Scott Fraundorf

Scott Fraundorf
University of Pittsburgh | Pitt · Psychology

PhD

About

36
Publications
5,463
Reads
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800
Citations
Citations since 2017
20 Research Items
579 Citations
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Introduction
I study the relationship between language and long-term learning. I investigate both how linguistic cues in text and speech contribute to our long-term learning and, in turn, how our long-term experience with language (and individual differences therein) contributes to online language processing. I'm also excited by how interventions such as intelligent tutoring systems can enhance language skills by providing relevant language experience.
Additional affiliations
October 2013 - August 2014
University of Rochester
Position
  • Postdoctorate Research Associate
September 2012 - September 2013
Carnegie Learning, Inc.
Position
  • Cognitive Scientist
August 2006 - August 2012
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • Graduate Research Fellow
Education
August 2006 - August 2012
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Field of study
  • Cognitive and quantiative psychology
September 2001 - June 2006
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constra...
Article
The effects of pitch accenting on memory were investigated in three experiments. Participants listened to short recorded discourses that contained contrast sets with two items (e.g. British scientists and French scientists); a continuation specified one item from the set. Pitch accenting on the critical word in the continuation was manipulated betw...
Article
In two experiments, we investigated age-related changes in how prosodic pitch accents affect memory. Participants listened to recorded discourses that contained two contrasts between pairs of items (e.g., one story contrasted British scientists with French scientists and Malaysia with Indonesia). The end of each discourse referred to one item from...
Article
We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as uh and um, affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time account of f...
Article
We investigated how decision-makers use multiple opportunities to judge a quantity. Decision-makers undervalue the benefit of combining their own judgment with an advisor’s, but theories disagree about whether this bias would apply to combining several of one’s own judgments. Participants estimated percentage answers to general knowledge questions...
Article
Full-text available
Why do learners not choose ideal study strategies when learning? Past research suggests that learners frequently misinterpret the effort affiliated with efficient strategies as being indicative of poor learning. Expanding on past findings, we explored the integration of study habits into this model. We conducted two experiments where learners exper...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehenders frequently need to adapt to linguistic variability between talkers and dialects. Previous research has shown, given repeated exposure to quasi-grammatical structures, comprehenders begin to perceive them as more grammatical (Luka & Barsalou 2005, Luka & Choi 2012). We examined whether grammatical acceptability judgements differ for na...
Article
Full-text available
We examined L2 learners’ interpretation of pitch accent cues in discourse memory and how these effects vary with proficiency and working memory (WM). One hundred sixty-eight L1-Chinese participants learning L2-English listened to recorded discourses containing pairs of contrastive alternatives and then took a later recognition memory test. Their la...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the current study is to investigate the effects of the distractive textual information on the activation of predictive inference online, and how the readers with high or low working memory capacity (WMC) differ in their online activation and text memory. To test the two hypothesis of attentional competition (AC) and semantic integration...
Article
Full-text available
Background Aerobic exercise remains one of the most promising approaches for enhancing cognitive function in late adulthood, yet its potential positive effects on episodic memory remain poorly understood and a matter of intense debate. Prior meta-analyses have reported minimal improvements in episodic memory following aerobic exercise but have been...
Article
Self-generated memory cues support recall of target information more robustly than memory cues generated by others. Across two experiments, we tested whether the benefit of self-generated cues in part reflects a meta-mnemonic effect rather than a pure generation effect. In other words, can learners select better memory cues for themselves than othe...
Article
Across three experiments, we investigated how different markers of contrastive focus affect text encoding and retention. Prior work suggests that some contrastive focus markers (e.g. contrastive pitch accents) can enhance long-term memory for discourse; we tested whether this arises from contrast alone or the realisation of linguistic focus in part...
Article
Cues to prominence such as beat gesture and contrastive pitch accent play an important role in constraining what is remembered. However, it is currently unclear how beat gesture affects online discourse processing alone and in combination with contrastive accenting. Using an adaptation of the visual world eye-tracking paradigm, we orthogonally mani...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated how two cues to contrast-beat gesture and contrastive pitch accenting-affect comprehenders' cognitive load during processing of spoken referring expressions. In two visual-world experiments, we orthogonally manipulated the presence of these cues and their felicity, or fit, with the local (sentence-level) referential context in criti...
Article
Full-text available
Although learning second language phonology is a difficult task, orthographic input may support the learning of difficult sound contrasts through a process known as orthographic facilitation. We extended this research by examining the effects of orthographic input together with individual differences in three different phonological learning process...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of psycholinguistic variables on reading development are critical to the evaluation of theories about the reading system. Although we know that the development of reading depends on both individual differences (endogenous) and item-level effects (exogenous), developmental research has focused mostly on average-level performance, ignorin...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for a cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., orthographic consistency and transparency) on character acquisition, and (b) the effects of individual learner differences (i.e., orthographi...
Article
Scientific advances across a range of disciplines hinge on the ability to make inferences about unobservable theoretical entities on the basis of empirical data patterns. Accurate inferences rely on both discovering valid, replicable data patterns and accurately interpreting those patterns in terms of their implications for theoretical constructs....
Article
Full-text available
Cues to emphasis, such as beat gesture and contrastive pitch accenting, play an important role in constraining what comprehenders remember from a discourse. One possibility is that these cues are used in a purely bottom-up manner in which additional attention is devoted to emphasized material. Another possibility is that comprehenders use top-down...
Article
In this study we examined the interactions of context availability, polysemy, word frequency, and orthographic neighborhood variables during lexical processing. Context availability and polysemy interacted, in that words that were both lower in context availability and had fewer related senses were especially disadvantaged, as was originally report...
Article
How do skilled Chinese readers, accustomed to characters, process Pinyin, a phonemic transcription of Chinese? Does the orthography of Chinese characters become activated? In four experiments, native speakers first made a meaning judgment on a two-syllable word written in Pinyin. Immediately following, they responded to a character whose orthograph...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing a stimulus as previously encountered is a crucial everyday life skill and a critical task motivating theoretical development in models of human memory. Although there are clear age-related memory deficits in tasks requiring recall or memory for context, the existence and nature of age differences in recognition memory remain unclear. Th...
Article
Understanding alternatives to prominent information contributes to successful native language discourse comprehension. Several past studies have suggested that the way second language (L2) learners encode and represent an alternative set in L2 speech is not exactly native-like. However, because these studies involved contrastive pitch accents in ru...
Article
There remains little consensus about whether there exist meaningful individual differences in syntactic processing and, if so, what explains them. We argue that this partially reflects the fact that few psycholinguistic studies of individual differences include multiple constructs, multiple measures per construct, or tests for reliable measures. He...
Conference Paper
This study investigated how beat gesture and pitch accent affect the cognitive load of listeners during language comprehension. Evidence from pupillometry and dwell time indicated that more cognitive resources were required to process the combination of these cues than their absence, and they suggest that beat gesture may have required more cogniti...
Article
Full-text available
Much is known about how the emotional content of words affects memory for those words, but only recently have researchers begun to investigate whether emotional content influences metamemory—that is, learners’ assessments of what is or is not memorable. The present study replicated recent work demonstrating that judgments of learning (JOLs) do inde...
Article
Growing evidence suggests that syntactic processing may be guided in part by expectations about the statistics of the input that comprehenders have encountered; however, these statistics and even the syntactic structures themselves vary from situation to situation. Some recent work suggests that readers can adapt to variability in the frequencies o...
Article
Information about others' success in remembering is frequently available. For example, students taking an exam may assess its difficulty by monitoring when others turn in their exams. In two experiments, we investigated how rememberers use this information to guide recall. Participants studied paired associates, some semantically related (and thus...
Article
Repeated words are often reduced in prosodic prominence, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study contrasted two theories: does prosodic reduction reflect the choice of a particular linguistic form, or does ease of retrieval within the language production system lead to facilitated, less prominent productions? One test of fac...
Article
Full-text available
This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred...
Article
Full-text available
Recognition of own-race faces is superior to recognition of other-race faces. In the present experiments, we explored the role of top-down social information in the encoding and recognition of racially ambiguous faces. Hispanic and African American participants studied and were tested on computer-generated ambiguous-race faces (composed of 50 % His...
Article
This study investigates early executive attention in infancy by studying the relations between infant sequential looking and other behaviors predictive of later self-regulation. One early marker of executive attention development is anticipatory looking, the act of looking to the location of a target prior to its appearance in that location, a proc...
Article
Full-text available
This study demonstrates that four com-mon types of disfluency in discourse (fillers, silent pauses, repairs, and repeat-ed words) differ from one another on two dimensions related to language produc-tion processes: their temporal relation to speech production problems and the lev-el of production at which those problems occurred. Participants' spee...
Article
We investigated how prior reference and argument structure interact with pitch accenting to constrain online reference resolution. In prior experiments [1], accented simple noun phrases were interpreted as new words, while deaccented nouns preferentially interpreted as given. However, other accounts [2,3] have proposed that the mapping between acce...
Article
Visual presentation with forced choice recognition test: To win the hand of the baron's daughter, the English knight and the Scottish knight competed in a tournament of jousting and archery. Both knights gave it their best, but the ___(A)___ knight emerged victorious during the __(B)___ competition and married the daughter.

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Metacognitive digital literacy skills are often missing in current literacy curricula, so there is a critical need to identify approaches to instruction that prepare students for an increasingly complex knowledge society. In this project, we develop and test a metacognitive intervention to support high-school students’ Internet inquiry on a socio-scientific issue and their strategic processing of digital information sources. We hypothesize that student performance can be enhanced with metacognitive knowledge of what, how, and especially why literacy strategies work in the digital environment.
Project
This line of research seeks to understand what appears to be rapid adaptation to changes in syntactic expectations during sentence comprehension. This includes research on changes in the statistics of familiar structures--e.g., then a priori infrequent structures suddenly are much more frequent in the current context (or vice versa). It also includes exposure to atypical or novel syntax, such as dialect syntax. We study how comprehenders adapt to such changes and how they generalize across writers/talkers. By studying these behavioral changes, we also gain insights into the underlying representations (e.g., expectations about covariances between linguistic categories).