Sascha Schwarz

Sascha Schwarz
Bergische Universität Wuppertal | Uni-Wuppertal, BUW ·  Psychologie

PD Dr.

About

53
Publications
40,571
Reads
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531
Citations
Introduction
My research interests are at the interface between social psychology and personality psychology. In particular, I am interested in the question of which characteristics of the perceiver influence how targets are perceived. From this perspective, I have particularly studied the topic of mate choice. As a starting point to derive hypotheses about which properties of the perceiver and target are relevant, I use theories from an evolutionary perspective.
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - September 2012
Technische Universität Dortmund
Position
  • Professor
October 2011 - September 2012
Technische Universität Dortmund
Position
  • Professor
October 2004 - present
Bergische Universität Wuppertal
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Education
September 2004 - February 2008
Bergische Universität Wuppertal
Field of study
  • Psychology
April 2000 - August 2004
Bergische Universität Wuppertal
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Full-text available
For nearly 70 years, studies have shown large sex differences in human mate selection preferences. However, most of the studies were restricted to a limited set of mate selection criteria and to college students, and neglecting relationship status. In this study, 21,245 heterosexual participants between 18 and 65 years of age (mean age 41) who at t...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that the color red enhances men?s sexual attraction to women. In this study, a sample of 60 young (M = 24.67 years) and 60 old male participants (M = 53.47 years) were presented either a young female target (perceived age: M = 23.67 years), or an old female target (perceived age: M = 48.18 years), either on a red or white...
Article
We investigated the impact of movie genre preferences on memory for movie content. Starting from a well-documented gender gap in movie preferences, we predicted that women would recall more contents from a romantic movie than from an action movie, whereas men were expected to recall more contents from an action movie than from a romantic movie. In...
Article
The current literature shows mixed results regarding whether the perception of facial attractiveness is automatic, i.e. that it operates independently from attentional resources. We argue that an evolutionary perspective on mating strategies provides a comprehensive account of the findings. In two studies, we used the locus-of-slack logic in a psyc...
Article
Full-text available
From an evolutionary perspective, the perception and interpretation of sexual advances depend on sex-specific mechanisms, individual differences in the perceivers' mating strategies, and the actor's attractiveness. In two studies (N = 1516), participants evaluated hypothetical situations of sexual advances from a coworker varying in attractiveness...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the accuracy of gender stereotypes regarding digital game genre preferences. In Study 1, 484 female and male participants rated their preference for 17 game genres (gender differences). In Study 2, another sample of 226 participants rated the extent to which the same genres were presumably preferred by women or men (gender stereotyp...
Article
Full-text available
Sex differences in mating-relevant attitudes and behaviors are well established in the literature and seem to be robust throughout decades and cultures. However, recent research claimed that sex differences are "overrated", and individual differences in mating strategies (beyond sex) are more important than sex differences. In our current research,...
Article
Full-text available
The original version of this article contained a mistake in Table 2.
Article
Full-text available
We conducted two computer-mediated speed dating studies to evaluate personality perception based on language use in online dating and analyzed the data with Bayesian statistics. In each study, participants first reported mating-relevant personality traits (Big Five, sociosexual orientation) and we assessed their intelligence (N1 = 186, N2 = 618). S...
Article
Full-text available
Is the Social Network profile photo important when women need help? In two field experiments (N = 681), male and female participants received a help request from a woman of below-average, above-average (Study 1 and 2), or a woman of unknown physical attractiveness (Study 2). Men (but not women) responded more often, answered more detailed, and were...
Article
Full-text available
The present article reports the results of a meta-analysis of nine student replication projects of Elliot et al.’s (2010) findings from Experiment 3, that women were more attracted to photographs of men with red borders (total 'n' = 640). The eight student projects were part of the Collaborative Replication and Education Project (CREP; https://osf....
Chapter
Full-text available
„Frauen mögen Schnulzen – Männer wollen Action!“. Handelt es sich bei dieser Aussage um ein nichtzutreffendes Stereotyp über geschlechtsspezifische Filmpräferenzen oder spiegelt sie die Realität wider? Wenn die Aussage richtig ist: Sind die Unterschiede zwischen Männern und Frauen so groß, dass Männer vom Mars, Frauen von der Venus sind, wie uns po...
Chapter
"Wenn zwei das Gleiche tun, ist das noch lange nicht dasselbe" sagt ein altes Sprichwort. Dies gilt auch für die Interpretation mehrdeutigen Verhaltens am Arbeitsplatz. In diesem Beitrag widmen wir uns der Frage, welche Faktoren aus einer evolutionspsychologischen Perspektive dazu beitragen können, ob ein mehrdeutiges Verhalten als sexuell belästig...
Book
Full-text available
Das Buch nimmt sich eines Themas an, das die Gedanken im Grenzbereich zwischen evolutionären Grundlagen und deren aktuellen Manifestationen in der Kultur aufgreift und fortführt, nämlich Geschlecht und Geschlechterunterschiede in Erleben und Verhalten. Der erste Themenblock beschäftigt sich mit direkten Vergleichen zwischen männlichem und weibliche...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present article reports the results of a meta-analysis of eight student replication projects of Elliot et al.’s (2010) Experiment 3. The eight student projects were part of the Collaborative Replication and Education Project (CREP; https://osf,io/wfc6u/), a research crowdsourcing project for undergraduate students. Studies to be replicated were...
Book
Full-text available
Ästhetisches Gefühl ist eine weitgehend unbewusste Reaktion auf eine Wahrnehmung. Der Ausgangspunkt für eine darwinistische Ästhetik ist ein Erleben von Schönheit als Wahrnehmung optimierter Fitness. Mehrere evolutionär bedeutsame Bereiche sind betroffen: Einschätzungen der Umwelt, Partnerwahl, Berufserfolg, Artefakte, Medienereignisse u.a. Obgleic...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three nota...
Article
Full-text available
The present article focuses on the role of situational factors - such as the color red - and their influence on what humans notice in others. Humans form impressions of others instantly. These impressions are predominantly based on physical appearance, which is part due to a person’s search for indicators of a potential partner’s fitness. Attractiv...
Article
The present article focuses on the role of situational factors - such as the color red - and their influence on what humans notice in others. Humans form impressions of others instantly. These impressions are predominantly based on physical appearance, which is part due to a person’s search for indicators of a potential partner’s fitness. Attractiv...
Chapter
Evolutionary psychologists assume that grandparenthood is not only a social role (Kahana & Kahana, 1971), but has profound implications for reproductive success (Voland, Chasiotis, & Schiefenhövel, 2005). From birth on, children are highly dependable on their parents and require a great amount of parental investment (Trivers, 1972). According to th...
Chapter
This section covers the questions, how the presence of children affects parental mate selection in a subsequent partner for a new relationship, and how children are expected to actively manipulate their parent in their mate preferences for a subsequent potential stepparent.
Chapter
in der bestehenden Literatur werden bereits verschiedene Einflussfaktoren beschrieben, die das Urteil der physischen Attraktivität beeinflussen. Evolutionspsychologische Ansätze fokussieren überwiegend auf Eigenschaften der Zielperson, d.h. welche Merkmale liegen in der betrachteten Person vor, damit ein Wahrnehmender zu einem Attraktivitätsurteil...
Article
Full-text available
Asymmetric grandparental caregiving is usually explained by the paternity certainty hypothesis. Accordingly, the lower investment by grandfathers (GFs) and paternal grandparents, as compared to grandmothers (GMs) and maternal grandparents, is based on differential kinship certainty to grandchildren. Hence, differential caregiving by grandparents is...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ) twins, dizygotic (DZ) twins, and non-twin (NT) siblings. The results show that MZ twins...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung traditionell sehen verschiedene wissenschaftliche ansätze das Verhalten und erleben des Menschen als wesentlich z.b. von umwelt, Kultur, erziehung oder sozialisation geprägt. Komplementäre Perspektiven wie die der Verhaltensge-netik und der evolutionären Psychologie betonen hingegen die rolle geneti-scher Prädispositionen und (anzes...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Welche Menschen sehen besonders gut aus und welche eher nicht? Dies scheint ein zentrales Thema zu sein, mit denen sich Menschen anscheinend schon lange beschäftigen. Bereits in den Schriften von z.b. Platon oder Ovid finden sich erste überlieferte Auseinandersetzungen dazu. Ziel des vorliegenden Kapitels ist es, aus dieser sehr umf...
Chapter
Full-text available
Unterscheiden sich Menschen dahingehend voneinander, ob sie eher langfristige Beziehungen wünschen, die z.B. durch Wärme und Geborgenheit gekennzeichnet sind (Langzeitorientierung), oder ob sie eher kurzfristige, sexuelle Abenteuer suchen (Kurzzeitorientierung)? Im Gegensatz zu eindimensionalen Messinstrumenten, die davon ausgehen, dass Menschen en...
Article
Full-text available
Female fertility, which changes across the menstrual cycle, as an important factor in human mate choice has been in the scope of evolutionary psychological research for some time now. Many studies report effects of fertility on the female perception of many different mate choice-relevant traits, especially in short-term mating. One trait not studie...
Article
Full-text available
Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed...
Article
Full-text available
Applying sexual selection theory to language, it can be assumed that high verbal proficiency increases attractiveness, but male more than female attractiveness, because women have higher costs regarding reproduction and are thus more selective in mate choice. These predictions were tested experimentally. In the first study, videos were used as the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen Überblick über evolutionspsychologische Ansätze zur Erklärung kultureller Leistungen. Die Evolutionspsychologie sieht, der Darwin’schen Evolutionstheorie folgend, in den Vorteilen eines Phänomens für Überleben (natürliche Selektion) und Reproduktion (sexuelle Selektion) die eigentliche Ursache für sein Entstehen un...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Darwins Theorie der sexuellen Selektion sagt, angewandt auf Sprache, voraus, dass sprachliche Gewandtheit attraktivitätssteigernd wirkt (Miller, 2001). Aufgrund geschlechtsdifferenter Reproduktionsbedingungen betrifft dies, so die weitere Vorhersage, männliche Attraktivität jedoch stärker als weibliche. Diese Annahmen wurden experimentell untersuch...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, religion, art, and other human achievements are subsumed under the term culture, whereas other aspects of human life, like mate choice and reproduction in general, are considered to be merely a part of “human nature.” Like others before us, we propose that literature, religion, and presumably other cultural achievements may be placed...
Article
Full-text available
Die Evolutionspsychologie hat in den letzten Jahren neue Einsichten über die Einflüsse weiblicher Fertilität auf das Verhalten und die Infor­mationsverarbeitung im Kontext von Partnerschaften ermöglicht. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Einblick in den aktuellen Forschungsstand. Ausgehend von einigen wesentlichen Grundannahmen der evolutionspsych...
Article
According to error management theory (EMT) [Haselton M.G., & Buss D.M. (2000). Error management theory: a new perspective on biases in cross-sex mind reading. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 81–91], evolved psychological mechanisms can lead to systematic cognitive errors whenever costs of false-positive and false-negative decision...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that preferences for close relationships (Long-Term Relationship Orientation) are independent of preferences for various sexual partners (Short-Term Relationship Orientation). In the current studies, we hypothesized that Short-Term Relationship Orientation would be negatively related to 2D:4D finger-length ratio (i.e., the...
Article
Among laypersons and even among scientists, little agreement exists about the definition of sex. Using the prototype approach, the current research explored the prototypical structure of sex. Further, it examined important intersexual and intrasexual personal templates. In Study 1, 122 participants produced a list of 80 features for the concept sex...
Article
Some empirical evidence suggests that women's sexual motivation varies throughout the menstrual cycle, showing a peak prior to ovulation. One potential byproduct of this increased desire might be a provocative clothing style during the fertile days of the cycle. We conducted a longitudinal diary study with 40 normally ovulating women throughout one...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Based on the prototype of relationship quality (Hassebrauck, 1997) we examined the dimensions of relationship quality. In a first study with a German sample based on a principle components analysis, four dimensions -- Intimacy, Agreement, Independence, and Sexuality -- underlying the prototype of relationship quality were identified. This four fact...
Thesis
Unterscheiden sich Menschen dahingehend, ob sie eher langfristige Beziehungen wollen, die z. B. durch Wärme und Geborgenheit gekennzeichnet sind, oder ob sie eher kurzfristige, sexuelle Abenteuer suchen? Wenn ja - wie sind diese Unterschiede beschreibbar, erklärbar und aufgrund welcher ontogenetischen Faktoren entwickeln sie sich? Welche theoretisc...
Article
Full-text available
Relationship Orientation is a new two-dimensional construct comprising preferences regarding long-term and short-term mating. In one cross-sectional study with 284 participants and one longitudinal study with 287 participants, the diagnostic properties as well as the convergent and discriminant validity of scales measuring short-term and long-term...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sowohl die Wahl eines geeigneten Partners als auch das Eingehen von sexuellen Beziehungen mit diesem stellen besonders für Frauen ein enormes adaptives Problem dar: das Treffen einer falschen Entscheidung könnte in hohen Netto- Kosten resultieren. Darüber hinaus gibt es eine besonders vulnerable Phase im Verlauf eines jeden Monats im Leben einer Fr...
Chapter
Full-text available
In vier Studien wurde der Einfluss des Geschlechts und der weiblichen Fertilität auf die Verarbeitung beziehungsrelevanter Informationen untersucht. Studie 1 zeigte, dass Frauen mehr über ihre Beziehungen nachdenken als Männer. Studie 2 versuchte, den zugrunde liegenden Prozess näher zu beleuchten, und untersucht diese Geschlechtsunterschiede in de...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I have one question which seems to be often ignored in standard textbooks in statistics. In my design there is (by definition) one cell left: I want to compare gender composition of siblings (same- or cross-gender) and zygosity (identical twins, fraternal twins, and non-twin siblings) of my participants.
As cross-gender identical twins do not exist I have an incomplete 2x3-design and in fact five groups:
identical twins / same-gender
fraternal twins / same-gender
fraternal twins / cross-gender
siblings / same-gender
siblings / cross-gender
The SPSS help (GLM command) recommends calculation of Type IV sums of squares, which was "specially designed for situations involving empty cells ...", but I guess that's not sufficient in this case. The DV is a repeated measurement (2 items), but I think this is less important here.
Any suggestions or remarks I should consider?

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Projects

Project (1)
Archived project
Recent empiric evidence shows that the color red creates a psychological effect in the human affiliation context. In self-reports and behavior, individuals indicate that they perceive a person of the opposite gender as more attractive and feel more attracted to him/her, if the perceived individual is either surrounded by a red frame or wears red as opposed to other chromatic colors like blue or green and achromatic colors like white, and grey. The goals of the present project predominantly grounded in Social Psychology are threefold: (1) We aim to create evidence on how specifically this red effect pertains to the affiliation domain hereby including evaluations and behavioral data paired with physiological. (2) Moreover, we engage the most recent debate on whether and how much of the facilitating effect of the color red originates in social conditioning and/or in human biological heritage. (3) Furthermore we yield to extend the psychological effect of the color red in the affiliation context to the domain of female leadership, status and power.