Scott B Citino

Scott B Citino
White Oak Conservation · Veterinary Sciences

D.V.M.

About

198
Publications
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Introduction
Scott B Citino currently works at White Oak Conservation. Scott does research in Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. His most recent publication is 'Diseases Impacting Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs'.
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
January 2008 - present
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
January 2008 - present
North Carolina State University

Publications

Publications (198)
Article
Full-text available
Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is endemic in captive cheetahs and sporadically causes devastating disease. Modified live vaccines (MLV), intended for use in domestic cats, are used in some captive cheetah populations and have been anecdotally linked to disease in certain subpopulations. Ten FHV-1 isolates from ten captive cheetahs and one isolat...
Article
A review of archival cases at Northwest ZooPath from 1995-2018 identified 16/96 (17%; eight females, eight males) lesser kudus (Tragelaphus imberbis) with chronic pancreatic disease (CPD) from three institutions, all of which originated from an initial founder stock of 12 animals. Ages at time of death or euthanasia ranged from 2 to 132 mo (average...
Article
Coxiellosis, or Query (Q) fever, a disease caused by the intracellular bacteria Coxiella burnetii, was recently described in a managed breeding herd of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in the southeastern United States. Clinical disease often results in abortion and could represent a conservation challenge for this species. In addition to the...
Article
A primiparous white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) gave birth to a calf overnight after approximately 16 mo of gestation. The calf was found dead in the morning. Necrosuppurative placentitis with bacterial inclusions suggestive of coxiellosis was diagnosed histologically, and Coxiella burnetii was identified in fetal tissues and placenta by polym...
Article
This study evaluated the use of a commercially available, visual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of pregnancy in okapi (Okapia johnstoni), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), eastern giant eland (Tragelaphus derbianus spp. gigas), and dama gazelle (Nanger dama). This assay has been validated for use in domestic cattle, sheep, goa...
Article
Full-text available
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) are vector-borne viruses of ruminants nearly worldwide. They can affect white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), the ranching industry, and nonindigenous hoof stock species managed for conservation. One potential risk factor for ranched WTD is commingling with nonindigeno...
Article
This case series describes hepatocellular neoplasms in 10 Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros) at two separate zoological institutions in Florida. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 7), hepatocellular adenoma (n = 2), and hepatobiliary carcinoma (n= 1). Common clinical signs were nonspecific and included thin bo...
Article
Full-text available
A six-month-old Somali wild ass (Equus asinus somalicus) scheduled for a routine health exam presented with masculinised external genitalia, which included an enlarged phallus-like clitoris that was not connected to the urethra. A gonadectomy was conducted to sterilise the individual. Histological examination of the gonads revealed normal ovarian t...
Poster
At a southeastern conservation center in the United States, two giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis), a 1.5-yr-old male and 7-yr-old female, were being managed for chronic poor body condition, inappetence and weakness. Despite treatment, both animals died. Gross findings in both animals included serous atrophy of cavitary fat, serosanguinous abdominal...
Conference Paper
Grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) are a species of ground-dwelling bird with twelve different subspecies. 2 The Florida subspecies (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus) is classified as federally endangered due to habitat loss, nest predation, and flooding. 2,3 A managed breeding program was established at White Oak Conservation Center (WOC...
Article
OBJECTIVE: To establish a reference interval for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determined by measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin in clinically normal cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and compare serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentration in cheetahs with GFR. ANIMALS: 33 cheetahs housed at 3 institutions. PROCEDURES: A...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Accurate and timely pregnancy diagnosis is crucial for population management of captive and wild ruminants. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a large family of glycoproteins that are conserved across species and have been detected in domestic and wild bovids, ovids, caprids, and cervids. 1-8 PAGs are produced by placental trophoblasts a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A review of archival cases from 1995-2018 identified 14/96 lesser kudus (15%) with pancreatic disease. The kudus were from three institutions, and originated from an initial founder stock of 18 animals. Eight affected animals were females and seven were males. Ages at the time of death or euthanasia ranged from 2-132 mo and average age at time of d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the span of 6 yr, six adult bongo antelope (Tragelaphus eurycerus) from a single institution died without premonitory signs or with brief morbidity and with no historically abnormal medical history. All animals were of the same genetic lineage and in good body condition at the time of death. Gross necropsy findings in all cases included multif...
Article
Flunixin meglumine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, has been used in rhinoceros species at doses extrapolated from domestic animals. There is increasing evidence to suggest significant variations exist in metabolism of drugs in exotic species. Due to the differences in drug metabolism, dose extrapolation from domestic animals may not b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
sumatraensis) merupakan salah satu satwa liar yang populasinya didunia semakin menurun dengan status konservasinya Critically endangered atau sangat terancam punah. Populasi badak Sumatra saat ini adalah kurang dari 100 ekor (Miller PS et al. 2015). Penurunan populasi badak sumatra diakibatkan oleh beberapa hal yaitu perburuan liar, perdagangan ile...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious and zoonotic bacteria which can affect domestic hoofstock and wildlife worldwide. This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, serosurveillance, and reproductive management of a Q fever outbreak in a captive collection of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). A primiparous white rhinoceros g...
Article
The clinical outcomes of six free-ranging Florida panthers ( Puma concolor coryi) that underwent surgical stabilization of appendicular long-bone fractures (three femoral fractures, one tibial and one tibial and fibular fracture and two radial and ulnar fractures) were evaluated. These panthers presented to the University of Florida from 2000-2014....
Chapter
In cheetah, the captive population has historically been beset by multiple degenerative and infectious diseases that have had an impact on cheetah health and breeding programs. In contrast, the free-ranging population has been relatively free of these same diseases. Although research into feline infectious peritonitis mortalities at a few zoos in t...
Chapter
As wild cheetah populations continue to decline, captive populations in zoological institutions, breeding and conservation centers grow in importance. Though similar in many aspects to other species in the felid family, cheetahs exhibit unique adaptations that can make their captive care more challenging. They are more susceptible to stress induced...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The parathyroid gland was first identified in the Indian rhinoceros in 1849 by Sir Richard Owen. We performed a necropsy in an Indian rhinoceros, recapitulating Owen's dissection and display what appear to be the initial identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ and the anatomy and histology of the largest rhinoceros pa...
Article
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 144 cheetah cubs born in 6 zoos from 1988 through 2007. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the health...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within 3 mo, three female Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) from a private conservation center died suddenly. Ages ranged from 4-10 yr and two had young calves. All individuals were acting normal shortly before death. Biochemical panels, complete blood counts, urine, milk, and fecal analyses were unremarkable. Individuals had mi...
Article
Full-text available
Acute signs associated with cardiovascular disease occurred in three pregnant okapi (Okapia johnstoni) during early to midgestation and progressed to congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed antemortem using echocardiography and plasma cardiac troponin levels. Clinical signs included decreased activity, hyporexia, tachypnea,...
Article
Full-text available
Results of an online survey posted on the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserv examined the patterns of analgesic medication and pain management modalities used for captive giraffe and hippopotami. Compiled data included signalment, drugs administered, dosing regimens, subjective efficacy scores, ease of administration, and adverse ev...
Article
Preserving genetic diversity of the critically endangered Addra gazelle (Nanger dama ruficollis) could be enhanced through the use of frozen-thawed sperm and artificial insemination. Our aim was to characterize Addra ejaculate traits and to assess the effects of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on sperm cryosurvival. Fresh ejaculates were trea...
Article
Full-text available
O n July 17, 2014, a 27-day-old male cassowary (Ca-suarius casuarius) chick (case 1) was found weak and recumbent in its enclosure at a zoo in southeastern Virginia. The bird was manually restrained for physical examination and venipuncture. It subsequently developed abnormally increased respiratory effort and was weak and mentally obtunded. Whole-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Appropriate analgesia for colic, lameness, osteoarthritis management, and other medical conditions in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) is critical. Flunixin meglumine is one of the most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatories used for analgesia in megavertebrates but its pharmacokinetics in rhinoceroses have not been published. 2 Due to th...
Article
Full-text available
An online survey utilizing Survey Monkey linked through the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserve examined current practices in megavertebrate analgesia. Data collected included drugs administered, dosing regimens, ease of administration, efficacy, and adverse events. Fifty-nine facilities (38 housing elephants, 33 housing rhinocerose...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an arbovirus that causes disease in horses, humans and a wide variety of avian species. Morbidity and mortality from EEE outbreaks have occurred in captively held birds including species in the orders Gruidae and Icteridae. Disease-related mortality and pathology appears to be highly species specific. Who...
Article
Full-text available
A 3-day-old, 57.3-kg, male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) neonate presented laterally recumbent with comatose mentation, cold extremities, and severe hypothermia, hypoxemia, and hypoglycemia. Critical care support was initiated with aggressive fluid and warming support as well as dextrose and oxygen supplementation. After initial stab...
Chapter
This chapter describes both historical and newly developed techniques for captive and free ranging common and pygmy hippo anesthesia. It provides taxonomy, physiology and anatomy related information of the hippopotamus. The pigmented epidermis and thick dermal connective tissue surrounding peripheral blood vessels make visu¬alization difficult. Int...
Chapter
Giraffids were once very diverse and widespread throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe. Presently, only two genera with one species per genera are extant within the family Giraffidae: the giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, and the okapi, Okapia johnstoni. The art and science of the giraffe anesthesia remains a challenge due to their unique anatomy and p...
Article
Full-text available
Two indirect blood pressure measurement techniques, Doppler (DOP) sphygmomanometry and oscillometry, applied at the ventral coccygeal artery were compared with simultaneous direct blood pressure measurements at the dorsal pedal artery in 10 anesthetized, captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The DOP method was moderately accurate, with relatively li...
Article
Full-text available
A novel leukoencephalomyelopathy was identified in 73 mature male and female large captive felids between 1994 and 2005. While the majority of identified cases occurred in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), the disease was also found in members of 2 other subfamilies of Felidae: 1 generic tiger (Panthera tigris) and 2 Florida panthers (Puma concolor cory...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many tests are available to evaluate immunoglobulin (Ig) passive transfer, 1,3 but an ideal assay that is accurate, specific, quantitative, economical, easily performed, and rapid is not available to date. A novel technique to assess passive transfer, termed the Ig Immunocrit has recently been described in swine. 2 Briefly, 100 μl of serum is mixed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is little scientific data on analgesic doses in megavertebrates. An online survey posted on the AAZV listserve from September 2012 through March 2013 examined analgesics administered to captive megavertebrates. Compiled data included signalment, drugs administered, dosing regimens, subjective efficacy scores, ease of administration, and any a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Megavertebrate analgesic choices are based largely on anecdotal information. To examine current practices, an online survey utilizing the AAZV listserve was conducted from September 2012 through March 2013. Compiled data included; signalment, drugs administered, dosing regimens, efficacy (subjectively scored), ease of administration, and adverse ev...
Data
Full-text available
Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be rel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inherent in the Veterinarian's Oath is the prevention and relief of animal suffering; and, for zoological veterinarians, this includes a diverse array of animal groups, including the 'big-uns' – the megavertebrates. Provision of analgesia is fundamental to relief of suffering. Analgesia can be defined as the relief of pain without loss of conscious...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An online survey was sent to 33 institutions that currently hold black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) in their collection. The survey contained questions about the frequency of immobilization and oral exam in each individual, as well as history of dental disease or chronic health problems, and housing and diet information. The goal of the study wa...
Article
Full-text available
A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by f...
Article
Full-text available
A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by f...
Article
Full-text available
Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be rel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The acute phase response (APR) is part of the early defense system after triggers from trauma, infection, stress, neoplasia, and inflammation. 4,8 A primary goal of the APR is to reestablish homeostasis and initiate healing. More than 200 acute phase proteins (APP) have been identified as participants in the APR. 7 Some APP such as albumin decrease...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While pulmonary disease is quite common in ruminants, cardiac disease is an uncommon finding and has not been previously reported in okapi (Okapia johnstoni). To date, there have been four known or suspected cases of cardiac abnormalities in okapi. Two of these cases have occurred in pregnant females at White Oak Conservation Center. These okapi pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Complications associated with anesthesia are still one of the most significant causes of adult morbidity and mortality in the international captive okapi (Okapia johnstoni) population (Citino, personal observation). 5,6 The most common anesthesia-associated problems reported in okapi are regurgitation and aspiration of rumen contents and post-anest...
Article
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Surgical castration of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) has not been commonly performed. Large domestic animal castration has a significant complication rate that includes postoperative mortality. Documentation of castration techniques and complications in large domestic animals occurs regularly. However, literature describing castration experience...
Article
Full-text available
A full-term ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in a multiparous, captive gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri) following prolonged gestation without parturition. Until 213 days of gestation, fetal viability was determined by transabdominal ultrasound of fetal heartbeat, physical palpation, and visual observations of fetal movements. Survey abdominal r...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this project was to determine radiographic vertebral heart sizes and electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). The wolves, housed at the White Oak Conservation and Smithsonian National Zoo Conservation and Research Centers, were being anesthetized for...
Article
Full-text available
Six cases of severe otitis media-interna, an uncommon problem in nondomestic ruminants, were diagnosed in five captive bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus). The cases were geographically clustered at zoological facilities in Florida. A visible ear droop, head shaking, and otic discharge were common at clinical presentation. Medical management with prolong...
Article
Full-text available
A blue-billed curassow (Crax alberti) was anesthetized for a preshipment physical exam. Sixteen days later, the curassow presented with acute onset of dyspnea and respiratory stridor. The bird was stabilized by placement of an air sac canula. Tracheal stenosis was diagnosed with radiographs. It was suspected that the tracheal stenosis was due to tr...
Article
Full-text available
Fourteen free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were successfully anesthetized for a total of 15 anesthetic events using a combination of butorphanol (mean+/-SD, 0.58+/-0.1 mg/kg), azaperone (0.37+/-0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.19+/-0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) administered by radiotelemetry darts from hunting blinds between November 2006...
Article
Full-text available
Six cases of severe otitis media-interna, an uncommon problem in nondomestic ruminants, were diagnosed in five captive bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus). The cases were geographically clustered at zoological facilities in Florida. A visible ear droop, head shaking, and otic discharge were common at clinical presentation. Medical management with prolong...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) historically ranged over southeastern North America but by the late 20 th Century had been reduced to a single remnant population occupying the remote regions of South Florida. Several management actions beginning in the early 1980s, including genetic restoration, 6 increased law enforcement, highway underp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our study sought to determine if intraocular lens recommendations for the domestic horse can be extrapolated to other equidae and to provide recommendations on intraocular lens selection likely to achieve emmetropia in Grevy's zebra. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length and corneal curvature of 12 eyes of 8 Grevy's zebra aged 4-14 y...
Conference Paper
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The goal of Envirovet Summer Institute is to educate, inform, engage and inspire veterinarians of all backgrounds and nationalities to become integral members of teams protecting animal, human and ecosystem health by applying the prioritized, practical, and solution-oriented perspective of medicine to ecosystem health challenges. Started in 1991, E...
Article
A Mamastrovirus was identified in an outbreak of diarrhea in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Five young adult and two adult cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, watery diarrhea and regurgitation over an 11-day period. Fecal samples were submitted for electron microscopy and culture. Electron microscopy results revealed particles morphologically...
Article
Full-text available
Two adult male gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri) were confirmed infertile with distinctly varying clinical presentations. One animal had unilateral testicular degeneration/hypoplasia, and within 8 mo experienced atrophy/degeneration of the remaining testicle. The second animal had been previously treated with melengesterol acetate (MGA) milled...
Article
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Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are a good baseline test for assessing cardiac rhythm. ECGs have not been reported in any zebra species and in very few Perissodactyla species. Standard limb, six-lead ECGs were recorded in 23 anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi). Heart rate, RR interval, P-wave duration, RR maximum/minimum, PR interval, QRS duration...
Article
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Intravenous regional perfusion is a common technique for treating infections of the extremities in humans and horses. It has the advantage of achieving very high antibiotic concentrations in affected tissues. This technique was used to clinically resolve deep, mixed infections involving bones and joints in a swamp wallaby and a lesser kudu. Both in...
Article
Full-text available
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002-2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positi...
Article
Ten cases of otitis in nine captive okapi were observed at a captive zoological institution. Duration of clinical signs ranged from 3 days to 7 months. Two individuals each had a recurrence. A variety of fungi and bacteria were isolated from the aural canals of healthy okapi and their environments. Numerous different bacterial and fungal pathogens...