Satheesha Nayak B

Satheesha Nayak B
Manipal Academy of Higher Education | MAHE · Department of Anatomy

MSc PhD, FAGE, FAIMER FELLOW (2009)

About

479
Publications
124,985
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2,784
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Introduction
One among the only two all time Indian Anatomists to find a place in the Stanford University list of Top 2% Scientists in the world. Anatomy professor who has taught students from more than 25 countries. Recipient of "Good Teacher" award for 7 times. Excellent reviewer, a recipient of "Certified Sentinel of Science" award from Publons. Has made many Innovations in teaching Anatomy.
Additional affiliations
September 1995 - present
Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus) India.
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • I teach Medical, Dental and various allied health profession courses. My research interests are about gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, histology, medical education, osteology and embryology

Publications

Publications (479)
Article
Human cerebellum plays a vital role in motor coordination, regulation of muscle tone and maintaining the equilibrium of the body. It seldom shows anatomical/morphological variations. Herein, we report the presence of a small additional lobe projecting out on the superior surface of the right cerebellar hemisphere in the para-vermal area in an adult...
Article
Vermiform appendix is a highly variable organ, which is an enigma to the surgeon in terms of its position, size and symptoms. Attachment of its tip to the surrounding organs is relatively rare. Here we present a rare variation of vermiform appendix. The appendix was 12 cm long and was in retrocecal and retrocolic position. Its tip was attached to t...
Article
Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles belong to a group of muscles called infrahyoid muscles. A few variations of these muscles and additional muscles in this area have been reported. We report an anomalous muscle in this area. The anomalous muscle took its origin from the posterior surface of the manubrium sterni and was inse...
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This study evaluated the effect of Environmental Enrichment (EE) on neuron morphology in the CA1, CA3 and dentate hilus (DH) regions of the hippocampus by quantitating the total dendritic arborizations. EE is a potential intervention for stress and diabetes. It is capable of mitigating diabetes and stress-induced cognitive and memory deficit. Diabe...
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Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid, and thyrohyoid muscles are collectively known as infrahyoid muscles. These muscles frequently show variations in their attachments. Here, an extremely rare variant muscle belonging to this group has been presented. During cadaveric dissection for undergraduate medical students, an additional muscle was found be...
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Objective of the study The objective of this study was to evaluate FM and occipital condyles measurements morphometrically for sex determination by using discriminant function analysis and to note visually the variation in the shape of the foramen magnum in a Saudi Arabian population by using CT scan images. Material and methods This study include...
Article
Flexor digitorum accessorius (quadratus plantae) is a muscle of second layer of the sole of the foot. Though it is not a very important muscle in terms of movements or stability of foot, it could pose problems when it presents variations. We observed a novel, accessory slip of flexor digitorum accessorius. The slip arose from the fascia covering ab...
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Background: Hormones play a vital role in initiating and maintenance of male reproductive or testicular function which includes the production of androgens and spermatozoa. Testosterone is essential for the initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. FSH is responsible for the stimulation of spermatogenesis. Semen analysis and hormone evaluation...
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Common iliac vein variations are relatively rare compared to the variations of external and internal iliac veins. A rare pattern of formation of common iliac vein by the confluence of four veins is being reported here. The left common iliac vein was formed by the union of left external iliac vein, internal iliac vein, iliolumbar vein and a common t...
Article
Gall bladder is known for many congenital anomalies such as duplication, intrahepatic position, floating position etc. Most of its anomalies can be detected in ultrasound examination and radiography. We report an extremely rare congenital anomaly of gall bladder as observed in a male cadaver during dissection classes. The gall bladder was totally e...
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Jejunum is drained into superior mesenteric vein through a series of jejunal veins. The way in which the first jejunal vein terminates is of great importance in upper abdominal surgery and radiological procedures. Knowledge of its variations is particularly important in surgical procedures like orthotropic hepatic transplantation, hepatic vein reco...
Article
The scrotum is supplied by ilioinguinal, genital branch of genitofemoral, perinealbranch of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh and the posterior scrotal branches of thepudendal nerve. We report an extremely rare innervation of the anterior part of the scrotumby the anterior division of the right obturator nerve. The genital branch of genito...
Article
The scrotum is supplied by ilioinguinal, genital branch of genitofemoral, perineal branch of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh and the posterior scrotal branches of the pudendal nerve. We report an extremely rare innervation of the anterior part of the scrotum by the anterior division of the right obturator nerve. The genital branch of gen...
Article
Background Gallstone disease (GSD) is one among the most prevalent diseases that affects approximately 10-15% of the population. It is associated with many other diseases like gallbladder cancer, renal stones, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Objective Objective of this study is to document the prevalence of gallstones among sout...
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Knowledge of variations of the internal carotid artery is significant to surgeons and radiologists. The internal carotid artery normally runs a straight course in the neck. Its anomalies can lead to its iatrogenic injuries. We report a case of a large loop of the internal carotid artery in a male cadaver aged about 75 years. The common carotid arte...
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Testicular veins are known to show many variations in their origin, course and termination. Some of their variations can lead to male sterility. We report a unique variation of right testicular vein here. Pampiniform plexus reduced to three testicular veins (medial, middle and lateral) at the deep inguinal ring on the right side. The medial vein te...
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Azygos system of veins is the main source of venous drainage from the thoracic wall. Knowledge of azygos vein anomalies could be of importance to cardiothoracic surgeons and radiologists. We report a rare variation of azygos vein as seen in an adult male cadaver aged 65 years approximately. The azygos vein was formed by the union of left ascending...
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Anomalies of the peritoneum and the colon are quite common. Some of these anomalies can disturb the normal digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine and the others might result in formation of volvulus or impede the blood supply of the intestine. We report a rare, combined variation of peritoneum and ascending colon. In a 70-year-old male...
Article
The musculocutaneous and median nerves frequently show variations from their normal course. The purpose of this paper is to report a rare variation, in which the right musculocutaneous nerve was absent. Consequently, the median nerve supplied motor innervation to the flexor compartment of the arm and sensory innervation to the lateral aspect of the...
Article
Morphological variations of falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli are extremely rare. The authors report an extremely rare type of combined variation of falx cerebri and dural venous sinuses in the tentorium cerebelli. During the removal of the brain from cranial cavity, it was noted that the anterior part of the falx cerebri had fenestrations and i...
Article
Knowledge of variant course and branching pattern of the facial artery gains importance in the surgeries of upper neck and face. The authors report a unilateral anomalous course and a redundant loop of right facial artery as seen in an adult male cadaver. The right facial artery had its origin from the external carotid artery. It pierced through th...
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Coronary arteries present many variation and those variations have been well documented. Some of the variations of these arteries are life threatening since they compromise the myocardial irrigation and also pose challenges in per cutaneous cardiac catheterizations. A rare variation of left coronary artery was noted during routine dissection classe...
Article
Nerve to mylohyoid is a branch of inferior alveolar nerve. It arises in the infratemporal fossa and runs in the mylohyoid groove of mandible to reach the submandibular region, where it supplies the anterior belly of digastric and mylohyoid muscles. Though sensory distribution of this nerve have been described, it is predominantly a motor nerve. Her...
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Background: Stretching force on the skin leads to the widening of scars and/or hypertrophy. The uneven distribution profile of collagen and elastic fibers in the human dermis (evaluated based on their topographic areas) might determine the direction of incision for a more pleasing aesthetic result. Materials and methods: Full-thickness skin sample...
Article
Knowledge of normal as well as variant great saphenous vein is useful as it is the vein that can get varicosed; the vein that is used in bypass surgeries and the vein that is used for cannulation purpose. We observed almost complete duplication of the great saphenous vein in the left lower limb of an adult male cadaver. Both the great saphenous vei...
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Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of EE on the morphology of pyramidal neuron at the motor cortex of diabetic and stressed rats. Methods and materials: Male Wistar rats were grouped into Normal Control (NC), Vehicle Control (VC), Diabetes (D), Diabetes + Stress (D+S), Diabetes + Environmental Enrichment (D+EE) and Diabete...
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Vermiform appendix is considered as a vestigial organ, and it has minimal or no role to play in the digestion and absorption of food. It is an enigma to the clinicians due to its variable positions and symptoms caused by its inflammation. In the available literature, there are many reports on various positions, size and disease of appendix. However...
Article
Introduction Communications between iliac veins in the pelvis are reported to be rare occurrences, which are mostly due to developmental abnormalities. The common iliac vein is formed by the joining of the internal and external iliac veins. Here, we present a detailed morphological and histological study of a rare communication found between the in...
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The primary objective of mobile phone technology is to achieve communication with any person at any place and time. In the modern era, it is impossible to ignore the usefulness of mobile phone technology in cases of emergency as many lives have been saved. However, the biological effects they may have on humans and other animals have been largely i...
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Variations of the dural folds and the dural venous sinuses are infrequently reported in the existing medical literature. Such variations in the posterior cranial fossa may pose difficulties in various analytical and surgical procedures of this region. We present a rare concurrent variation of the falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebelli that was dete...
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We present a unique, unreported variation of the left coronary artery. During dissection classes for first-year medical students, we observed the absence of left coronary artery in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 78 years. The left aortic sinus was dilated and it gave origin to anterior interventricular and left marginal arteries independe...
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Congenital variations of extraocular muscles are rare. We report a double-bellied superior rectus muscle, observed in an adult male cadaver aged 70 years. The superior rectus muscle had two equal-sized bellies, which took separate origins from the common tendinous ring and united to form a common belly 1 cm before the insertion. Due to the duplicat...
Article
Complete duplication of testicular veins is a rare phenomenon. However, a few cases of duplication of gonadal veins have been reported. Here, I report a case of unusual formation and termination of the right testicular vein in an adult male cadaver. Five veins arose from the pampinniform plexus and entered the abdomen through the deep inguinal ring...
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Celiac trunk is the first ventral branch of the abdominal aorta. It usually terminates by giving three branches; the common hepatic artery, the left gastric artery and the splenic artery. We report a rare variation of the branching pattern of the celiac trunk. The Celiac trunk divided into two branches; left gastric artery and splenico-gastroduoden...
Article
Background: It is often presumed that physiotherapists need to be thorough in their knowledge in gross anatomy prior to learning new skills or therapeutic techniques. We implemented a Living (Surface) Anatomy module for physiotherapists, prior to the teaching of therapeutic techniques, in one of the continuous professional development (CPD) program...
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Complete duplication of testicular veins is a rare phenomenon. However, a few cases of duplication of gonadal veins have been reported. Here, I report a case of unusual formation and termination of the right testicular vein in an adult male cadaver. Five veins arose from the pampinniform plexus and entered the abdomen through the deep inguinal ring...
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Full-text available
Tensor fasciae suralis, also known as ischioaponeuroticus is a clinically relevant muscle variant located in the popliteal fossa. Though rare, when present the muscle may arise from any of the hamstrings and gets inserted to the crural fascia of leg or tendocalcaneus and is innervated by the tibial component of sciatic nerve. Here we report a varia...
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Jejunal veins usually terminate into the superior mesenteric vein. Here, an unusual termination of first and second jejunal veins into a pancreatic portal vein has been presented. The common vein formed by the first and second jejunal veins could be named as pancreatic portal vein because it divided into two branches in front of the third part of t...
Article
Facial artery is known to show variations in its origin, course, termination, and branching pattern. One of its reported variant branch is called premasseteric branch. During our dissection classes, it was observed that an elderly male cadaver had 3 premasseteic branches arising from the facial artery. The first and second premasseteric branches pa...
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In this report, four unusual communications between external and internal iliac veins of the left side have been presented. The lowest communication was the narrowest measuring about 2 mm in diameter, the second measured 6 mm, the third had a diameter of 7 mm and the last communication measured 5 mm in breadth. The upper three communications were t...
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Accessory muscles can be found in any part of the body. In most of the regions, they go unnoticed. However, in some cases, they become symptomatic or of cosmetic concern. In this particular case, the presence of two accessory muscle slips was observed in the flexor compartment of the leg. Among the two, the first accessory muscle belly connected th...
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Currently many people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Moreover various antiepileptics have adverse cognitive impact with other side effect. Thus, need for new antiepileptic drugs still remains challenge. However, many of the natural components have antiepileptic action and this fact remains scient...
Article
Currently many people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Moreover various antiepileptics have adverse cognitive impact with other side effect. Thus, need for new antiepileptic drugs still remains challenge. However, many of the natural components have antiepileptic action and this fact remains scient...
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Full-text available
Background: The sutural or wormian bones are small bones that are frequently found within the sutures and fontanelles of the skull. They are often considered to be a simple anatomical variant. They are most commonly located in the lambdoid suture, second highest site for sutural bones being lambda with least incidence at bregma. Material and Method...
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Background To distinguish the characteristic hand pattern of each of the three different ethnicities in Malaysia and to study the hand pattern correlation between race and gender. Method Individual lengths of the fingers were then measured and tabulated to serve as the basis for analyzing the 2D (second digit):4D (fourth digit) hand ratio. Based o...
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Objectives A severe and potentially lethal complication in pelvic injuries is arterial bleeding commonly involving the iliac arteries. Hence, the objective of our study was to systematically document the morphology and variations of the external iliac artery in human cadaveric pelvises. Materials and methods Study was conducted on 48 pelvic halves...
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Preaxial polydactyly is a common congenital anomaly of the hand. In this anomaly, an additional digit is seen along the preaxial border of the thumb. Several possible types of preaxial polydactyly have been observed and categorized into several types based on the level of duplications. In the present case, we report an unusual type of polydactyly i...
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Knowledge of variations at the base of the skull may be important for academic, anthropological, forensic, and clinical purposes, especially in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and while performing safe radical surgery. This report presents multiple variations at the base of an adult Indian skull. The variations noted include the...
Article
Variations of internal jugular vein (IJV) are rare and are surgically important. Here an unreported variation of IJV is presented. Right IJV had an unusual vein joining it in the form of a "jug handle." This vein arose from the junction of IJV and common facial vein (CFV), coursed down for 3 cm and joined IJV again. The CFV was dilated. Knowledge o...
Article
Celiac trunk is the first ventral branch of the abdominal aorta. It usually terminates by giving three branches; the common hepatic artery, the left gastric artery and the splenic artery. We report a rare variation of the branching pattern of the celiac trunk. The Celiac trunk divided into two branches; left gastric artery and splenicogastroduodena...
Article
Full-text available
Gallbladder shows frequent variations in position, shape, interior, and its duct system. These variations may go unnoticed lifelong; however, they may predispose it for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. We observed a double pouched gallbladder in an adult male cadaver. The gallbladder was folded to have a sigmoid shape. It had two broad pouches: an...
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The thoracodorsal artery mainly supplies the latissimus dorsi muscle. Anatomical details pertaining to the origin and distribution of thoracodorsal artery are important because the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is one of the most reliable and versatile flaps used in reconstructive surgery. Atypical origin and course of the thoracodorsal artery...
Article
Lingual nerve (LN) is one among the 3 branches of posterior division of mandibular nerve. It might get entrapped in the infratemporal fossa by lateral pterygoid muscle, pterygospinous ligament, or lateral pterygoid plate. Its entrapment in the submandibular region has not been reported yet. A unique entrapment of LN in the fused submandibular and s...
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Knowledge of variations of obturator artery is of importance during many surgical procedures of the pelvis both in male and females. Here, an extremely rare variation of obturator artery and other associated vascular variations of the pelvis are presented. These variations were noted in the right pelvic half of an adult male cadaver. The obturator...
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Osteochondromas develop as cartilaginous nodules in the periosteum of bones. They are the commonest benign tumors of the skeleton, generally observed in the long bones. Rarely, they are also found in the axial skeleton, flat bones of skull and facial bones. During a regular dissection, we came across a solitary osteochondroma in posterior surface o...
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The objective of this case report is to alert the cardiologists and radiologists about the possibility of an extremely rare trifurcation of the right coronary artery. During dissection classes, an early trifurcation of the right coronary artery (RCA) was observed in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 65 years. The RCA had a normal origin from...
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Background. Difference in scar formation at different sites, in different directions at the same site, but with changes in the elasticity of skin with age, sex, and race or in some pathological conditions, is well known to clinicians.The inappropriate collagen syntheses and delayed or lack of epithelialization are known to induce scar formation wit...
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A cadaveric dissection class was conducted for medical undergraduates and during that a unique congenital anomaly of the duodenum in relation to the pancreas was observed and we would like to call this as "head over heels" position of duodenum. This variation was noted in a South Indian male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The stomach was norm...
Article
Presence of accessory submandibular salivary gland (ASSG) is an extremely rare variation. Knowledge of its relations could be very useful to oral and maxillofacial surgeons, head and neck surgeons, and radiologists. During dissection classes, an ASSG was noted between the mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles. The main submandibular salivary gland had s...
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This report describes the concurrent vascular and ductal variations of the hepatobiliary system. The right hepatic artery arose directly from the common hepatic artery, passed through the Calot’s triangle and entered the right lobe of the liver through the gall bladder fossa. The left hepatic artery arose from a common gastrohepatic trunk and enter...
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Background: Dermatoglyphics is developing its importance in everyday life and researchers are keen to unveil various unknown aspects of dermatoglyphics in biology, anthropology, genetics, and medicine. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship of thumbprint, learning methodologies, and academic performance of medical students. Meth...
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Full Text Available Online @ https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1WWIk4wOUnjvu4 The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RF-EMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in sile...
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Accessory meningeal artery is a branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. It supplies the structures in the infratemporal fossa and the dura mater in the middle cranial fossa. Accessory meningeal artery arose from the middle meningeal artery, 25 mm below the base of the skull and entered the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale. T...
Article
Variations in the skin of the prepuce are very rare. We report here a variation of the penile skin as observed in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 65 years. The penis was covered by thin nonhairy skin. The glans was not covered with prepuce. There was no evidence of circumcision. The ventral surface of the penis, adjacent to the glans, had...
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Aims The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure to enriched environment (EE) on passive avoidance learning and hippocampal cellular morphology in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Materials and Methods Adult male albino Wistar rats were assigned into the following groups: normal control (NC) remained undisturbed in the...
Article
During routine dissection, we came across multiple variations in the dorsum of the right foot. Dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) presented with an unusual branching pattern. The arcuate artery was completely absent, and hence three tarsal branches arose from lateral side of DPA. The first branch continued as first dorsal metatarsal artery, the second bra...
Article
Accessory meningeal artery is a branch of the first part of the maxillary artery. It supplies the structures in the infratemporal fossa and the dura mater in the middle cranial fossa. Accessory meningeal artery arose from the middle meningeal artery, 25 mm below the base of the skull and entered the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale. T...
Article
Knowledge of facial and external jugular vein variations is useful for medical disciplines such as radiology, anesthesia, general surgery and plastic surgery for the success in their procedures in the head and neck region. I report a unique combination of venous and muscular variation in the left side of the neck of an adult male cadaver. The typic...
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The testicular artery is frequently subjected to radiographic imaging techniques such as angiography for diagnosis and treatment of conditions like epididymitis, testicular torsion, tumor, hematoma, and hydrocele and in cases of undescended testis. Radiologists and surgeons should therefore be aware of testicular artery variants. Although there are...
Article
vertebral column. Its high prevalence and clinical importance prompted us to conduct this study of thoracic osteophytes. Aim and Objectives: Morphometric and histological study of thoracic osteophytes in the cadaveric vertebral column to understand their development, frequency of occurrence and distribution. Material and Methods: Frequency of occur...
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Celiac artery shows frequent variations in its branching pattern. Knowledge of its possible variations is useful in gastric, pancreatic and hepato-biliary surgeries. During our dissection classes, we observed a rare variation of the branching pattern of celiac trunk. It divided normally into its three branches; left gastric, splenic and common hepa...
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Full-text available
Axillary arch muscle or Langer’s axillary arch is a fibromuscular structure that stretches across the axilla from its posterior wall to the anterior wall. We report an unusually large and fleshy axillary arch muscle. This muscle arose from the latissimus dorsi and got inserted into the pectoralis major, short head of biceps brachii and capsule of s...
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Internal iliac artery (IIA) shows great deal of variations in its branching pattern. The knowledge of its variant branches is required for successful surgical, orthopedic, plastic surgery and radiological procedures. We observed variations of some of the branches of right IIA in an adult male cadaver. The iliolumbar artery originated from the main...
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During our dissection classes, we saw a venous collar formed around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) by the jejunal tributaries of superior mesenteric vein in an adult male cadaver. The jejunal tributaries united themselves to form two common jejunal veins. Upper common jejunal vein crossed superficial to SMA and opened into the SMV in front of...