Scott Montain

Scott Montain
U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine · Military Nutrition Division

PhD

About

265
Publications
96,223
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14,356
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine
Position
  • Acting Chief

Publications

Publications (265)
Article
Full-text available
Enhancing dietary omega-3 high unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) intake may confer neuroprotection, brain resiliency, improve wound healing and promote cardiovascular health. This study determined the efficacy of substituting a few common foods (chicken meat, chicken sausage, eggs, salad dressings, pasta sauces, cooking oil, mayonnaise, and peanut...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Existing predictive equations underestimate the metabolic costs of heavy military load carriage. Metabolic costs are specific to each type of military equipment and backpack loads often impose the most sustained burden on the dismounted warfighter. Purpose: Develop and validate an equation for estimating metabolic rates during heav...
Article
Background: Lifestyle interventions are the first-line treatment for obesity, but participant weight loss is typically low. Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of an alternative lifestyle intervention [Healthy Weight for Living (HWL)] compared with a modified Diabetes Prevention Program (m-DPP). HWL was based on a revised health behavior chang...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This work investigates the use of 3D scanner-derived body measurements to predict individual differences in walking metabolic rate. Methods: Eighteen Soldiers (16 male and 2 females; age 25.6 ± 6.9 years, height 174.3 ± 7.3 cm, body mass (BM) 74.3 ± 12.8 kg) participated in a controlled load carriage study. Volunteers were each assessed by a 3D ful...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dietary supplement (DS) use by Army personnel is high and is a safety and readiness issue. Objective Our aim was to examine factors motivating use of DSs among US Army personnel and preferred safety education strategies. Design This mixed-method study used a validated DS questionnaire and subsequent focus groups that were formed based...
Article
Full-text available
Background The US military Meal, Ready-to-Eat food ration is approved as a nutritionally adequate sole source of nutrition for ≤21 days. However, the ration continuously evolves, requiring periodic reassessment of its influence on nutritional status and health. Objective To determine the effects of consuming the US Armed Services Meal, Ready-to-Ea...
Chapter
Full-text available
Water is critical to human health, serving multiple roles as a biochemical solvent and reactant for cellular metabolism, medium for substance exchange between tissues, and support for the circulatory system. Survival mechanisms for acquiring and conserving water to maintain cellular homeostasis and circulatory integrity have evolved in many mammals...
Article
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Purpose The objective of the study was to evaluate how controlled, short-term sleep restriction (SR; 72 h) alters markers of bone formation and resorption and urinary calcium (Ca) output. Methods Ten healthy, sleep-adequate, male soldiers were housed in the research facility one day prior to and for the duration of SR. Diet was controlled to provi...
Article
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Interactions between gut microbes and dietary components modulate intestinal permeability (IP) and inflammation. Recent studies have reported altered fecal microbiota composition together with increased IP and inflammation in individuals consuming military food rations in austere environments, but could not isolate effects of the diet from environm...
Article
Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent mode...
Article
BACKGROUND: Initiating aerobic exercise with low muscle glycogen content promotes greater fat and less endogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. However, the extent exogenous carbohydrate oxidation increases when exercise is initiated with low muscle glycogen is unclear. PURPOSE: Determine the effects of muscle glycogen content at the on...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Effective, standardized, and easily accessible weight management programs are urgently needed for military beneficiaries. Videoconference interventions have the potential for widespread scaling, and can provide both real time interaction and flexibility in delivery times regardless of location, but there is little information on their...
Article
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When sea‐level (SL) residents rapidly ascend to high altitude (HA), plasma volume (PV) decreases. A quantitative model for predicting individual %∆PV over the first 7 days at HA has recently been developed from the measurements of %∆PV in 393 HA sojourners. We compared the measured %∆PV with the %∆PV predicted by the model in 17 SL natives living 2...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report outlines biophysical properties of two different military head-worn covers, a prototype Afghanistan military cover and the current issue US Army patrol cover. This work describes the methods for calculating their biophysical inputs based on a whole human ensemble, and shows modeling results of the predicted thermoregulatory response dif...
Article
Objective: To assess the impact of the Special Operations Forces Human Performance Program dining facility (DFAC) intervention on patron diet quality and meal satisfaction. Design: Nonrandomized, controlled time series study using digital food photography and surveys pre-post intervention (0, 4, 8, and 12 months). Setting: Two Fort Bragg, NC m...
Article
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Background: A stress fracture (SF) is a highly debilitating injury commonly experienced in United States Army Basic Combat Training (BCT). Body fat (BF) may be associated with this injury but previous investigations (in athletes) have largely used SF self-reports and lacked sufficient statistical power. This investigation developed an equation to...
Article
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Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) provide opportunity to examine the extent to which dietary interventions can be used to improve recovery after injury. Animal studies also suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodeling post-TBI. Because dietary zinc (Zn) improved recovery in non-blast mTBI models,...
Article
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Background Fluid intake during military training is prescribed based on the interactions among work rates, environmental conditions, and uniform configurations. The efficacy of this guidance has not been empirically assessed in over a decade. To determine the acceptability of the fluid intake guidance, sweat losses were measured in a variety of con...
Article
Systemic immune function is impaired by sleep restriction. However, the impact of sleep restriction on local immune responses, and to what extent any impairment can be mitigated by nutritional supplementation is unknown. We assessed the effect of 72-h sleep restriction (2-h nightly sleep) on local immune function and skin barrier restoration of an...
Data
Table S1: Plasma metabolome before (PRE) and after (POST) a 4‐d, 51‐km cross‐country ski march.
Article
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Background: Cardiovascular (CV) and thermal responses to metabolically demanding multi-day military operations in extreme cold-weather environments are not well described. Characterization of these operations will provide greater insights into possible performance capabilities and cold injury risk. Methods: Soldiers from two cold-weather field t...
Article
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Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in t...
Article
New findings: What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in...
Article
Full-text available
Military personnel generally under-consume n-3 fatty acids and overconsume n-6 fatty acids. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we investigated whether a diet suitable for implementation in military dining facilities and civilian cafeterias could benefit n-3/n-6 fatty acid status of consumers. Three volunteer groups were provided differe...
Article
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Background: Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. Objective: In this study, digital food photography (DFP) methodology was used to assess nutritional intake (NI) of Soldiers participating in the US Army's Ranger Selection and Assessment Program (RASP). Methods:...
Article
The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiologic effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiologic stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiologic stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, and in...
Article
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Individuals entering US Army service are generally young and healthy, but many are overweight, which may impact cardiometabolic risk despite physical activity and fitness requirements. This analysis examines the association between Soldiers' BMI at accession and incident cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) using longitudinal data from 731,014 Soldie...
Data
Screening Table Weights Based on US Army Regulation 40–501. (PDF)
Data
Body Fat Percentage Standards Based on US Army Regulation 40–501. (PDF)
Data
Hazard Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) of Strictly Defined Incident Cardiometabolic Risk Factors across Body Mass Index Categories at Accession among 731,014 US Army Entrants, 2001–2011. (PDF)
Data
ICD-9 Codes Used to Categorize Broadly- and Strictly-Defined Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Behavioral Risk Factors. (PDF)
Data
Hazard Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) of Broadly Defined Incident Cardiometabolic Risk Factors across Standard Table Weight Categories at Accession among 731,014 US Army Entrants, 2001–2011. (PDF)
Article
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Strategic translational research is designed to address research gaps that answer specific guidance questions. It provides translational value with respect to nutrition guidance and regulatory and public policy. The relevance and the quality of evidence both matter in translational research. For example, design decisions regarding population, inter...
Article
Full-text available
Load carriage (LC) exercise may exacerbate inflammation during training. Nutritional supplementation may mitigate this response by sparing endogenous carbohydrate stores, enhancing glycogen repletion, and attenuating negative energy balance. Two studies were conducted to assess inflammatory responses to acute LC and training, with or without nutrit...
Article
Purpose: Determine if providing supplemental nutrition spares whole-body protein by attenuating the level of negative energy balance induced by military training, and to assess whether protein balance is differentially influenced by macronutrient source. Methods: Soldiers participating in 4-d arctic military training (AMT, 51 km ski march) rando...
Article
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Background: Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. Objective: In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe ener...
Article
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Introduction: Little data exist regarding the long-term impact of excess weight on lower extremity musculoskeletal injury/disorder (MID) in U.S. Army Soldiers. This prospective analysis examines the association between BMI of Soldiers at accession and risk of MID. Methods: A total of 736,608 Soldiers were followed from accession into the Army, 2...
Article
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Development of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods is facilitated by encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since natural n-3 food sources cannot withstand high temperature and prolonged shelf life. Organoleptic stability of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods has been demonstrated, but chemical changes in the food mat...
Article
Objective The US Army recruits new soldiers from an increasingly obese civilian population. The change in weight status at entry into the Army between 1989 and 2012 and the demographic characteristics associated with overweight/obesity at entry were examined.Methods1,741,070 unique individuals with complete sex, age, and anthropometric information...
Article
Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via s...
Article
Full-text available
Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expendi...
Article
Due to the formation of strictures and fistulas, patients with Crohn's disease (CD) frequently need surgery. Vitamin D has been found to play a role in the degree of inflammation. We aimed to study the effect of UV exposure on the need for inpatient surgery in patients with CD. The national inpatient sample, the largest database of hospitalizations...
Article
Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed t...
Article
Full-text available
Special Operations Forces (SOF) regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through intense SOF initiation traini...
Article
It has been proposed that microclimate cooling systems exploit the peripheral extremities because of more efficient heat transfer. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using a patented microclimate cooling technique, the heat transfer from the plantar surface of the foot for comparison to other commonly cooled body regions. A military boot wa...