Sasitharan Balasubramaniam

Sasitharan Balasubramaniam
University of Nebraska at Lincoln | NU · School of Computing

Doctor of Philosophy

About

206
Publications
38,942
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3,720
Citations
Introduction
Sasitharan Balasubramaniam is currently an Associate Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Sasitharan's research interests includes molecular and nano communications, synthetic biology, brain-machine interface, as well as 5G/6G communication systems.

Publications

Publications (206)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been much focus on the potential for wireless links that use THz frequencies. Despite their theoretical advantages, the very high channel path loss here on Earth presents practical challenges. This paper compares the path loss performance of THz links in atmospheric gas compositions and environmental conditions on Mars and Earth. Simulati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most prolific and deadly brain cancer with a median survival time of around 15 months. Despite the many recent advances on its treatment, this brain tumor remains resistant to most therapeutic solutions available and ultimately recurs. Recurrence evolves from hypoxic foci of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resista...
Article
Full-text available
This article uses Deep Learning technologies to safeguard DNA sequencing against Bio-Cyber attacks. We consider a hybrid attack scenario where the payload is encoded into a DNA sequence to activate a Trojan malware implanted in a software tool used in the sequencing pipeline in order to allow the perpetrators to gain control over the resources used...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bacterial ecosystems are integrated with cascading molecular communications networks that contain redundant paths transmitting molecular signals through a shared medium, resulting in accumulation of diverse molecules. Due to a range of factors, including residual noise and channel attenuation, the information flow between bacterial populations can...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory viruses including Respiratory Syncytial Virus, influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cause serious and sometimes fatal disease in thousands of people annually. Understanding virus propagation dynamics within the respiratory system is critical because new insights will increase our understanding...
Preprint
Full-text available
On garment intelligence influenced by artificial neural networks and neuromorphic computing is emerging as a research direction in the e-textile sector. In particular, bio inspired Spiking Neural Networks mimicking the workings of the brain show promise in recent ICT research applications. Taking such technological advancements and new research dir...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article uses Deep Learning technologies to safeguard DNA sequencing against Bio-Cyber attacks. We consider a hybrid attack scenario where the payload is encoded into a DNA sequence to activate a Trojan malware implanted in a software tool used in the sequencing pipeline in order to allow the perpetrators to gain control over the resources used...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in the human Gut Bacteriome (GB) can be associated with human health issues, such as type-2 diabetes and obesity. Both external and internal factors can drive changes in the composition and in interactions of the human GB, impacting negatively on the host cells. This paper focuses on the human GB metabolism and proposes a two-layer netw...
Preprint
Full-text available
Data storage is one of the main computing issues of this century. Not only storage devices are converging to strict physical limits, but also the amount of data generated by users is growing at an unbelievable rate. To face these challenges, data centres grew constantly over the past decades. However, this growth comes with a price, particularly fr...
Article
Data storage is one of the main computing issues of this century. Not only storage devices are converging to strict physical limits, but also the amount of data generated by users is growing at an unbelievable rate. To face these challenges, data centres grew constantly over the past decades. However, this growth comes with a price, particularly fr...
Article
Full-text available
Biocomputing systems based on engineered bacteria can lead to novel tools for environmental monitoring and detection of metabolic diseases. In this paper, we propose a Bacterial Molecular Computing on a Chip (BMCoC) using microfluidic and electrochemical sensing technologies. The computing can be flexibly integrated into the chip, but we focus on e...
Article
Full-text available
Demyelination of neurons can compromise the communication performance between the cells as the absence of myelin attenuates the action potential propagated through the axonal pathway. In this work, we propose a hybrid experimental and simulation model for analyzing the demyelination effects on neuron communication. The experiment involves locally i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Synthetic biology has utilised engineering concepts for the rational design of biocompatible systems. Here we utilise two bacterial populations to create a modulated molecular channel coding scheme for molecular communications systems. We believe this approach can drive the development of more reliable biocompatible molecular communications systems...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change resulting from the misuse and over-exploitation of natural resources has affected and continues to impact the planet's ecosystem. This pressing issue is leading to the development of novel technologies to sense and measure damaging gas emissions. In parallel, the accelerating evolution of wireless communication networks is resulting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Some characteristics of the operation of synthetic biology system are not well-explained using digital electronics, but they can be modelled using analog electronics. In this paper, we contribute to the characterization of bacteria internal signal processing by using an analog circuit analysis to show the impact of the binding/unbinding of molecule...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic in the last year has brought along numerous challenges on all fronts for humanity. Besides the high number of fatalities, economic and societal impact, the virus has also raised a question on the current approaches and methodologies for combatting pandemics. An important factor in this global fight against the pandemic, is the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has driven researchers from different spectrum to develop novel solutions that can improve detection and understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this article we propose the use of Intelligent Reflector Surface (IRS) emitting terahertz signals to detect airborne respiratory aerosol cloud that are secreted from people. Our...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emerging field of Molecular Communication (MC) aims to characterize biological-based signaling environments through information that are encoded into molecules. Since the birth of this field, a number of different applications and biological systems have been characterized using MC theory. This study proposes a new application and direction for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alterations in the human gut bacteriome can be associated with human health issues, such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both external and internal factors can drive changes in the composition and in the interactions of the human gut bacteriome, impacting negatively on the host cells. In this paper, we focus on the human gut bacterio...
Article
While metasurface-based intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS) are an important emerging technology for future generations of wireless connectivity in its own right, plans for the mass deployment of these surfaces motivate the question of their integration with other new and emerging technologies that would require such widespread deployment. This q...
Article
Full-text available
E-textiles have received tremendous attention in recent years due to the capability of integrating sensors into a garment, enabling high-precision sensing of the human body. Besides sensing, a number of solutions for e-textile garments have also integrated wireless interfaces, allowing sensing data to be transmitted, and also inbuilt capacitive tou...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we consider the influence of intercellular communication on the development and progression of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), a grade IV malignant glioma which is defined by an interplay Grow i.e. self renewal and Go i.e. invasiveness potential of multiple malignant glioma stem cells. Firstly, we performed wet lab experiments with U87...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent advancements in bio-engineering and wireless communications systems have motivated researchers to propose novel applications for telemedicine, therapeutics and human health monitoring. For instance, through wireless medical telemetry a healthcare worker can remotely measure biological signals and control certain processes in the organism...
Preprint
Full-text available
Consumption of food in excess of the required optimal nutritional requirements has already resulted in a global crisis and this is from the perspective of human health, such as obesity, as well as food waste and sustainability. In order to minimize the impact of these issues, there is a need to develop novel innovative and effective solutions that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biocomputing systems based on engineered bacteria can lead to novel tools for environmental monitoring and detection of metabolic diseases. In this paper, we propose a Bacterial Molecular Computing on a Chip (BMCoC) using microfluidic and electrochemical sensing technologies. The computing can be flexibly integrated into the chip, but we focus on e...
Article
Full-text available
Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are affected by viral infections each year, and yet, several of them neither have vaccines nor effective treatment during and post-infection. This challenge has been highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, showing how viruses can quickly spread and impact society as a whole. Novel interdisciplinary techniques...
Article
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most malignant human tumour, can be defined by the evolution of growing bio-nanomachine networks within an interplay between self-renewal (Grow) and invasion (Go) potential of mutually exclusive phenotypes of transmitter and receiver cells. Herein, we present a mathematical model for the growth of GBM tumour drive...
Preprint
Full-text available
E-textiles has received tremendous attention in recent years due to the capability of integrating sensors into a garment to provide high precision sensing of the human body. Besides sensing, a number of solutions for e-textile garments have also integrated wireless interfaces allowing these sensing data to be transmitted and also sensors that allow...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the world unprecedentedly, where it has affected the vast global population both socially and economically. The pandemic has also opened our eyes to the many threats that novel virus infections can pose for humanity. While numerous unknowns are being investigated in terms of the distributed damage that the virus can...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in high fatality rates, especially for patients who suffer from underlying health issues. One of the more serious symptoms exhibited from patients suffering from an acute COVID-19 infection is breathing difficulties and shortness of breath, which is largely due to the excessive fluid (cellular leakage and c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Glioblastoma Multiform (GBM) is known as one of the most malignant tumours in the brain, and challenges remain in developing effective therapeutic solutions. This paper addresses an open-loop control molecular communication system using an adaptive algorithm that controls engineered induced Neural Stem Cells (iNSCs) to release therapeutic exosomes...
Article
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have significantly improved the patientsfi quality of life by restoring damaged hearing, sight, and movement capabilities. After evolving their application scenarios, the current trend of BCI is to enable new innovative brain-to-brain and brain-to-the-Internet communication paradigms. This technological advancement...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes the use of astrocytes to realize Boolean logic gates, through manipulation of the threshold of $$\hbox {Ca}^{2+}$$ Ca 2 + ion flows between the cells based on the input signals. Through wet-lab experiments that engineer the astrocytes cells with pcDNA3.1-hGPR17 genes as well as chemical compounds, we show that both AND and OR ga...
Article
Advanced distributed analytics facilitate to make the services smarter for a wider range of data-driven applications in many domains, including agriculture. The key to producing services at such level is timely analysis for deriving insights from data. Centralized data analytic services are becoming infeasible due to limitations in both the ICT inf...
Chapter
Consumption of food in excess of the required optimal nutritional requirements has already resulted in a global crisis and this is from the perspective of human health, such as obesity, as well as food waste and sustainability. In order to minimize the impact of these issues, there is a need to develop novel innovative and effective solutions that...
Article
Recent Brain-Machine Interfaces have moved towards miniature devices that can be seamlessly integrated into the cortex. In this paper, we propose communication between miniature devices using light. A number of challenges exist using nanoscale light-based communication and this includes diffraction, scattering, and absorption, where these propertie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are affected by viral infections each year, and yet, several of them neither have vaccines nor effective treatment during and post-infection. This challenge has been highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, showing how viruses can quickly spread and how they can impact society as a whole. Novel techniques that...
Preprint
The use of Internet of Things (IoT) with the Internet of Nano Things (IoNT) can further expand decision making systems (DMS) to improve reliability as it provides a new spectrum of more granular level data to make decisions. However, growing concerns such as data security, transparency and processing capability challenge their use in real-world app...
Article
Full-text available
High-frequency firing activity can be induced either naturally in a healthy brain as a result of the processing of sensory stimuli or as an uncontrolled synchronous activity characterizing epileptic seizures. As part of this work, we investigate how logic circuits that are engineered in neurons can be used to design spike filters, attenuating high-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bacterial quorum sensing can be engineered with a view to the design of biotechnological applications based on their intrinsic role as a means of communication. We propose the creation of a positive feedback loop that will promote the emission of a superfolded green fluorescence protein from a bacterial population that will flow through hydrogel, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
While metasurface based intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS) are an important emerging technology for future generations of wireless connectivity in its own right, the plans for the mass deployment of these surfaces motivate the question of their integration with other new and emerging technologies that would require mass proliferation. This quest...
Preprint
Full-text available
Respiratory viruses including Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus and cornaviruses such as Middle Eastern respiratory virus (MERS) and SARS-CoV-2 infect and cause serious and sometimes fatal disease in thousands of people annually. It is critical to understand virus propagation dynamics within the respiratory system because new insig...
Article
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) arose as systems that merge computing systems with the human brain to facilitate recording, stimulation, and inhibition of neural activity. Over the years, the development of BCI technologies has shifted towards miniaturization of devices that can be seamlessly embedded into the brain and can target single neuron or...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) arose as systems that merge computing systems with the human brain to facilitate recording, stimulation, and inhibition of neural activity. Over the years, the development of BCI technologies has shifted towards miniaturization of devices that can be seamlessly embedded into the brain and can target single neuron or...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper proposes the use of Eukaryotic cells, namely astrocytes, to develop logic gates. The logic gates are achieved by manipulating the threshold of Ca$^{2+}$ ion flows between the cells, based on the input signals. Through wet-lab experiments that engineer the astrocytes cells with pcDNA3.1-hGPR17 genes, we show that both AND and OR gates can...
Article
Full-text available
The performance demands from data-intensive applications, such as multimedia streaming, as well as the growing number of devices connecting to the Internet, will increase the need for higher capacity wireless communication links. The research community has recently explored regions of the spectrum, including the Terahertz band (0.1 THz to 10 THz),...
Article
Full-text available
A novel implantable and externally controllable stem-cell-based platform for the treatment of Glioblastoma brain cancer has been proposed to bring hope to patients who suffer from this devastating cancer type. Induced Neural Stem Cells (iNSCs), known to have potent therapeutic effects through exosomes-based molecular communication, play a pivotal r...
Article
Full-text available
The functioning of bacterial nanonetworks as a “drug delivery system” requires the engineered bacteria to track the targets, such as harmful micro-organisms, pathogens, or chemical weapons to release drug molecules effectively. The coordinated and intelligent movement of energy-constrained engineered bacteria is desired for successful tracking of m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Conference and social events provides an opportunity for people to interact and develop formal contacts with various groups of individuals. In this paper, we propose an efficient interaction mechanism in a pervasive computing environment that provide recommendation to users of suitable locations within a conference or expo hall to meet and interact...
Article
With the advancement of synthetic biology, several new tools have been conceptualized over the years as alternative treatments for current medical procedures. This work we investigate how synthetically engineered neurons can operate as digital logic gates that can be used towards bio-computing inside the brain and its impact on epileptic seizure-li...
Article
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) uses electrical impulses applied at the neck in order to mitigate the effects of, for example, epileptic seizures. We propose using VNS to provide data pulses to communicate with a drug-delivery system embedded near the brainstem. We model the generation of a vagus nerve compound action potential (CAP), calculating the...
Preprint
Recent Brain-Machine Interfaces have shifted towards miniature devices that are constructed from nanoscale components. While these devices can be implanted into the brain, their functionalities can be limited, and will require communication and networking to enable cooperation. One form of communication for neuron stimulation is the use of light. A...
Conference Paper
Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a global threat owing to the unavailability of any specific therapeutics. Since prevention is only restricted to vector control, a clear understanding of Dengue Virus (DENV) transmission within an infected host is essential. The dynamics of DENV transmission addressed in light of molecular communication...
Conference Paper
Novel implantable and externally controllable bio-nanomachines-based treatment strategies for Glioblastoma brain cancer have been proposed recently to bring hope to patients who suffer from this devastating cancer type. The main challenges in developing such strategies lie in both crossing the stringent Blood-Brain Barrier and maximizing the drug c...
Conference Paper
The article focuses on the information security risks that arise from the use of dubious software as part of a DNA-sequencing pipeline. We show how the perpetrator can use a biologically engineered sample that contains the remote machine's IP address and port number to trigger Trojan spyware previously dormant, and create a connection to the remote...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the advancement of synthetic biology, several new tools have been conceptualized over the years as alternative treatments for current medical procedures. Most of those applications are applied to various chronic diseases. This work investigates how synthetically engineered neurons can operate as digital logic gates that can be used towards bio...
Preprint
Full-text available
BCIs have significantly improved the patients' quality of life by restoring damaged hearing, sight and movement capabilities. After evolving their application scenarios, from medicine to entertainment, the trend of these interfaces is breaking new frontiers enabling new innovative brain-to-brain and brain-to-the-Internet communication paradigms. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic logic circuits have been proposed as potential solutions for theranostics of biotechnological problems. One proposed model is the engineering of bacteria cells to create logic gates, and the communication between the bacteria populations will enable the circuit operation. In this paper, we analyse the quality of bacteria-based synthetic l...
Article
Over the past 10 years, molecular communication (MC) has established itself as a key transformative paradigm in communication theory. Inspired by chemical communications in biological systems, the focus of this discipline is on the modeling, characterization, and engineering of information transmission through molecule exchange, with immediate appl...
Article
Molecular communication (MC) is an emerging paradigm in communication theory and systems engineering where information is encoded into properties of substances at the molecular level and then transmitted, propagated, received, and decoded by means of chemical reactions and molecule transport processes. The MC paradigm draws direct inspiration from...