Scott C Forbes

Scott C Forbes
Brandon University · Physical Education

PhD

About

126
Publications
66,424
Reads
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Introduction
Creatine supplementation combined with exercise interventions on muscle, bone, and brain health.
Additional affiliations
April 2010 - September 2012
University of Alberta
Position
  • Supervisor - Sport Health Assessment Centre

Publications

Publications (126)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Testosterone replacement and associated pharmacologic agents are effective strategies to treat male hypogonadism; however, nutraceutical agents and lifestyle modification approaches have gained medical interest. The purpose of this scoping review is to highlight the evidence (or lack thereof) of nutraceuticals and lifestyle modification a...
Article
Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase measures of lean body mass (LBM), however there is often high heterogeneity across individual studies. Therefore, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating creatine supplementation on LBM. Sub-analyses were performed based on age, sex, and type...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose was to investigate the effects of a 7-day creatine (Cr) loading protocol at the end of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation (BA) on physical performance, blood lactate, cognitive performance, and resting hormonal concentrations compared to BA alone. Twenty male military personnel (age: 21.5 ± 1.5 yrs; height: 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep deprivation leads to the deterioration in the physiological functioning of the brain, cognitive decline, and many neurodegenerative diseases, all of which progress with advancing age. Sleep insufficiency and impairments in cognitive function are characterized by progressive neuronal losses in the cerebral cortex. In this study, we analyze gen...
Article
Objectives Exogenous ketone (monoester or salt) supplements are increasingly being employed for a variety of research purposes and marketed amongst the general public for their ability to raise blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB). Emerging research suggests a blood glucose-lowering effect of exogenous ketones. Here, we systematically review and meta...
Article
Ceatine is an organic nitrogenous organic compound that can be endogenously synthesized within the liver and kidneys or obtained exogenously through the ingestion of meat, fish and poultry or as a commercially available dietary supplement. approximately 95% of total creatine (phosphocreatine and free creatine) is stored in skeletal muscle with the...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia refers to the age-related reduction in strength, muscle mass and functionality which increases the risk for falls, injuries and fractures. Sarcopenia is associated with other age-related conditions such as osteoporosis, frailty and cachexia. Identifying treatments to overcome sarcopenia and associated conditions is important from a globa...
Article
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Sarcopenia negatively affects skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults. Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid supplementation, with or without resistance exercise training (RET), is suggested to play a role as a therapeutic component to prevent or treat the negative effects of sarcopenia. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on the impa...
Article
Aims: The purpose was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary creatine intake obtained in food and visuo-spatial short-term memory (VSSM). Methods: Forty-two participants (32 females, 10 males; > 60 yrs of age) completed a 5-day dietary recall to estimate creatine intake and performed a cognitive assessment which included a visuospatia...
Article
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Background and aim Obesity and related co-morbidities lead to a decrease in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mood. Lifestyle strategies may improve these outcomes. However, the efficacy of exercise in conjunction with a weight-loss diet on HRQOL and mood is unclear. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control...
Conference Paper
Caffeine and creatine nitrate are two commonly used ergogenic aids purported to augment resistance and anaerobic performance; however, the safety profile of these supplements co-ingested is unknown. The purpose was to examine the effects of caffeine and creatine nitrate alone and co-ingested on several biochemical blood markers (creatine kinase, la...
Conference Paper
Background: Caffeine and creatine nitrate are two purported supplements that may alter cognitive function. The primary purpose was to examine the impacts of each supplement ingested individually and co-ingested on cognitive performance. A secondary purpose was to explore the effects of caffeine and creatine nitrate alone and co-ingested on subject...
Conference Paper
Background: Ingestion of creatine nitrate and caffeine individually improve anaerobic and muscular endurance performance; however, co-ingestion of creatine nitrate and caffeine remains unclear. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study, 12 resistance-trained participants (22±1 y; 180.0±9.5 cm; 85.9±15.1 kg) comp...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-established that creatine supplementation augments the gains in muscle mass and performance during periods of resistance training. However, whether the timing of creatine ingestion influences these physical and physiological adaptations is unclear. Muscle contractions increase blood flow and possibly creatine transport kinetics which has...
Article
Purpose The aim was to explore five established SNPs (rs1815739, rs1805086, rs2700352, rs28497577, and rs28357094) that are known to modulate skeletal muscle protein kinetics in response to creatine supplementation. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated measures design was used. Participants (n = 152) were rand-omized divided into one...
Article
Recently developed ketone (monoester or salt) supplements acutely elevate blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) exogenously without prolonged periods of fasting or carbohydrate restriction. Previous (small-scale) studies have found a blood glucose-lowering effect of exogenous ketones. This study aimed to systematically review available evidence and conduct...
Article
Full-text available
Bodybuilders routinely engage in many dietary and other practices purported to be harmful to kidney health. The development of acute kidney injury, focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) and nephrocalcinosis may be particular risks. There is little evidence that high protein diets and moderate creatine supplementation pose risks to individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Myocardial injury induced by ischemia–reperfusion is the main pathological contributing factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including heart failure. Individually, both moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and curcumin supplementation have anti-amyloidogenic effects, however, the concurrent effects are unclear. We, therefore, investigated...
Article
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While the vast majority of research involving creatine supplementation has focused on skeletal muscle, there is a small body of accumulating research that has focused on creatine and the brain. Preliminary studies indicate that creatine supplementation (and guanidinoacetic acid; GAA) has the ability to increase brain creatine content in humans. Fur...
Chapter
Milk and dairy products with their distinct composition of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients are purported to have beneficial effects on human health. They have the potential to enhance exercise performance and recovery and are considered functional sport foods/beverages. This chapter summarizes the current evidence regarding the be...
Article
Full-text available
Supplementing with creatine is very popular amongst athletes and exercising individuals for improving muscle mass, performance and recovery. Accumulating evidence also suggests that creatine supplementation produces a variety of beneficial effects in older and patient populations. Furthermore, evidence-based research shows that creatine supplementa...
Article
Objective: There is no consensus of opinion if exercise beneficially affects sex hormones if added to weight-loss diets. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of adding exercise to a hypo-caloric diet during a weight loss program, on serum testosterone, es...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have investigated caffeine (CAF) and taurine (TAU) in isolation and combined during exercise in males. However, the potential synergistic effect during high-intensity exercise remains unknown in female athletes. Seventeen female team-sport athletes participated (age: 23.4 ± 2.1 years; height: 1.68 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 59.5 ± 2.2 kg...
Article
This systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials was performed to evaluate the effects of weight-loss diets plus exercise compared with weight-loss diets alone on inflammatory biomarkers in adults. PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science (ISI), and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2021. Overall effects were derived usin...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia refers to the age-related loss of muscle strength and muscle mass, which is associated with a reduced quality of life, particularly in older females. Resistance training (RT) is well established to be an effective intervention to counter indices of sarcopenia. Accumulating research indicates that the addition of creatine supplementation...
Article
Full-text available
Creatine is a major component of energy metabolism that is abundant in human skeletal muscle, brain, and heart. Either synthesized internally or provided via an omnivorous diet, creatine is required for normal growth, development, and health. Recent advances in creatine nutrition and physiology suggest that the quantity of creatine the body natural...
Article
The effects of exercise in conjunction with weight-loss diets on bone health are mixed. Our objective was to systematically review and meta-analyze controlled clinical trials in adults investigating the addition of exercise to a weight-loss diet compared with a calorie-matched weight-loss diet without exercise on bone measures. Online databases inc...
Article
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The purpose was to investigate the effects of CYP1A2 −163C > A polymorphism on the effects of acute caffeine (CAF) supplementation on anaerobic power in trained males. Sixteen trained males (age: 21.6 ± 7.1 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass: 72.15 ± 6.8 kg) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) controlled crossover design...
Article
Background: Creatine supplementation, in close proximity to resistance training sessions, may be an important strategy to augment muscle accretion and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation immediately before compared to immediately after unilateral resistance training on hypertrophy and strength...
Article
Resistance training (RT) dynamically alters the skeletal muscle nuclear DNA methylome. However, no study has examined if RT affects the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylome. Herein, ten older, Caucasian untrained males (65 ± 7 y.o.) performed six weeks of full‐body RT (twice weekly). Body composition and knee extensor torque were assessed prior to a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Caffeine enhances muscle glycogen re-synthesis post exercise; however, the next-day effects on recovery are unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation with or without caffeine (CAF) 24-h following exhaustive exercise on time trial performance in elite paddling athletes. Methods: Nine...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance training (RT) programming to optimize muscular adaptations and body composition remains to be fully elucidated. We compared eight weeks of auto-regulatory progressive resistance exercise (APRE) to linear programming resistance exercise (LPRE) on changes in muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic power, and body composition in recreati...
Article
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The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, which creates a large economic burden. Diet is a critical factor in the treatment and management of T2D; however, there are a large number of dietary approaches and a general lack of consensus regarding the efficacy of each. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is twofold: (1) to cri...
Article
Due to the important roles of resistance training and protein consumption in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, we assessed the efficacy of post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption on lean mass, strength, and skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. Thirty healthy untrained older males (age = 68 ± 4 yr) were r...
Article
Full-text available
Creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training (RT) augments gains in lean tissue mass and strength in aging adults; however, there is a large amount of heterogeneity between individual studies that may be related to creatine ingestion strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to (1) perform updated meta-analyses compa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion enhances exercise performance; however, the efficacy of CHO intake on repeated bouts of exercise simulating a taekwondo tournament is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to compare the effects of two different doses of CHO on a sports-specific kicking test during a simulated taekwondo tournament compared to p...
Poster
Caffeine (Caf) is a well-established ergogenic aid among various training models, including strength and/or power. However, there is limited information on the ergogenic effects of Caf ingestion during many strength and power training models. Purpose: This study investigated the acute effects of Caf ingestion in bench press power and velocity when...
Conference Paper
Caffeine (Caf) is a well-established ergogenic aid among various training models, including strength and/or power. However, there is limited information on the ergogenic effects of Caf ingestion during many strength and power training models. Purpose: This study investigated the acute effects of Caf ingestion in bench press power and velocity when...
Article
Full-text available
Background Exercise and weight loss diets are two independent non-pharmaceutical strategies used to improve several aspects of body composition and health. We plan to systematically review controlled clinical trials investigating weight loss diets alone compared to weight loss diets in conjunction with exercise on energy intake, body weight, body c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Resistance training (RT) alters skeletal muscle nuclear DNA methylation patterns (or the methylome). However, no study has examined if RT affects the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylome. Herein, ten older untrained males (65+/-7 years old) performed six weeks of full-body RT (twice weekly). Body composition and knee extensor torque were assessed pr...
Article
Full-text available
Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse has been shown to enhance aerobic endurance performance. However, the effects of CHO mouth rinse on muscular strength and endurance are mixed and may be dependent on dosage of CHO. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of different dosages of CHO rinse on strength (bench press 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]) and...
Article
The primary purpose was to determine the separate and combined effects of creatine and caffeine supplementation during resistance training on body composition and muscle performance in trained young adults. Twenty-eight participants were randomized to supplement with creatine and caffeine (CR-CAF; n = 9, 22 ± 4 years; 0.1 g·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹ of creatine mon...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation has some beneficial effects on cognitive processing in healthy adults, including athletes; however the effects on cognitive function following exhaustive exercise in athletes is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of 28 days of creatine supplementation on tasks of cognitive performance i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We evaluated the effects of high-protein dairy milk ingestion on changes in body composition, strength, power, and skeletal muscle regulatory markers following 6 weeks of resistance training in trained young males. Methods: Thirty resistance-trained young males (age: 27 ± 3 years; training experience: 15 ± 2 months) were randomly ass...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia, defined as age-related reduction in muscle mass, strength, and physical performance, is associated with other age-related health conditions such as osteoporosis, osteosarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, physical frailty, and cachexia. From a healthy aging perspective, lifestyle interventions that may help overcome characteristics and associ...
Article
The aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze prospective cohort studies investigating the relation between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes. PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until October 2019 for eligible studies. Studies reporting relative risk, ORs, or incide...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is associated with reductions in muscle and bone mass and brain function, which may be counteracted by several lifestyle factors, of which exercise appears to be most beneficial. However, less than 20% of older adults (> 55 years of age) adhere to performing the recommended amount of resistance training (≥ 2 days/week) and less than 12% regul...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Creatine (CR) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) alone improve anaerobic performance. However, the ergogenic effects of CR and SB co-ingestion on taekwondo anaerobic performance remains unknown. Methods: Forty trained taekwondo athletes (21 ± 1 y.; 180.5 ± 7.3 cm; 72.7 ± 8.6 kg) were randomized to: (i) CR and SB (CR + SB; 20 g of CR+ 0.5 g·kg−...
Article
Purpose To assess whether hospitalization and feeding strategy impact the risk of hypozincemia and associated risk factors. Methods In this case–control study, serum zinc levels were compared between inpatients fed oral nutrition (ON) (n = 76) or enteral nutrition (EN) (n = 191) with outpatient controls (n = 1095). Findings Zinc levels were signi...
Article
Full-text available
Bagheri, R, Moghadam, BH, Ashtary-Larky, D, Forbes, SC, Candow, DG, Galpin, AJ, Eskandari, M, Kreider, RB, and Wong, A. Whole egg vs. egg white ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training in trained young males: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The primary purpose was to compare the effects of whole egg i...
Article
Background: The age-related loss in muscular function is typically accelerated after menopause. Resistance training (RT) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength in postmenopausal women. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation acutely increases myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and decreases muscle soreness following RT. Howe...
Article
Background This study aimed to compare the effects of sesame (SO), canola (CO), and sesame‐canola (SCO: a blend) oils on glycemic control markers and liver function enzymes in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods In this randomized, triple‐blind, three‐way, cross‐over clinical trial, participants replaced their usual oil with the i...
Article
Full-text available
Creatine enhances resistance training adaptations and may alter ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Planned load reduction training (10% reduction in load per set) lowered RPE compared to traditional fixed load resistance training (3 sets at a constant load) with similar muscle adaptations. The purpose was to examine the effects of creatine on per...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: To examine the effects of varying doses of caffeine on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N = 20; 24 ± 2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, crossover study where participants ingested: [1] Control (CON; no supplement), [2] a non-caffeinated pl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To examine the dose effects of caffeine ingestion on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N=20; 24±2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study where participants ingested: (1) Control (CON; no supplement), (2) a non-caffeinated placebo (PLA), (...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To examine the effects of varying doses of caffeine on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N=20; 24±2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study where participants ingested: (1) Control (CON; no supplement), (2) a non-caffeinated placebo (PLA),...
Article
Full-text available
Protein is an important component of a healthy diet and appears to be integral to enhancing training adaptations in exercising individuals. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the current literature examining increases in dietary protein intake above the recommended dietary allowance (RDA: 0.8 g/kg/d)...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training sessions on skeletal muscle mass and exercise performance in physically active young adults. Twenty-two participants were randomized to supplement with creatine (CR: n = 13, 26 ± 4 yrs; 0.0055 g·kg−1 post training set) or placebo (PLA: n = 9, 26 ± 5 yrs; 0...
Article
Background & Aims Canola oil (CO) is a plant-based oil with the potential to improve several cardio-metabolic risk factors. We systematically reviewed controlled clinical trials investigating effects of CO on lipid profiles, apo-lipoproteins, glycemic indices, inflammation, and blood pressure compared to other edible oils, in adults. Methods & Res...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Exercise and weight loss diets are two independent non-pharmaceutical strategies known to improve several aspects of body composition and health. We plan to systematically review randomized controlled trials investigating weight loss diets alone compared to weight loss diets in conjunction with exercise on energy intake, body weight, bo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Exercise and weight loss diets are two independent non-pharmaceutical strategies used to improve several aspects of body composition and health. We plan to systematically review controlled clinical trials investigating weight loss diets alone compared to weight loss diets in conjunction with exercise on energy intake, body weight, body...