present study looked at the influence of accents on the evaluation of job applicants during an interview. In addition, a path model was developed to understand the accent condition–hiring recommendation relationship. Partic...
Article
Full-text available
There is a brief description of the probabilistic causal graph model for representing, reasoning with, and learning causal structure using Bayesian networks. It is then argued that this model is closely related to how humans reason with and learn causal structure. It is shown that studies in psychology on discounting (reasoning concerning how the p...
Article
Self-stigma has significant negative impact on the recovery of individuals with severe mental illness, but its varying course is not well understood. Individual levels of self-stigma may vary over time and fluctuate in response to both external/contextual (i.e., location, activity, social company) and internal (i.e., psychiatric symptoms, mood) fac...
Article
OBJECTIVE Public stigma has pernicious effects on the lives of people with serious mental illnesses. Given a plethora of research on changing the stigma of mental illness, this article reports on a meta-analysis that examined the effects of antistigma approaches that included protest or social activism, education of the public, and contact with per...
Article
OBJECTIVE: Public stigma and discrimination have pernicious effects on the lives of people with serious mental illnesses. Given a plethora of research on changing the stigma of mental illness, this article reports on a meta-analysis that examined the effects of antistigma approaches that included protest or social activism, education of the public,...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: In spite of the growing belief that the therapeutic relationship is a driver of consumer outcome in services for adults with serious mental illness, the evidence base for this assertion remains relatively modest. Although many studies of the alliance-outcome association have been conducted, few use prospective designs and ma...
Article
Objective: A large-scale quantitative study was conducted by stratified representative samples from Chicago (prototype of the United States; N = 293), Beijing (prototype of urbanized China; N = 302), and Hong Kong (prototype of East-meets-West culture; N = 284) to explore factors that might lead to their stigmatizing attitudes towards hiring indiv...
Article
Recent research has shown that negative emotional states of increased anxiety and sadness prospectively predict the occurrence of persecutory ideation, but it is not known whether these findings extend to other subtypes of delusions. The current study explored whether these negative emotional states, as well as hallucinations, biased reasoning styl...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse impact is often assessed by evaluating whether the success rates for 2 groups on a selection procedure are significantly different. Although various statistical methods have been used to analyze adverse impact data, Fisher's exact test (FET) has been widely adopted, especially when sample sizes are small. In recent years, however, the stati...
Article
As the workplace becomes increasingly global, organizations are more likely to employ persons from other countries whose accents clearly identify them as different from the local workforce. Understanding the impact of accents in the workplace is important because accents can be salient in the same way as ethnicity, age, gender, and skin color and m...
Article
Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with serio...
Article
This study investigated the impact of the gender composition of the leader–subordinate dyad on the relationship between leaders' transformational leadership behavior and their subordinates' ratings of the leaders' effectiveness. There were 109 dyads of leaders (58 male, 51 female) paired with a subordinate who was either the same or a different gen...
Article
Full-text available
Oshima, Raju, and Nanda (2006) recently proposed the item parameter replication (IPR) method for assessing statistical significance of the non-compensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index within the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) framework. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have found that the appropriate cutoff value...
Article
Nambury S. Raju (1937–2005) developed two model-based indices for differential item functioning (DIF) during his prolific career in psychometrics. Both methods, Raju's area measures (Raju, 1988) and Raju's DFIT (Raju, van der Linden, & Fleer, 1995), are based on quantifying the gap between item characteristic functions (ICFs). This approach provide...
Article
Previous research has recommended several measures of effect size for studies with repeated measurements in both treatment and control groups. Three alternate effect size estimates were compared in terms of bias, precision, and robustness to heterogeneity of variance. The results favored an effect size based on the mean pre-post change in the treat...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse impact evaluations often call for evidence that the disparity between groups in selection rates is statistically significant, and practitioners must choose which test statistic to apply in this situation. To identify the most effective testing procedure, the authors compared several alternate test statistics in terms of Type I error rates a...
Chapter
The General Linear ModelModeling Dependencies with a Single Outcome VariableModeling Dependencies with Multiple Outcome VariablesModeling Sources of Nuisance DependenceConclusion References
Article
In cases involving scientific evidence linking the accused to a crime (a “match”), expert testimony sometimes can provide a suitably reliable estimate of the chance of a coincidental match. Controversy attends the question whether, and in what form, to allow testimony reporting that probability. Further controversy concerns the implications of labo...
Article
Although prior research has suggested that satisfaction with nursing care is affected by multilevel factors (e.g., patient characteristics, episode-of-care, the institution providing care), these studies typically focused only on a single level of analysis. The present study examines three levels of influence simultaneously to assess the relative e...
Article
Since the early 1970s, academics have debated the wisdom of an explicit use of statistical information concerning the probability of a coincidental match in the presentation of forensic match evidence at trial. Critics pointed to the dangers of such numbers, arguing that jurors would misunderstand the numbers and exaggerate their importance in the...
Article
Full-text available
Research on burnout has thus far focused primarily on the individual; however, in work environments in which teamwork is emphasized, it seems plausible that a meaningful group-level burnout construct could emerge. This theory was tested by examining burnout in psychosocial rehabilitation teams and its effects on patient satisfaction. Three hundred...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the authors examined the nature of emotion perception in schizophrenia. Two samples of people with schizophrenia, one receiving acute care for a recent exacerbation of symptoms and the other receiving extended care, were compared with a nonclinical control group on emotion perception and general perception measures. The nonclinical c...
Article
When conducting a meta-analysis on studies with repeated measures, a useful measure of effect size is Becker's (1988) standardized mean change. This paper examines the distributional properties of the standardized mean change, and discusses potential problems with the variance formulae given in Becker (1988). First, an error in the exact variance f...
Article
The two most common methods for assessing adverse impact, the four-fifths rule and the z-test for independent proportions, often produce discrepant results. These discrepancies are due to the focus on practical versus statistical significance, and on differing operational definitions of adverse impact. In order to provide a more consistent framewor...
Article
In meta-analysis, it is possible to average results across multiple studies because the effect sizes estimated from each study are in the same metric (e.g., the standardized mean difference). However, when effect sizes are computed from a factorial analysis of variance, these estimates are influenced by the other factors in the design. A correction...
Article
Background data concerning financial responsibility is used frequently in screening applicants for positions of trust in which integrity is particularly desirable. Many applicants for positions of trust do not have any credit history, due primarily to their age. The assessment of financial responsibility for young adults who lack credit histories i...
Article
The use of amicus curiae briefs to inform the courts about the scientific literature requires merging scientific and legal perspectives. A brief submitted by the APA in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989) demonstrates how the values of the legal system can predominate over the values of science. The brief differed from a scientific review in three w...
Article
The tools-to-theory hypothesis (Gigerenzer and Murray, 1987) proposes that psychologists have used statistical tools as metaphors to develop models of cognitive processes. The changing abilities requirements model (Fleishman and Mumford, 1989) is presented as an example of a problem with this approach to theory development. The use of one method of...
Article
Comments on the article by S. T. Fiske et al (see record 1992-07509-001) praising the American Psychological Association's (APA's) amicus brief intended to inform the Supreme Court of current scientific thinking regarding gender stereotyping. A balanced perspective, it is argued, should include both research supporting an argument and findings tha...
Article
Comments on the article by S. T. Fiske et al (see record 1992-07509-001 ) praising the American Psychological Association's (APA's) amicus brief intended to inform the Supreme Court of current scientific thinking regarding gender stereotyping. A balanced perspective, it is argued, should include both research supporting an argument and findings tha...

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Project
Gathering diagnostic data for patient-centered healthcare requires valid and reliable measures of patient reported outcomes, but the use of traditional measurement methods can place a heavy burden on patients to fill out lengthy questionnaires. Using computer administered measures along with algorithms that select the most relevant questions for each individual, an adaptive test can achieve high measurement precision with substantially fewer questions than a traditional questionnaire, thereby reducing patient burden.