Scott Bell

Scott Bell
University of Saskatchewan | U of S · Department of Geography and Planning

Ph. D. Geography

About

85
Publications
29,813
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Introduction
Professor of Geography with research interests in Health, Cognition, and Cartography.
Additional affiliations
June 2000 - July 2015
University of Saskatchewan
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Built environment interventions have the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequities. The objective of this paper is to present the first wave of the INTErventions, Research, and Action in Cities Team (INTERACT) cohort studies in Victoria, Vancouver, Saskatoon, and Montreal, Canada. We examine how our cohorts compared to Can...
Method
Full-text available
This covers the steps necessary to download one of three datasets from native-land.ca and converting it so the data can be mapped in ArcGIS Pro.
Preprint
Full-text available
Maps often need legends. Map legends explain map symbols and are crucial to the communication of a map’s message. Legends in ArcGIS Pro are very powerful, but they can also be a little tricky to work with. There are many different options available. It can be hard to know where to start. Effective legends are created with careful consideration of l...
Article
Understanding how humans use and consume space by comparing stratified groups, either through observation or controlled study, is key to designing better spaces, cities, and policies. GPS data traces provide detailed movement patterns of individuals but can be difficult to interpret due to the scale and scope of the data collected. For actionable i...
Preprint
Understanding how humans use and consume space by comparing stratified groups, either through observation or controlled study, is key to designing better spaces, cities, and policies. GPS data traces provide detailed movement patterns of individuals but can be difficult to interpret due to the scale and scope of the data collected. For actionable i...
Article
en High levels of survey nonresponse potentially produce unreliable data due to the often indeterminable possibility of such data being subject to nonresponse bias. In this paper, spatial patterns of global nonresponse rate are analyzed in order to identify whether systemic bias exists across urban spaces with regard to survey nonresponse. Forward...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The spatial arrangement of primary health care (PHC) services is influenced by many factors and varies across provider types. In Canada, unlike physician services, certain PHC services (i.e., dentistry, physiotherapy) are not fully funded under the health care system. As a result, one might expect the arrangement of these services to di...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of spatial behavior dictate how we use our infrastructure, encounter other people, or are exposed to services and opportunities. Understanding these patterns through the analysis of data commonly available through commodity smartphones has become an important arena for innovation in both academia and industry. The resulting datasets can qu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Urban form interventions can result in positive and negative impacts on physical activity, social participation, and well-being, and inequities in these outcomes. Natural experiment studies can advance our understanding of causal effects and processes related to urban form interventions. The INTErventions, Research, and Action in Cities...
Conference Paper
Collection of GPS data is becoming a standard experimental method for studies ranging from public health interventions to studying the browsing behavior of large non-human mammals. However, the millions of records collected in these studies do not lend themselves to traditional geographic analysis. Standardized feature sets likely to produce distin...
Article
Full-text available
Wedding mobile phone sensor technology and human spatial behaviour has great potential. The ubiquity of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology has made gathering data about human mobility simpler, more precise, and with higher fidelity, providing minute-by-minute records of the locations of cohorts from dozens of participants. While this data...
Article
Full-text available
Background Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC) in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance...
Conference Paper
Recent technical advances have made high-fidelity tracking of populations possible. However, these datasets, such as GPS traces, can be comprised of millions of records, well beyond what even a skilled analyst can digest. To facilitate human analysis, these records are often expressed as aggregate distributions capturing behaviors of interest. Whil...
Article
Oral health is an intrinsic component of overall health and wellbeing. However, in Canada oral health care (other than emergency, hospital-based services) is not covered by the Canada Health Act and is delivered primarily on a fee-for-service basis. This study explores the urban arrangement of dental services in comparison with other Primary Health...
Article
How do different stakeholder groups define credible science? Using original qualitative focus group data, this exploratory study suggests that while nuclear energy stakeholder groups consider the same factors when assessing credibility (specifically, knowledge source, research funding, research methods, publication, and replication), groups differ...
Article
Despite urban forms becoming more varied, analysts continue to use a dichotomous urban/rural distinction when examining political attitudes. Using geocoding, our analysis of original survey data adopts a four-residential-zone approach to exploring Canadian political values and policy preferences: inner city, suburban, small urban, and rural. We fin...
Article
In the past decade society has entered a technological period characterized by handheld computing that supports input and processing from numerous sensors. Today’s mobile phones offer the ability to integrate input from sensors monitoring various external and internal sources (e.g., accelerometer, magnetometer, microphone, GPS, wireless Internet, a...
Chapter
While most university settings expect and aspire for researchers to share their findings with policy makers, industry, and society (Tatari et al. 2012), there are several barriers within this process (Sa et al. 2011). In this conceptual chapter, we describe findings from an interdisciplinary investigation of existing work on knowledge use by policy...
Article
Purpose Research on emotion in the context of risk perception has historically focused on negative emotions, and has emphasized the effect of these negative emotions on the perception of risk amongst those who oppose (rather than support) contentious issues. Drawing on theory, we hypothesize that both positive and negative emotions are correlated...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most informati...
Article
The paper presents an analytical approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA), focused on bridging the strategic level assessment of policy objectives with tactical planning and implementation. This is done within the context of an applied SEA application for urban wetland policy development and implementation in the fast growing city of Sa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to investigate if there is a spatial pattern in response rates to a telephone-based provincial opinion survey, the data set of a population survey on public attitudes towards nuclear issues in Saskatchewan was used to calculate sampling errors for consolidated census subdivisions. An analysis of spatial autocorrelation among those sampling...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Oral health is an intrinsic component of systemic health and well-being. However, in Canada dental care (other than emergency, hospital based services) is not covered by the Canada Health Act and is delivered primarily on a fee for service basis. This study explores the urban arrangement of dental services in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. We are particu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is about that which engages geographers (and others) and how we choose to represent and communicate those things. In particular, it considers the role that space (spatial arrangement, variation in location, etc.) plays in the phenomena we study and how we summarize them. Summarizing this through representations of space (the stuff we are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many innovative tools have been introduced that can benefit human navigation. The introduction of the Global Positioning System (GPS) provides real time access to positioning and navigation information. Furthermore, with the widespread adoption of smartphones, we can access GPS-based positioning and navigation tools even more easily. Even if GPS-ba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Oral health is an intrinsic component of systemic health and well-being. However, in Canada dental care (other than emergency, hospital based services) is not covered by the Canada Health Act and is delivered primarily on a fee for service basis. This study explores the urban arrangement of dental services in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. We are particu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a scenario-based approach to strategic environmental assessment(SEA) for wetland trend analysis and land use and land cover (LUC) modeling in an urban environment. The application is focused on the Saskatoon urban environment, a rapidly growing urban municipality in Canada's prairie pothole region. Alternative future LUC was sim...
Chapter
Aeronautical charts represent an essential tool in air navigation. However, with the advent of digitals technology, it is important to consider transitioning to an electronic form. In the twenty-first century the Czech Air Force (CZAF) fleet is partially equipped with devices that are able to improve in-flight navigation using digital data. A surve...
Article
In our increasingly urbanized world, the World's population spends more and more time indoors. Indoor environments become our new natural habitat, and we conduct more and more activities enclosed by walls, moving vertically rather then horizontally, and without direct access to sunlight. Our daily activities are assisted by a range of sensors and h...
Article
Full-text available
We examined location-related accessibility to healthy and unhealthy food sources for school going children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. We compared proximity to food sources from school sites and from small clusters of homes (i.e., dissemination blocks) as a proxy for home location. We found that 1) unhealthy food sources are more prevalent near sch...
Article
Pointing accuracy to and from indoor and outdoor locations was examined to reveal any significant differences in the accuracy with which we recall the arrangement of unseen locations in the world around us. Spatial ability and navigational strategy were included to better understand the cognitive processes involved in pointing accuracy and subseque...
Article
The popularization of tracking devices, such as GPS, accelerometers and smartphones, have made it possible to detect, record, and analyze new patterns of human movement and behavior. However, employing GPS alone for indoor localization is not always possible due to the system's inability to determine location inside buildings or in places of signal...
Data
Full-text available
The University of Saskatchewan’s Social Sciences Research Laboratories (SSRL) conducted the Saskatchewan Nuclear Attitudes survey on behalf of the Nuclear Policy Research Initiative (NPRI). Deployed using WinCATI software, Saskatchewan Nuclear Attitudes survey was administered as a 15- minute telephone survey from September 27, 2013 to October 11,...
Data
Full-text available
Evidence-based decision-making is the cornerstone of sound public policy. This applies to all realms of public policy ranging from economic policy to energy policy options. Nuclear policy in particular has been subject to considerable discussion and debate in recent years. The Nuclear Policy Research Initiative (NPRI) unites a group of social scien...
Data
Full-text available
The University of Saskatchewan’s Social Sciences Research Laboratories (SSRL) conducted the Saskatchewan Nuclear Attitudes survey on behalf of the Nuclear Policy Research Initiative (NPRI). Deployed using WinCATI software, Saskatchewan Nuclear Attitudes survey was administered as a 15- minute telephone survey from September 27, 2013 to October 11,...
Data
Full-text available
Evidence-based decision-making is the cornerstone of sound public policy. This applies to all realms of public policy ranging from economic policy to energy policy options. Nuclear policy in particular has been subject to considerable discussion and debate in recent years. The Nuclear Policy Research Initiative (NPRI) unites a group of social scien...
Conference Paper
The aim of this investigation is to assess the choice of geographical areal units for studying associations between geographic accessibility to primary health care (PHC) services and socio-demographic factors in a Canadian urban context. To achieve this, an accessibility score determined by physician to population ratios was calculated at both loca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, we investigate the intra-urban variations in the relationships among various socio-demographic factors and geographical accessibility to primary health care (PHC) services using a local regression model. Geographic accessibility to PHC services is calculated at a local scale for two Canadian urban centers (Calgary, AB and Toronto, ON...
Conference Paper
Location Based Services (LBS), which are supported by ubiquitous location finding and positioning information, have become increasingly popular. These services are integrated with various wireless technologies (i.e. cellular, WiFi, and Bluetooth) on mobile devices that establish necessary location information. While each of these technologies contr...
Article
In our increasingly urbanized world, the World's population spends more and more time indoors. Indoor environments become our new natural habitat, and we conduct more and more activities enclosed by walls, moving vertically rather then horizontally, and without direct access to sunlight. Our activities are assisted by a range of sensors and human-m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mapping uncertain data is part of our everyday cartographic lives. Fortunately, centrally administered survey data for large census and census-like instruments are usually published with uncertainty statements or statistical summaries of the potential variability of the underlying data. Two of North America’s largest national surveys have recently...
Conference Paper
With the increasing availability of tracking technology, researchers have new tools for examining patterns of human spatial behavior. However, due to limitations of GPS, traditional tracking tools cannot be applied reliably indoors. Monitoring indoor movement can significantly improve building management, emergency operations, and security control;...
Article
Full-text available
Background In the Canadian context, health care services are governed by the Canada Health Act, which ensures that primary care doctors, specialists, hospitals and dental surgeries are covered through provincial health insurance plans. This ensures access to medically necessary health care services for all Canadians regardless of ability to pay. De...
Article
The process of geocoding, particularly the street address matching process, is a commonly used technique to obtain locational information for public health research. In health care accessibility research, geocoded locations of health care providers are an essential element for measuring potential access to health care. Our objective is to compare t...
Conference Paper
This article examines distance to healthcare services and physician practice size as factors influencing consumer preference and choice when seeking primary healthcare (PHC) in an urban setting. Data from a multipurpose telephone survey for the Canadian city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan was analyzed. Using network analyst in ArcGIS and information dr...
Conference Paper
Much effort has been expended to develop and improve indoor positioning. Many wireless sensor technologies have been used for indoor positioning systems; however WiFi has been the most widely employed sensor system as an alternative to Global Positioning System (GPS). Many commercial indoor positioning services such as those developed for and avail...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To date, only a few studies have attempted to study the processes by which community design and the built and social environments affect individual physical activity, especially in children. Qualitative enquiry is useful for exploring perceptions and decision-making, and to understand the processes involved in how people interact with th...
Conference Paper
Indoor positioning systems are used as a supplement to GPS where the satellite based technology does not work appropriately. However, positioning accuracy varies among techniques and algorithms used; system performance is also affected by local traffic and environmental structure. A relatively little studied topic is the effect of positioning varia...
Article
Neighborhood social and physical contexts have the ability to impact health and health behaviors of residents. One neighborhood characteristic that remains underexamined in the research is access to health care resources. This research examines potential (geographical) access to primary health care in the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. A mod...
Article
Full-text available
Smartphones have the potential to revolutionize health monitoring and delivery. Significant attention has been given to personal health devices and systems to help individuals and medical practitioners monitor health and treatment compliance. The data collected from these systems also has significant value to public health workers and epidemiologis...
Article
Full-text available
Access to health services research has traditionally focused on demographic, socioeconomic, and need-based factors, resulting in a relative lack of knowledge regarding place-based determinants. Further, much of what we know comes from international, national, and regional study. This study analyzes survey data (n=1635) to explore the relationship b...
Article
Accessibility to health services at the local or community level is an effective approach to measuring health care delivery in various constituencies in Canada and the United States. GIS and spatial methods play an important role in measuring potential access to health services. The Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method is a GIS based p...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of, and access to, primary health care is one neighbourhood characteristic that has the potential to impact health thus representing an important area of focus for neighbourhood-health research. This research examines neighbourhood access to primary health care in the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. A modification of the Two...
Conference Paper
Ubiquitous positioning requires services that are supplemental to the existing Global Positioning System (GPS). For spaces where GPS does not work (indoors, canyons, etc.) augmented or enhanced positioning systems are necessary. For such systems to function appropriately users must have a GPS-like experience. In essence, users of supplementary posi...
Article
Full-text available
Toxins and other health threats can cause health problems, whether they are present in the child's own home, other neighborhood homes where the child spends time, or common areas such as playgrounds. We assess the impact of where a child lives on the burden of lead poisoning. Statewide lead screening data was obtained from the Rhode Island Departme...
Conference Paper
Enhanced-positioning systems are able to support the acquisition of accurate location information using wireless technology other than the Global Positioning System (GPS). These systems have the potential to supplement GPS where GPS is unreliable. In particular, enhanced-positioning systems can provide location information for navigational support...
Article
Enhanced-positioning systems are able to support the acquisition of accurate location information using wireless technology other than the Global Positioning System (GPS). These systems have the potential to supplement GPS where GPS is unreliable. In particular, enhanced-positioning systems can provide location information for navigational support...
Article
Signal detection theory (SDT) is a framework used by psychologists to study decision making under uncertain conditions. While we often know a great deal about how different methodological choices can affect the outcome of an analysis, we know less about how information end users interpret and understand competing outcomes in the context of the deci...
Conference Paper
Introduction: The negative health consequences of lead poisoning for young children have been well documented. In this study we use GIS to examine the geographic distribution of lead poisoning and associated risk factors in Rhode Island, a state with a particularly high lead burden. The goal is to better understand the distribution of the lead pr...
Chapter
This chapter explores the feasibility of creating a web-based data integration and delivery system that relies on the distributed expertise and creativity of the system’s users to develop new knowledge. We use the experience of the interdisciplinary team in Spatial Structures in the Social Sciences (S4) at Brown University for illustration. We have...
Article
Geographic information systems (GIS) represent a technology developed over the past 30 years to facilitate the storage of spatial data and the solution of spatial problems. Recently, encouraging work in geography has begun to show the power of this technology for studying diverse social issues at a variety of scales. In this paper we demonstrate ho...
Article
Full-text available
Humans rely on internal representations to solve a variety of spatial problems including navigation. Navigation employs specific information to compose a representation of space that is distinct from that obtained through static bird’s-eye or horizontal perspectives. The ability to point to on-route locations, off-route locations, and the route ori...