Satoshi Ikemoto

Satoshi Ikemoto
National Institutes of Health | NIH · National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA)

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73
Publications
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7,252
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Publications

Publications (73)
Article
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The prefrontal cortex is involved in goal-directed behavior. Here, we investigate circuits of the PFC regulating motivation, reinforcement, and its relationship to dopamine neuron activity. Stimulation of medial PFC (mPFC) neurons in mice activated many downstream regions, as shown by fMRI. Axonal terminal stimulation of mPFC neurons in downstream...
Article
Full-text available
Studies using either continuous or intermittent access cocaine self-administration procedures showed that cocaine seeking increases during abstinence (incubation of cocaine craving), and that this effect is higher after intermittent cocaine access. Other studies showed that cocaine abstinence is characterized by the emergence of stress- and anxiety...
Article
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Extensive research suggests that reinforcement learning and goal-seeking behavior are mediated by midbrain dopamine neurons. However, little is known about neural substrates of curiosity and exploratory behavior, which occur in the absence of clear goal or reward. This is despite behavioral scientists having long suggested that curiosity and explor...
Article
Hippocampal theta oscillations (HTOs) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep play an important role in mnemonic processes by coordinating hippocampal and cortical activities. However, it is not fully understood how HTOs are modulated by subcortical regions, including the median raphe nucleus (MnR). The MnR is thought to suppress HTO through its sero...
Article
A widely held dogma in the preclinical addiction field is that females are more vulnerable than males to drug craving and relapse. Here, we first review clinical studies on sex differences in psychostimulant and opioid craving and relapse. Next, we review preclinical studies on sex differences in psychostimulant and opioid reinstatement of drug see...
Article
Full-text available
The supramammillary region (SuM) is a posterior hypothalamic structure, known to regulate hippocampal theta oscillations and arousal. However, recent studies reported that the stimulation of SuM neurons with neuroactive chemicals, including substances of abuse, is reinforcing. We conducted experiments to elucidate how SuM neurons mediate such effec...
Preprint
A widely held dogma in the preclinical addiction field is that females are more vulnerable than males to drug craving and relapse. Here, we first review clinical studies on sex differences in psychostimulant and opioid craving and relapse. Next, we review preclinical studies on sex differences in psychostimulant and opioid reinstatement of drug see...
Article
Full-text available
Intracranial self-stimulation, in which an animal performs an operant response to receive regional brain electrical stimulation, is a widely used procedure to study motivated behavior. While local neuronal activity has long been measured immediately before or after the operant, imaging the whole brain in real-time remains a challenge. Herein we rep...
Article
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The survival of an organism depends on the ability to make adaptive decisions to achieve the needs of the organism: where to get food, who to mate with, and how to evade predators. Decision-making is a term used to describe a collection of behavioral and/or computational functions that guide the selection of an option amongst a set of alternatives....
Preprint
Full-text available
How does the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulate motivated behavior? Our experiments characterize the circuits of the PFC regulating motivation, reinforcement and dopamine activity, revealing a novel cortico-thalamic loop. The stimulation of medial PFC (mPFC) neurons activated many downstream regions, as shown by functional MRI. Axonal terminal stimul...
Preprint
Full-text available
The supramammillary region (SuM) is a posterior hypothalamic structure, known to regulate hippocampal theta oscillations and arousal. However, recent studies reported that the stimulation of SuM neurons with neuroactive chemicals, including substances of abuse, is reinforcing. We conducted experiments to illuminate how SuM neurons mediate such effe...
Article
Full-text available
RationaleIt is necessary to understand better how chronic food restriction (CFR) and psychostimulant drugs interact in motivated behavior unrelated to food or energy homeostasis. Objectives We examined whether CFR augments methylphenidate (MPH)-potentiated responding reinforced by visual sensation (VS) and whether repeated MPH injections or prolong...
Article
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Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were previously found to express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and to co-transmit glutamate in the ventral striatum (VStr). This capacity may play an important role in reinforcement learning. Although it is known that activation of the VTA-VStr dopamine system readily reinforces beha...
Article
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Significance statement: The hippocampus communicates with the cortex for memory transformation. Memories of previous experiences become less dependent on the hippocampus and increasingly dependent on cortical areas, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, little evidence is available to directly support this hippocampus-to-cortex inf...
Article
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The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogen...
Article
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Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those loc...
Article
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Sharp wave-associated field oscillations (∼200 Hz) of the hippocampus, referred to as ripples, are believed to be important for consolidation of explicit memory. Little is known about how ripples are regulated by other brain regions. We found that the median raphe region (MnR) is important for regulating hippocampal ripple activity and memory conso...
Article
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Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in motivation and learning. However, it is unclear how phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, which is implicated in learning, is involved in motivation. Here we used a self-stimulation procedure to examine how mice seek for optogenetically-induced phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, with an emphasis on t...
Article
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Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are implicated in affective functions. However, it is unclear to what extent dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) play such roles. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2), halorhodopsin (NpHR), or control vector into the...
Article
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Approach behavior is regulated by the brain integrating information about environment and body state. Psychoactive drugs interact with this process. We examined the extent to which caloric (i.e., food) restriction, amphetamine (AMPH) and lithium interact in potentiating locomotor activity and responding reinforced by visual stimulus (VS), a reward...
Article
In recent years, neuroscientists have produced profound conceptual and mechanistic advances on the neurocircuitry of reward and substance use disorders. Here, we will provide a brief review of intracranial drug self-administration and optogenetic self-stimulation studies that identified brain regions and neurotransmitter systems involved in drug- a...
Article
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Many strong rewards, including abused drugs, also produce aversive effects that are poorly understood. For example, cocaine can produce aversive conditioning after its rewarding effects have dissipated, consistent with opponent process theory, but the neural mechanisms involved are not well known. Using electrophysiological recordings in awake rats...
Article
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Rationale: The motivational process that regulates approach behavior toward salient distal stimuli (i.e., incentive motivation) plays a key role in voluntary behavior and motivational disorders such as addiction. This process may be mediated by many neurotransmitter systems and a network of many brain structures, including the median and dorsal ra...
Article
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Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are widely recognized for their effects on reward and pain. Although prior studies have attributed some of these effects to MORs on GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), recent studies have identified a region of particularly strong MOR immunostaining residing caudal to the VTA, in a region denot...
Article
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Noncontingent administration of amphetamine into the ventral striatum or systemic nicotine increases responses rewarded by inconsequential visual stimuli. When these drugs are contingently administered, rats learn to self-administer them. We recently found that rats self-administer the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen into the median (MR) or dorsa...
Article
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous brain peptide produced by neurons located in the lower brainstem, and functional studies suggest that NPS has arousing effects. Because its receptors are found in reward-associated regions throughout the brain, we evaluated whether intraventricular NPS injections elicit reward-related effects in rats. Rats incr...
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Picrotoxin blocks GABAA receptors, whose activation typically inhibits neuronal firing activity. We recently found that rats learn to selectively self-administer picrotoxin or bicuculline, another GABAA receptor antagonist, into the supramammillary nucleus (SuM), a posterior hypothalamic structure localized anterior to the ventral tegmental area. O...
Article
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The midbrain raphe regions have long been implicated in affective processes and disorders. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the median (MR) and dorsal raphe nuclei (DR) tonically inhibit reward-related processes. Stimulation of GABAB receptors in the midbrain raphe nuclei is known to inhibit local neurons, especially serotonergic neuron...
Article
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Reductionist attempts to dissect complex mechanisms into simpler elements are necessary, but not sufficient for understanding how biological properties like reward emerge out of neuronal activity. Recent studies on intracranial self-administration of neurochemicals (drugs) found that rats learn to self-administer various drugs into the mesolimbic d...
Data
Ventral striatal injection sites and their effectiveness. Photomicrographs depict representative placements of cannulae for the medial and lateral olfactory tubercle, medial and lateral shell of the nucleus accumbens and accumbens core. Arrows indicate the tips of injection cannulae, while arrow heads indicate the tips of guide cannulae (when they...
Article
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Administration of psychomotor stimulants like amphetamine facilitates behavior in the presence of incentive distal stimuli, which have acquired the motivational properties of primary rewards through associative learning. This facilitation appears to be mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system, which may also be involved in facilitating behavior i...
Article
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Behavioral and anatomical data suggest that the ventral striatum, consisting of the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, is functionally heterogeneous. Cocaine and D: -amphetamine appear to be more rewarding when administered into the medial olfactory tubercle or medial accumbens shell than into their lateral counterparts, including the accumb...
Article
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Increasing evidence suggests that the activation of medial A10 neurons mediates positive affective encoding. However, little is known about the functions of the inhibition of midbrain dopamine neurons. Here we show evidence suggesting that the inhibition of medial A10 neurons mediates a negative affective state, leading to negative affective encodi...
Article
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Anatomical and functional refinements of the meso-limbic dopamine system of the rat are discussed. Present experiments suggest that dopaminergic neurons localized in the posteromedial ventral tegmental area (VTA) and central linear nucleus raphe selectively project to the ventromedial striatum (medial olfactory tubercle and medial nucleus accumbens...
Article
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Because rats learn to lever-press for brief electrical stimulation of the median and dorsal raphe nuclei (MRN and DRN, respectively), these brain sites have long been implicated in reward processes. However, it is not clear whether the MRN and DRN integrate reward-related signals or merely contain fibers of passage involved in reward processes. To...
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The recent findings that Delta9tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9THC), the active agent in marijuana and hashish, (1) is self-administered intravenously, (2) potentiates the rewarding effects of electrical brain stimulation, and (3) can establish conditioned place preferences in laboratory animals, suggest that these drugs activate biologically primitive...
Article
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Nicotine is thought to be the key substance responsible for tobacco-smoking habits and appears to trigger reinforcement via the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Recently, multiple anatomical substrates for drug reinforcement have been identified in the vicinity of the ventral midbrain. In addition to the posterior portion of the VTA, the central linea...
Article
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The supramammillary nucleus (SUM), a dorsal layer of the mammillary body, has recently been implicated in positive reinforcement. The present study examined whether GABA(A) receptors in the SUM or adjacent regions are involved in primary reinforcement using intracranial self-administration procedures. Rats learned quickly to lever-press for infusio...
Article
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When projection analyses placed the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle in the striatal system, functional links between these sites began to emerge. The accumbens has been implicated in the rewarding effects of psychomotor stimulants, whereas recent work suggests that the medial accumbens shell and medial olfactory tubercle mediate the reward...
Article
The establishment of conditioned place preference (CPP) with intracranial injections requires specific injection sites, drug doses, and conditioning trial durations. We examined the role of conditioning trial duration in CPP with cocaine injections into the medial olfactory tubercle. Only those rats that had spent 5 min in the compartments showed C...
Article
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We examined whether injections of the excitatory amino acid AMPA are rewarding when injected into the posterior hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area. Rats quickly learned to lever-press for infusions of AMPA into the supramammillary or posterior hypothalamic nuclei but failed to learn to lever-press for similar injections into the ventral tegmen...
Article
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The dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in positive reinforcement and locomotion. Intra-VTA administration of many drugs capable of activating these neurons has been shown to be reinforcing and induce locomotion. Administration of the excitatory amino acid NMDA (N-methyl-D-a...
Article
Addictive drugs are thought to activate brain circuitry that normally mediates more natural rewards such as food or water. Drugs activate this circuitry at synaptic junctions within the brain; identifying the junctions at which this occurs provides clues to the neurochemical and anatomical characteristics of the circuitry. One approach to identifyi...
Article
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Cocaine has multiple actions and multiple sites of action in the brain. Evidence from pharmacological studies indicates that it is the ability of cocaine to block dopamine uptake and elevate extracellular dopamine concentrations, and thus increase dopaminergic receptor activation, that makes cocaine rewarding. Lesion studies have implicated the nuc...
Article
Intermittent delivery of drugs into a discrete brain region has proven to be a useful technique. Described here is a micro-pump injection unit with miniature step-motors. This injection system is reliable, easy to operate and inexpensive to construct. The application of intermittent injection systems to study reward neurochemical circuits is discus...
Article
Previously we found that intra-ventral tegmental injections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol induce reward; such injections induce conditioned place preference and rats learn quickly to self-administer carbachol directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To determine what brain regions are activated by such rewarding injections we studied...
Article
We examined whether injections of the local anesthesia procaine into the nucleus accumbens core disrupts locomotion more readily than those into the medial ventral striatum. Spontaneous locomotion decreased during the first 10 min immediately following injections of procaine into the core. When procaine was co-administered with d-amphetamine into t...
Article
Full-text available
Rats learned to lever-press for microinjections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (30-500 pmol per infusion) or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (7.5-75 pmol per infusion) into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. Intracranial carbachol self-administration was site-specific. Carbachol was not reliably self-admin...
Article
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Endomorphin-1 (EM-1) is a recently isolated endogenous peptide having potent analgesic activity and high affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor. The present study was designed to investigate the rewarding and psychomotor stimulant effects of EM-1 in specific brain regions. We found that rats would learn without priming or response shap...
Article
The ventral striatum appears to play a critical role in mediating motoric effects (i.e. ambulatory activity and rearing) of psychostimulants such as cocaine. We evaluated whether sub-regions of the ventral striatum play differential roles in locomotion and rearing induced by various dopaminergic drugs. Injections of D-amphetamine and dopamine stimu...
Article
The ventral striatum appears to play a critical role in mediating motoric effects (i.e. ambulatory activity and rearing) of psychostimulants such as cocaine. We evaluated whether sub-regions of the ventral striatum play differential roles in locomotion and rearing induced by various dopaminergic drugs. Injections of D-amphetamine and dopamine stimu...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a head-mounted micropump-injection system designed for the infusion of nanoliter volumes of drug solutions into discrete brain regions of the freely moving rats. Using a miniature step motor, the micropump-injection system can be readily constructed from commercially available supplies. In calibrating the micropump-injection system, we...
Article
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The authors have hypothesized that, in adult rats, 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) index a state characterized by high arousal and expectations of reward. This study was conducted to investigate whether dopamine agonism of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) could evoke such an appetitive state, by examining the effects of NAcc amphetamine (AMPH) m...
Article
The present experiments examined the effects of muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPC) on intravenous cocaine self-administration. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were implanted with chronic indwelling jugular catheters and guide cannulae stereotaxically aimed at the NAC or MPC. The...
Article
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Studies addressing behavioral functions of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) are reviewed. A role of NAS DA in reward has long been suggested. However, some investigators have questioned the role of NAS DA in rewarding effects because of its role in aversive contexts. As findings supporting the role of NAS DA in mediating aversivel...
Article
Intracranial self-administration (ICSA) and intracranial place conditioning (ICPC) methodologies have been mainly used to study drug reward mechanisms, but they have also been applied toward examining brain reward mechanisms. ICSA studies in rodents have established that the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a site supporting morphine and ethanol rei...
Article
There is evidence suggesting the involvement of central dopamine (DA) systems in the regulation of plasma corticosterone (CORT). We examined whether or not microinjections of DA agonists and cocaine into three DA-rich terminal regions, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPC), ventral striatum (VStr) and dorsal striatum (DStr), would increase plasma CORT...
Article
The present study examined the effects of activating GABAA receptors in the anterior and posterior regions of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on operant reinforcement behavior, using the technique of intracranial self-administration. Rats were given the opportunity to self-administer vehicle alone (artificial CSF) and vehicle containing 25, 50, an...
Article
The potential reinforcing effect of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) was examined in female Wistar rats by using the technique of intracranial self-administration. Rats dose dependently self-administered solutions of 0.0-6.6 mM (in a volume of 100 nL per injection) directly into the ACB. Rats self-admi...
Article
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The objectives of this study were to examine the involvement of D1 and D2 receptors within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) in mediating reinforcement. The intracranial self-administration (ICSA) of D1 and D2 agonists was used to determine whether activating D1 and/or D2 receptors within the ACB of Wistar rats is reinforcing. At concentrations of 0.25,...
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine whether reduction of dopamine (DA) innervation to the nucleus accumbens (ACB) alters the maintenance and/or acquisition of ethanol drinking in female alcohol-preferring P rats. Compared with sham-lesioned animals, bilateral microinjections of 6-OHDA (12 micrograms/2.4 microliters/site) into the ACB did...
Article
Previously, it was shown that microinfusion of the GABAA antagonist picrotoxin into the anterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) is reinforcing. It was hypothesized that this reinforcing effect of picrotoxin in the anterior VTA is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of the mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) system. The objective of the present stud...
Article
This study used an intracerebral self-administration paradigm in rats to determine if blockade of GABAA receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) has a reinforcing effect. Rats quickly learned to self-infuse a picrotoxin solution into the anterior VTA; rats discriminated the lever that produced picrotoxin infusions from the lever without conseq...