Schneider Jean

Schneider Jean
Paris Observatory

Doctor of Philosophy

About

147
Publications
12,268
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2,764
Citations
Introduction
Methodology of exoplanet detection and characterization Measurement problem in Quantum Physics Philosophy of Language

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
Full-text available
We outline a concept for OWL-Moon, a 50-100 m aperture telescope located on the surface of the Moon, to address three major areas in astronomy, namely the detection of biosignatures on habitable exoplanets, the geophysics of exoplanets, and cosmology. Such a large lunar telescope, when coupled with large Earth-based telescopes, would allow Intensit...
Preprint
We outline a concept for OWL-Moon, a 50-100m aperture telescope located on the surface of the Moon, to address three major areas in astronomy, namely the detection of biosignatures on habitable exoplanets, the geophysics of exoplanets, and cosmology. Such a large lunar telescope, when coupled with large Earth-based telescopes, would allow Intensity...
Preprint
Full-text available
We summarize the discussions at a virtual Community Workshop on Cold Atoms in Space concerning the status of cold atom technologies, the prospective scientific and societal opportunities offered by their deployment in space, and the developments needed before cold atoms could be operated in space. The cold atom technologies discussed include atomic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sky survey telescopes and powerful targeted telescopes play complementary roles in astronomy. In order to investigate the nature and characteristics of the motions of very faint objects, a flexibly-pointed instrument capable of high astrometric accuracy is an ideal complement to current astrometric surveys and a unique tool for precision astrophysi...
Article
The recently discovered first high velocity hyperbolic objects passing through the Solar System, 1I/’Oumuamua and 2I/Borisov, have raised the question about near term missions to Interstellar Objects. In situ spacecraft exploration of these objects will allow the direct determination of both their structure and their chemical and isotopic compositi...
Article
Full-text available
Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems is instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It is expressed by the Bell Theorem and has been experimentally verifie...
Article
Full-text available
Sky survey telescopes and powerful targeted telescopes play complementary roles in astronomy. In order to investigate the nature and characteristics of the motions of very faint objects, a flexibly-pointed instrument capable of high astrometric accuracy is an ideal complement to current astrometric surveys and a unique tool for precision astrophysi...
Article
Following the testing of a pathfinder hypertelescope in the southern Alps, versions usable on the Moon or in space are proposed. The large resolution gain expected for direct imaging in a narrow “Direct Imaging Field”, with a high limiting magnitude, is of interest for many astrophysical targets and for searching for exolife on nearby exoplanets. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
1I/'Oumuamua (or 1I) and 2I/Borisov (or 2I), the first InterStellar Objects (ISOs) discovered passing through the solar system, have opened up entirely new areas of exobody research. Finding additional ISOs and planning missions to intercept or rendezvous with these bodies will greatly benefit from knowledge of their likely orbits and arrival rates...
Article
We address three major questions in astronomy, namely the detection of biosignatures on habitable exoplanets, the geophysics of exoplanets and cosmology. To achieve this goal, two requirements are needed: (i) a very large aperture to detect spectro-polarimetric and spatial features of faint objects such as exoplanets, (ii) continuous monitoring to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Two extrasolar objects, 1I/'Oumuamua, 2I/Borisov, have passed through our home system in just the last three years. Such interstellar objects provide a previously unforeseen chance to directly sample physical material from other stellar systems. By analyzing these interlopers, we can acquire data and deduce information about their planetary system...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent discovery of the first confirmed Interstellar Objects (ISOs) passing through the Solar System on clearly hyperbolic objects opens the potential for near term ISO missions, either to the two known objects, or to similar objects found in the future. Such ISOs are the only exobodies we have a chance of accessing directly in the near future....
Preprint
We analyse the orbital parameters of the exoplanet candidate Proxima c recently discovered by Damasso et al. (2020) using a combination of its spectroscopic orbital parameters and Gaia DR2 proper motion anomaly. We obtain an orbital inclination of $i = 152 \pm 14 \deg$ for the prograde solution, corresponding to a planet mass of $m_c = 12^{+12}_{-5...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the orbital parameters of the recently discovered exoplanet candidate Proxima c using a combination of its spectroscopic orbital parameters and Gaia DR2 astrometric proper motion anomaly. We obtain an orbital inclination of i = 152 ± 14 deg, corresponding to a planet mass of mc = 12 −5⁺¹²M⊕ , comparable to Uranus and Neptune. While the d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The NASA mission Kepler has detected 28 transits with depths and durations hours in the light curve of HD139139 during a 87 days campaign . Their arrival times are erratic. Rappaport et al. (2019) discard ten explanations. It is not clear if the transits are for HD 139139 or for a star B at 3.3 arcsec. New radial velocity variation data give RV for...
Preprint
We address three major questions in astronomy, namely the detection of biosignatures on habitable exoplanets, the geophysics of exoplanets and cosmology. To achieve this goal, two requirements are needed. First a very large aperture to detect spectro-polarimetric and spatial features of faint objects such as exoplanets, and second a continuous moni...
Preprint
Despite the existence of co-orbital bodies in the solar system, and the prediction of the formation of co-orbital planets by planetary system formation models, no co-orbital exoplanets (also called trojans) have been detected thus far. Here we study the signature of co-orbital exoplanets in transit surveys when two planet candidates in the system o...
Preprint
Non-planetary bodies provide valuable insight into our current under- standing of planetary formation and evolution. Although these objects are challeng- ing to detect and characterize, the potential information to be drawn from them has motivated various searches through a number of techniques. Here, we briefly review the current status in the sea...
Article
Nowadays the more powerful method to detect extrasolar planets is the transit method. We review the planet transits which were anticipated, searched, and the first ones which were observed all through history. Indeed transits of planets in front of their star were first investigated and studied in the solar system. The first observations of sunspot...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time in human history, we will soon be able to apply the scientific method to the question "Are We Alone?" The rapid advance of exoplanet discovery, planetary systems science, and telescope technology will soon allow scientists to search for life beyond our Solar System through direct observation of extrasolar planets. This endeavor w...
Chapter
Started approximately in the late 1980s, exoplanetology has up to now unveiled the main gross bulk characteristics of planets and planetary systems. In the future it will benefit from more and more large telescopes and advanced space missions. These instruments will dramatically improve their performance in terms of photometric precision, detection...
Article
Started approximately in the late 1980s, exoplanetology has up to now unveiled the main gross bulk characteristics of planets and planetary systems. In the future it will benefit from more and more large telescopes and advanced space missions. These instruments will dramatically improve their performance in terms of photometric precision, detection...
Article
Here we investigate the possibility that the asteroid 1I/2017 U1 actually is a Solar System object, currently expelled from the Solar System by the recent encouter with a Solar System planet. We show that this possibility is extremely unlikeley and that 1I/2017 U1 really is an interstellar object.
Article
Full-text available
In the context of the ESA M5 (medium mission) call we proposed a new satellite mission, Theia, based on relative astrometry and extreme precision to study the motion of very faint objects in the Universe. Theia is primarily designed to study the local dark matter properties, the existence of Earth-like exoplanets in our nearest star systems and the...
Article
Batygin and Brown (2016) have suggested the existence of a new Solar System planet supposed to be responsible for the perturbation of eccentric orbits of small outer bodies. The main challenge is now to detect and characterize this putative body. Here we investigate the principles of the determination of its physical parameters, mainly its mass and...
Article
Astrometry covers a parameter space that cannot be reached by RV or transit methods to detect terrestrial planets on wide orbits. In addition, high accuracy astrometric measurements are necessary to measure the inclination of the planet's orbits. Here we investigate the principles of an artefact of the astrometric approach. Namely, the displacement...
Article
Astrometry covers a parameter space that cannot be reached by RV or transit methods to detect terrestrial planets on wide orbits. In addition, high accuracy astrometric measurements are necessary to measure the inclination of the planet's orbits. Here we investigate the principles of an artefact of the astrometric approach. Namely, the displacement...
Article
CoRoT has detected by transit several tens of objects whose radii run from 1.67 Earth radius. Their mass run from less than 5.7 Earth mass (CoRoT-24 b, Alonso et al. 2014) to 63 Jupiter mass (CoRoT-15 b, Bouchy et al. 2011). One could be tempted to think that more massive the object is, the larger it is in size and that there is some limit in mass...
Article
The interest of exo-moons for Astrobiology is that they widen significantly the potential niches of exolife. In this paper, after a review of standard detection methods, we investigate new ways to characterize exo-moons and to use them to characterize their home planetary system.
Article
Full-text available
In the context of life detection on terrestrial exoplanets, new methods of search for spectral signatures of chlorophyll and other biomarkers in the Earthshine have been developed in the last few decades. Astronomical observations made at OHP and ESO (NTT) showed a significant signal when continents are facing the Moon. This signal, called the Vege...
Article
Full-text available
SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) was proposed in 2010 for a five-year M-class mission in the context of ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU) from nearby stars (<25 pc) with masses ranging from a few Jupiter mass...
Article
Super-Earths with solid surfaces such CoRot-7b and Kepler-10b are expected to be extremely hot. It has been suggested that they must be atmosphere-free and that a lava ocean is present on their hot dayside. Here, we use several dedicated thermal models to study how observations with NIRSPEC on the JWST could further confirm and constrain, or reject...
Article
In the search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence, it is essential to clarify what is to be meant by `life' and `intelligence'. I first analyse what it means to `define' these words. I will show that some philosophical prejudice is unavoidable. As a working hypothesis, I consider two types of philosophy: `natural philosophy', seeking for som...
Article
Full-text available
SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) was proposed in 2010 for a a five-year M-class mission in the context of ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU) from nearby stars (<25 pc) with masses ranging from a few Jupiter ma...
Article
Full-text available
SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) is a five-year M-class mission proposed to ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks in the visible (450–900 nm) at a spectral resolution of about 40 using both spectroscopy and polarimetry. By...
Article
Full-text available
[Abridged] Context. The CoRoT space mission has been searching for transiting planets since the end of December 2006. Aims. We aim to investigate the capability of CoRoT to detect small-size transiting planets in short-period orbits, and to compare the number of CoRoT planets with 2 \leq R_p \leq 4 Rearth with the occurrence rate of small-size plan...
Article
The study of the physico-chemical properties of wide-separated exoplanets (> 1 AU) is a major goal of high-contrast imaging techniques. SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) is a project of space coronagraph dedicated to the spectro-polarimetric analysis of gas and ice giant planets, super-Earths and cir...
Article
Full-text available
Several small space coronagraphs have been proposed to characterize cold exoplanets in reflected light. Studies have mainly focused on technical feasibility because of the huge star/planet flux ratio to achieve in the close-in stellar environment (108-1010 at 0.2"). However, the main interest of such instruments, the analysis of planet properties,...
Article
Full-text available
Context: High-contrast imaging is currently the only available technique for the study of the thermodynamical and compositional properties of exoplanets in long-period orbits, comparable to the range from Venus to Jupiter. The SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) project is a coronagraphic space telesco...
Article
When we try to search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence, we have to follow some guidelines. The first step is to clarify what is to be meant by "Life" and "intelligence", i.e. an attempt to define these words. The word "definition" refers to two different situations. First, it means an arbitrary convention. On the other hand it also often...
Article
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We present thermal mass loss calculations over evolutionary time scales for the investigation if the smallest transiting rocky exoplanets CoRoT-7b (∼1.68REarth) and Kepler-10b (∼1.416REarth) could be remnants of an initially more massive hydrogen-rich gas giant or a hot Neptune-class exoplanet. We apply a thermal mass loss formula which yields resu...
Article
Close-in exoplanets seem to be inflated compared to standard models. The question is whether this inlation is related to the short star-planet distance. After a brief review of the possible inflation mechanisms, I investigate, using CoRoT and Kepler data, whether this inflation holds for planets more distant to their parent star.
Article
Full-text available
We describe an online database for extra-solar planetary-mass candidates, updated regularly as new data are available. We first discuss criteria for the inclusion of objects in the catalog: "definition" of a planet and several aspects of the confidence level of planet candidates. {\bf We are led to point out the conflict between sharpness of belong...
Article
Full-text available
The mass of CoRoT-7b, the first transiting superearth exoplanet, is still a subject of debate. A wide range of masses have been reported in the literature ranging from as high as 8 M_Earth to as low as 2.3 M_Earth. Although most mass determinations give a density consistent with a rocky planet, the lower value permits a bulk composition that can be...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the LUCAS program is to observe chlorophyll and atmospheric molecules in the Earthshine spectrum in order to prepare the detection of life in terrestrial extrasolar planets to be discovered. Actually, observations from Antarctica offer a unique possibility to study the variations of Earthshine spectrum during Earth rotation while various...
Article
Reply to A Comment on The Far Future of Exoplanet Direct Characterization - the Case for Interstellar Space Probess by Ian Crawford. The paper The Far Future of Exoplanet Direct Characterization resulted from the collective work of TE-SAT, a team appointed by ESA in 2003 to assess a strategy to find and characterize Terrestrial Exoplanets. The inte...
Article
Reply to A Comment on The Far Future of Exoplanet Direct Characterization - the Case for Interstellar Space Probess by Ian Crawford. The paper The Far Future of Exoplanet Direct Characterization resulted from the collective work of TE-SAT, a team appointed by ESA in 2003 to assess a strategy to find and characterize Terrestrial Exoplanets. The inte...
Article
Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems are instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It has been experimentally verified over distances up to 18 km with a...
Article
To characterize orbits and atmospheres of exoplanets with large orbits (≥ a few AU), direct imaging is nowadays the sole way. From space, this involves high contrast imaging techniques as coronagraphy, differential imaging or wavefront control. Several methods exist or are under development and several small (~1.5m) space telescope missions are pro...
Article
To characterize orbits and atmospheres of exoplanets with large orbits (>= a few AU), direct imaging is nowadays the sole way. From space, this involves high contrast imaging techniques as coronagraphy, differential imaging or wavefront control. Several methods exist or are under development and several small (~1.5m) space telescope missions are pr...
Conference Paper
ACCESS is one of four medium-class mission concepts selected for study in 2008-9 by NASA's Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concepts Study program. ACCESS evaluates a space observatory designed for extreme high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems. An actively-corrected coronagraph is used to suppress the glare of diffracted and...
Article
Full-text available
After Earth's origin, our host star, the Sun, was shining 20-25% less brightly than today. Without greenhouse-like conditions to warm the atmosphere, our early planet would have been an ice ball, and life may never have evolved. But life did evolve, which indicates that greenhouse gases must have been present on early Earth to warm the planet. Evid...
Article
A parametric model of the elongated exospheres of CoRoT-7b -like planets is presented here. A numerical, Monte-Carlo model is used to determine the trajectories of ejected particles, calculated by using the full equation of motion. These are accumulated into a matrix to obtain the spatial distributions of exospheric particles. Then, an analytical m...
Article
Surprisingly, the question "Is there Life in the Universe outside Earth?" has been raised, in rational terms, almost only in the western literature throughout the ages. In a first part I justify this statement. Then I try to develop an explanation of this fact by analyzing the different aspects of the notion of decentration. Comment: In press in th...
Article
Surveys for exoplanetary transits are usually limited not by photon noise but rather by the amount of red noise in their data. In particular, although the CoRoT spacebased survey data are being carefully scrutinized, significant new sources of systematic noises are still being discovered. Recently, a magnitude-dependant systematic effect was discov...
Article
We propose a realistic pathway to satisfy two goals, thermal infrared studies of Earth-like exoplanets and interferometric architectures. Comment: In press in the Proceedings of the Pathways Toward Habitable Planets conference (Barcelona 2009), Foresto, Gelino and Ribas Eds
Article
Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems are instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It is expressed by the Bell Theorem. It has been experimentally verifi...
Article
Full-text available
The ultimate goal of terrestrial planet-finding missions is not only to discover terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars but also to address the major question as to whether life may have evolved on a habitable Earth-like exoplanet outside our Solar System. We note that the chemical evolution that finally led to th...
Article
The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and acti...
Article
Full-text available
To estimate the occurrence of terrestrial exoplanets and maximize the chance of finding them, it is crucial to understand the formation of planetary systems in general and that of terrestrial planets in particular. We show that a reliable formation theory should not only explain the formation of the Solar System, with small terrestrial planets with...
Article
The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight plan...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and acti...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss how to read a planet's spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have advanced to a level where we now have the capability to find planets of less than 10 Earth masses (M(Earth)) (so-called "super Earths"), which may be habit...
Article
Full-text available
The European Space Agency and other space agencies such as NASA recognize that the question with regard to life beyond Earth in general, and the associated issue of the existence and study of exoplanets in particular, is of paramount importance for the 21(st) century. The new Cosmic Vision science plan, Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, which is built aroun...
Article
Full-text available
The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets-particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life-constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as...
Article
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We present and discuss the criteria for selecting potential target stars suitable for the search for Earth-like planets, with a special emphasis on the stellar aspects of habitability. Missions that search for terrestrial exoplanets will explore the presence and habitability of Earth-like exoplanets around several hundred nearby stars, mainly F, G,...
Article
Full-text available
The search for life outside of the Solar System should not be restricted to exclusively planetary bodies; large moons of extrasolar planets may also be common habitable environments throughout the Galaxy. Extrasolar moons, or exomoons, may be detected through transit timing effects induced onto the host planet as a result of mutual gravitational in...
Article
Full-text available
In this outlook we describe what could be the next steps of the direct characterization of habitable exoplanets after first the medium and large mission projects and investigate the benefits of the spectroscopic and direct imaging approaches. We show that after third and fourth generation missions foreseeable for the next 100 years, we will face a...
Article
Full-text available
The SEE COAST concept is designed with the objective to characterize extrasolar planets and possibly Super Earths via spectro-polarimetric imaging in reflected light. A space mission complementary to ground-based near IR planet finders is a first secure step towards the characterization of planets with mass and atmosphere comparable to that of the...