Scott M Hayes

Scott M Hayes
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

55
Publications
14,393
Reads
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2,573
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2009 - August 2018
VA Boston Healthcare System
Position
  • Research Scientist
September 2006 - August 2009
Duke University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2006 - August 2009
Duke University Medical Center
Position
  • Duke University

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Full-text available
Objective Aging is associated with reduced neural integrity, yet there are remarkable individual differences in brain health among older adults (OA). One factor that may attenuate age-related neural decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The primary aim of this study was to link CRF to neural white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and olde...
Article
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Objectives: Aging is associated with declines in executive function and episodic memory. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been associated with enhanced executive function in older adults (OA), but the relationship with episodic memory remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between CRF and cognition in young an...
Article
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The literature examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and the brain in older adults has increased rapidly, with 30 of 34 studies published since 2008. Here we review cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies in older adults examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain structure and function, t...
Article
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There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control part...
Article
Objectives To identify novel associations between modifiable physical and health variables, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, and cognitive function in a cohort of older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Methods Metrics of cardiometabolic risk, stress, inflammation, neurotrophic/growth factors, AD, and cognition were assessed in 154...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living, such as paying bills, remembering appointments, and shopping alone decreases with age, yet there are remarkable individual differences in the rate of decline among older adults. Understanding variables associated with decline in instrumental activities of daily living is critical to...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise on measures of cognitive function. Ten men (Mean ± SD: age = 24.4 ± 3.2 yrs; body mass = 85.7 ± 11.8 kg; height = 1.78 ± 0.08 m; 1 repetition maximum (1RM) = 139.0 ± 24.1 kg) gave informed consent and performed a high-intensity 6 set...
Article
Body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) although the relationship is complex. Obesity in midlife is associated with increased risk for AD, whereas evidence supports both higher and lower BMI increasing risk for AD in late life. This study examined the influence of individual differences in genetic risk for AD to further...
Preprint
The ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living, such as paying bills, remembering appointments, and shopping alone decreases with age, yet there are remarkable individual differences in the rate of decline among older adults. Understanding variables associated with decline in instrumental activities of daily living is critical to...
Preprint
Objective: To identify novel associations between modifiable physical and health variables, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, and cognitive function in a cohort of older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).Method: Metrics of cardiometabolic risk, stress, inflammation, neurotrophic/growth factors, AD, and cognition were assessed in 155 MC...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A complex set of interactions between biological, genetic, and environmental factors likely underlies the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identifying which of these factors is most associated with AD is important for early diagnosis and treatment. Objective: We sought to examine genetic risk and structural brain volume on ep...
Preprint
It is critical that principles of laboratory-based studies with implications for academic performance be tested in naturalistic learning environments to gauge their feasibility. In a study by Fenesi, B., Lucibello, K., Kim, J. A., & Heisz, J. J. (2018), Sweat so you don’t forget: Exercise breaks during a university lecture increase on-task attentio...
Article
Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and physical inactivity. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), which is modifiable by physical activity, is a strong independent predictor of cardiometabolic health. However, the relationship between CRF and cardiometabolic he...
Article
Full-text available
Body mass index (BMI) has a complex relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD); in midlife, high BMI is associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the relationship in late-life is still unclear. To clarify the relationship between late-life BMI and risk for AD, this study examined the extent to which genetic predisposition for AD moderates BMI...
Article
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prominent mental health problem in veteran and community populations. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as an effective treatment option for individuals with PTSD. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature exploring aerobic exercise and PTSD a...
Article
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Previous work has shown that healthy individuals can actively suppress emotional memories through recruitment of the lateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently experience unwanted memories of their traumatic experiences, even when making explicit efforts to avoid them. However, little is...
Article
Recent evidence suggests that the human hippocampus—known primarily for its involvement in episodic memory—plays a role in a host of motivationally relevant behaviors, including some forms of value-based decision making. However, less is known about the role of the hippocampus in value-based learning. Such learning is typically associated with a st...
Article
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The negative long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been a growing concern in recent years, with accumulating evidence suggesting that mTBI combined with additional vulnerability factors may induce neurodegenerative-type changes in the brain. However, the factors instantiating risk for neurodegenerative disease following mTBI...
Article
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Aging is associated with reductions in gray matter volume and cortical thickness. One factor that may play a role in mitigating age-associated brain decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Although previous work has identified a positive association between CRF and gray matter volume, the relationship between CRF and cortical thickness, which s...
Article
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Paper Accepted. Background: Memory-based alterations are among the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be related to the integrity of the hippocampus. However, neuroimaging studies of hippocampal volume in PTSD have yielded inconsistent results, raising the possibility that various moderators, such as genetic factors,...
Article
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Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midl...
Article
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Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predi...
Article
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Previous research has shown that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are more strongly engaged when individuals think about the future than about the present, leading to the suggestion that future projection drives MTL engagement. However, future thinking tasks often involve scene processing, leaving open the alternative possibility that scene-construc...
Article
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Cardiovascular disease is a recognized contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heart failure (HF) is a cardiovascular subtype that can be used to model the contribution of cardiovascular disease to AD. Neuroimaging research indicates that HF patients exhibit a diverse range of structural brain alterations and epidemiological st...
Article
Reduced physical activity (PA) may be one factor that contributes to cognitive decline and dementia in heart failure (HF). Yet, the longitudinal relationship between PA and cognition in HF is poorly understood due to limitations of past work, including single time assessments of PA. This is the first study to examine changes in objectively measured...
Article
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Aging is characterized by a decline in cognitive functions, particularly in the domains of executive function, processing speed and episodic memory. These age-related declines are exacerbated by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesi-ty, elevated total cholesterol). Structural and functional alte...
Article
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The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger adults is typically attributed to compensation. Yet, the neural mechanisms of over-recruitment in older adults (OAs) are largely unknown. Rodent electrophysiology studies have shown that as number of afferent fibers within a circuit decre...
Article
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Abstract Distinguishing implicit and explicit memory and delineating their relationship has haunted memory researchers for decades, and Voss et al. provide an impressive overview of their work examining these issues. We briefly comment on the following: (1) There is evidence indicating that implicit memory impacts cued recall, in addition to recogn...
Article
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In recent years, neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played a significant role in elucidating the neural underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, a detailed understanding of the neural regions implicated in the disorder remains incomplete bec...
Article
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Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is characterized by dense anterograde amnesia resulting from damage to the diencephalon region, typically resulting from chronic alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency. This review assesses the integrity of the implicit memory system in KS, focusing on studies of procedural learning and priming. KS patients are impaired on...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In recent years, neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played a significant role in elucidating the neural underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, a detailed understanding of the neural regions implicated in the disorder remains in...
Article
Full-text available
Although the medial-temporal lobes (MTL), PFC, and parietal cortex are considered primary nodes in the episodic memory network, there is much debate regarding the contributions of MTL, PFC, and parietal subregions to recollection versus familiarity (dual-process theory) and the feasibility of accounts on the basis of a single memory strength proces...
Article
The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward...
Chapter
Determining the presence of a memory disorder in older patients can be challenging given the similarity between the complaints of benign brain aging and early brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter is we provide an overview of the cognitive domains assessed by a standard neuropsychological evaluation with focused consideration...
Article
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Although people do not normally try to remember associations between faces and physical contexts, these associations are established automatically, as indicated by the difficulty of recognizing familiar faces in different contexts ("butcher-on-the-bus" phenomenon). The present fMRI study investigated the automatic binding of faces and scenes. In th...
Article
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The ventral part of lateral posterior parietal cortex (VPC) and the posterior midline region (PMR), including the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, tend to show deactivation during demanding cognitive tasks, and have been associated with the default mode of the brain. Interestingly, PMR and VPC activity has been associated with successful e...
Article
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To investigate the neural basis of age-related source memory (SM) deficits, young and older adults were scanned with fMRI while encoding faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Successful encoding activity was identified by comparing encoding activity for subsequently remembered versus forgotten items or pairs. Age deficits in successful encoding acti...
Article
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Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experi...
Article
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Previous research has investigated intentional retrieval of contextual information and contextual influences on object identification and word recognition, yet few studies have investigated context effects in episodic memory for objects. To address this issue, unique objects embedded in a visually rich scene or on a white background were presented...
Article
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Sixteen participants viewed a videotaped tour of 4 houses that highlighted a series of objects and their spatial locations. Participants were tested for memory of object, spatial, and temporal-order information while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Preferential activation was observed in the right parahippocampal gyrus during the...
Article
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Psychogenic fugue is a disorder of memory that occurs following emotional or psychological trauma and results in a loss of one's personal past including personal identity. This paper reports a case of psychogenic fugue in which the individual lost access not only to his autobiographical memories but also to his native German language. A series of e...
Article
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Confabulation is a symptom observed in cases of brain damage and in some psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). Various definitions have been given in the literature, but they all have in common the idea that patients sometimes make statements that are false or engage in behaviors that reflect false memories or beliefs, and that they do this...