Scott Davis

Scott Davis
GexCon AS · Fire

About

41
Publications
15,315
Reads
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1,541
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
724 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (41)
Article
A large vapour cloud explosion followed by a fire is one of the most dangerous and high‐consequence events that can occur at petrochemical facilities. As the size and complexity of facilities increase, designs must consider the potential adverse effects associated with vapour cloud explosions in large congested areas. Designing topside structures t...
Article
A recent report by the UK's Health and Safety Executive postulated that severe explosions can propagate at subsonic speeds but generate overpressures of several bar in open areas and this “new” type of explosion is episodic in nature. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) paper based their findings on a specific interpretation of historical data...
Article
Full-text available
On 17 April 2013, an explosion occurred at the West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas. The explosion at West Fertilizer resulted from an intense fire in the seed and storage area of the facility that led to the detonation of approximately 30 tons of ammonium nitrate stored inside a wooden receiving bin. The explosi...
Article
A large vapor cloud explosion followed by a fire is one of the most dangerous and high consequence events that can occur at petrochemical facilities. However, one of the most devastating explosions is when a deflagration transitions to a detonation, which can travel at speeds greater than 1800 m/s and pressures greater than 18 barg. This phenomenon...
Article
Lab and large-scale tests were performed for mildly flammable compounds R-32, ammonia, and 1234yf, along with the flammable compound R-152a, and extremely flammable compounds methane, propane, and dimethyl ether. Properties measured at the lab scale include: the flammability limits; auto-ignition temperature; minimum ignition energy; peak constant-...
Article
A large vapor cloud explosion (VCE) followed by a fire is one of the most dangerous and high-consequence events that can occur at petrochemical facilities. As the size and complexity of facilities increase, designs must consider the potential adverse effects associated with vapor cloud explosions in large congested areas and understand the potentia...
Conference Paper
GexCon, who has teamed with SRI, was awarded Subcontract 12121-6403-01 under the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America (RPSEA), whereby the objective of this project is to improve inherently safer offshore facility designs. As the size of Ultra-Deepwater (UDW) facilities increases in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), designs must consider the p...
Article
On April 5th, 2010, a methane explosion occurred within the Upper Big Branch mine south of Charleston, WV. Twenty-nine men lost their lives as a result of a flammable concentration of methane that built up in the enclosed space and ignited, resulting in a methane explosion that transitioned into a coal dust explosion. This study used the FLACS comp...
Article
Gas dispersion and explosion dynamics can be very complex. Blast effects in the far field are less sensitive to the local dynamics of an explosion event, and simplified techniques have been developed to roughly estimate the amount of fuel involved (i.e., energy released) in an explosion based on the observed damage in the far field. However, these...
Article
This paper discusses our efforts to expand CFD calculations to include the prediction of deflagration to detonation transitions (DDT) for various fuels including hydrogen, ethylene, propane and natural gas. The work includes validation against experiments conducted in a variety of configurations including: (1) closed pipes with obstacles; (2) other...
Conference Paper
Fully enclosed platforms utilized in artic climates can present challenges for managing explosion risk. Generally, modules on modern platforms are built with an “open” wall design. These open wall designs provide: (1) increased ventilation, which helps to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases within the module; (2) open pathways for flammable...
Article
Integral or phenomenological consequence models are extensively used for explosion and dispersion studies at onshore petrochemical facilities. These models will generally ignore the influence of the geometry of the facility on the ventilation and flow patterns, the generation of flammable gas clouds, and any subsequent explosions. Another signif...
Conference Paper
Process areas on floating LNG facilities are typically designed to be very compact, due to the high costs of “floating real estate”. Given the high congestion levels of FLNGs, explosion design accidental loads (DALs) can become very large and are very sensitive to the layout of piping and equipment, the size of safety gaps, specifics of the liquefa...
Article
The reactivity of a flammable gas mixture depends strongly on the concentration. Explosions can only take place between the flammability limits LFL and UFL (5%–14% for methane), with by far the strongest explosions occurring near stoichiometry. When performing explosion studies to evaluate or minimize risk, optimizing design or ways to mitigate, ma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Significant releases (>50 kg/s) of hydrocarbons, whether as flashing liquid or dense gas, combined with moderate winds can in less than one minute generate very large flammable vapor clouds in an onshore facility. This risk has been confirmed in accidents like Flixborough (1974), and also in recent explosion accidents (e.g. Jaipur, San Juan). In on...
Article
Four recent explosions occurred in a single burner, recirculating solids ring dryer. The dryer was equipped with a recirculating fan, a burner section, a section to introduce the solids, a ring duct, a pre-separator and four cyclones. Twelve explosion doors were also used to protect the integrity of the dryer in the event a dust explosion, which cl...
Article
The hazards of dust explosions prevailing in plants are dependent on a large variety of factors that include process parameters, such as pressure, temperature and flow characteristics, as well as equipment properties, such as geometry layout, the presence of moving elements, dust explosion characteristics and mitigating measures. A good dust explos...
Article
Ignition of natural gas (composed primarily of methane) is generally not considered to pose explosion hazards when in unconfined and low- or medium-congested areas, as most of the areas within LNG regasification facilities can typically be classified. However, as the degrees of confinement and/or congestion increase, the potential exists for the ig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gas detectors are used in process facilities to automatically alarm and initiate safety measures in response to hazardous leaks. Safety measures can include emergency system shutdown (ESD), evacuation of personnel, system isolation and venting of the affected area. In the absence of effective leak detection, facilities are susceptible to a potentia...
Conference Paper
Significant releases (on the order of 50-100 kg/s) of hydrocarbons, whether as flashing liquid or dense gas, combined with moderate winds can, in less than one minute, generate very large flammable vapor clouds in an onshore facility. This potential has been realized in several accidents, both in the past (e.g., Flixborough, 1974), as well as more...
Conference Paper
A discussion covers cases on the benefits of risk-based design through probabilistic consequence modeling involving computational fluid dynamics (CFD); evaluating the probability of generating flammable gas clouds of various sizes for a number of scenarios; identifying design accidental loads, e.g., explosion analysis of a small, onshore installati...
Conference Paper
The introduction of alternate fuel vehicles leads to new safety challenges. This is particularly relevant in the case of hydrogen vehicles, as flammable mixtures of hydrogen and air can be very dangerous. Potential hazard scenarios include gaseous or liquid hydrogen leaks, accumulation and ignition of hydrogen clouds in partially confined and/or co...
Conference Paper
Significant releases (>50 kg/s) of hydrocarbons, whether as flashing liquid or dense gas, combined with moderate winds can in less than one minute generate very large flammable vapor clouds in an onshore facility. This potential has been previously seen in accidents like Flixborough (1974), but the potential to obtain very large vapor clouds have a...
Article
The introduction of alternate fuel vehicles leads to new safety challenges. For hydrogen vehicles this is particularly relevant, as hydrogen is very explosive if ignited in a mixture with air. A cost-effective approach of investigating such safety challenges is computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A discussion covers advanced CFD tools that...
Article
A recent explosion occurred in a single burner, recirculating solids ring dryer. The explosion caused significant damage to the dryer. In addition, two of the explosion doors on the external ring duct were separated from their hinges, with one landing on the upper roof section, while the other fell back through the roof of the facility in the area...
Article
The siting of facilities handling liquefied natural gas (LNG), whether for liquefaction, storage or regasification purposes, requires the hazards from potential releases to be evaluated. One of the consequences of an LNG release is the creation of a flammable vapor cloud, that may be pushed beyond the facility boundaries by the wind and thus presen...
Article
Explosions will, in most cases, generate blast waves. While simple models (e.g., Multi Energy Method) are useful for simple explosion geometries, most practical explosions are far from trivial and require detailed analyses. For a reliable estimate of the blast from a gas explosion it is necessary to know the explosion strength. The source explosion...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Onshore risk and consequence studies are often based on evaluating consequences from what is called credible events. In its consequence-based approach API-RP-752 defines the Maximum Credible Event (MCE) to be a fire, explosion or toxic release giving the maximum consequence among the major scenarios evaluated, however, only realistic and reasonable...
Article
Full-text available
Accidental releases of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from high-pressure piping have recently become a matter of growing interest. In the context of U.S. onshore LNG facility sitin, for example, LNG terminal developers have been required to demonstrate that the flammable vapor cloud (to the ½ LFL concentration) due to "jetting" and "flashing" from pre...
Article
Full-text available
The hazards of dust explosions prevailing in plants are dependent on a large variety of factors that include process parameters, such as pressure and temperature, as well as equipment properties, such as the presence of moving elements, dust explosion characteristics and mitigating measures. In this paper a semi-quantitative short-cut risk analysis...
Article
On November 22, 2006 the largest explosion in the history of Massachusetts occurred in Danvers, MA at approximately 2:46 am. This paper presents a detailed analysis into the potential causes and lessons learned from the Danvers explosion. Other investigative groups concluded that the cause of the explosion was an overheated production tank. However...
Article
Full-text available
U.S. regulations for the siting of LNG facilities require LNG spills to be collected into impounded areas, and the impoundments must be sited in such a way that LNG vapor clouds formed as a result of defined spills dissipate to below ½ LFL before reaching a property line that can be built upon. The traditional method to verify facility compliance w...
Article
Since LNG spills are complex phenomena and may occur on scales much larger than are assessable to experiment, models have been utilized to help evaluate hazards associated with LNG releases. This has led to the development of a Model Evaluation Protocol (MEP) that can be used to assess the suitability of dispersion models for predicting hazard rang...
Article
A recent explosion occurred in a single burner, recirculating solids ring dryer. No one was reported injured as a result of the explosion. However, the explosion caused significant damage to the dryer and minor damage to sections of the facility. A discussion covers the investigation into the cause of the explosion and design blast venting used on...
Article
Full-text available
At 6:00 am on Sunday December 11, 2005 a large explosion occurred at the Buncefield Oil Storage Depot. The explosion destroyed a significant section of the depot and caused widespread damage to homes and businesses surrounding the site. The explosion resulted in very large overpressures (> 2bar), which caused significant damage to neighboring comme...
Article
On November 22, 2006 the largest explosion in the history of Massachusetts occurred in Danvers, MA at approximately 2:46 am. This paper presents a detailed analysis into the potential causes and lessons learned from the Danvers explosion. Other investigative groups concluded that the cause of the explosion was an overheated production tank. However...
Article
Laminar flame speed has traditionally been used for the partial validation of flame kinetics. In most cases, however, its accurate determination requires extensive data processing and/or extrapolations, thus rendering the measurement of this fundamental flame property indirect. Additionally, the presence of flame front instabilities does not confor...
Article
We propose a H2–CO kinetic model which incorporates the recent thermodynamic, kinetic, and species transport updates relevant to high-temperature H2 and CO oxidation. Attention has been placed on obtaining a comprehensive and kinetically accurate model able to predict a wide variety of H2–CO combustion data. The model was subject to systematic opti...
Article
We propose a new method for constructing kinetic response surfaces used in the development and optimization of gas-phase and surface reaction kinetic models. The method, termed as the sensitivity analysis based (SAB) method, is based on a multivariate Taylor expansion of model response with respect to model parameters, neglecting terms higher than...
Article
Detailed chemical reaction mechanisms describing hydrocarbon combustion chemistry are conceptually structured in a hierarchical manner with H2 and CO chemistry at the base, supplemented as needed by elementary reactions of larger chemical species. While this structure gives a logical organization to combustion chemistry, the degree to which this or...

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