Sascha Schroeder

Sascha Schroeder
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen | GAUG · Institute of Psychology

Professor

About

99
Publications
41,512
Reads
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1,806
Citations
Introduction
My main research interests are the cognitive processes involved in reading, how they develop, and how we can help people with reading difficulties. I use a broad range of empirical methods, but I'm particularly interested in the analyses of eye movements. You can find more information and materials on my unofficial academic website at https://sites.google.com/view/saschaschroeder/

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
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This article introduces childLex, an online database of German read by children. childLex is based on a corpus of children's books and comprises 10 million words that were syntactically annotated and lemmatized. childLex reports linguistic norms for lexical, superlexical, and sublexical variables in three different age groups: 6-8 (grades 1-2), 9-1...
Article
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Phonological and orthographic information has been shown to play an important role in parafoveal processing in skilled adult reading in English. In the present study, we investigated whether similar parafoveal effects can be found in children using the boundary eye tracking method. Children and adults read sentences in German with embedded target n...
Article
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This study investigated the reading behavior of 15-year-old students while reading texts and answering corresponding multiple-choice questions. The availability of the texts during question answering was manipulated experimentally. Allocation of resources to several cognitive processes at the word, sentence, and text level was measured by decomposi...
Article
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In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that indi...
Article
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Extending our understanding of the interplay between visual and cognitive processes during reading is essential to understand how reading develops and changes across the lifespan. Monitoring readers' eye movements provides a fine-grained online protocol of the reading process as it evolves over time, but until recently eye movements have rarely bee...
Article
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Research into second language (L2) reading is an exponentially growing field. Yet, it still has a relatively short supply of comparable, ecologically valid data from readers representing a variety of first languages (L1). This article addresses this need by presenting a new data resource called MECO L2 (Multilingual Eye Movements Corpus), a rich be...
Article
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Successful reading comprehension—especially in a second language (L2)—relies on the ability to monitor one’s comprehension, that is, to notice comprehension breaks and make repairs. Comprehension monitoring may be limited given effortful word processing but may also be supported through active reading. The current study addresses to what extent wor...
Article
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Reading a word requires several component processes. The dual route cascaded (DRC) model provides a characterization of these component processes and their involvement in different reading routes. We tested how relevant precursor skills associated with these component processes predict the use of the sublexical and lexical route in beginning reader...
Article
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Scientific studies of language behavior need to grapple with a large diversity of languages in the world and, for reading, a further variability in writing systems. Yet, the ability to form meaningful theories of reading is contingent on the availability of cross-linguistic behavioral data. This paper offers new insights into aspects of reading beh...
Article
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In this study, we investigated developmental aspects of eye movements during reading of three languages (English, German, and Finnish) that vary widely in their orthographic complexity and predictability. Grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules are rather complex in English and German but relatively simple in Finnish. Despite their differences in com...
Article
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In this study, we investigated effects of morphological processing on handwriting production in beginning writers of German. Children from Grades 3 and 4 were asked to copy words from a computer screen onto a pen tablet, while we recorded their handwriting with high spatiotemporal resolution. Words involved a syllable-congruent visual disruption (e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Successful reading comprehension – especially in a second language (L2) – relies on the ability to monitor one’s comprehension, that is, to notice comprehension breaks and make repairs. Comprehension monitoring may be limited given effortful word processing, but may also be supported through active control. The current study addresses to what exten...
Article
Full-text available
Reading development involves several changes in orthographic processing. A key question is, “how does the coding of letters develops in children learning to read”. Masked priming effects of transposition and substitution primes have been taken to index the importance of letter position and identity coding. Somewhat contradicting results for develop...
Article
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German verb stems may be combined with a particle or a prefix, forming particle and prefixed verbs, respectively. Both types of verbs are morphologically complex, yet particles are free morphemes, which are routinely separated from their stem and can stand alone in a sentence, whereas prefixes are bound morphemes, which are attached to their stem a...
Article
Empirical evidence from masked priming research shows that skilled readers can rapidly identify morphological structure in written language. However, comparatively little is known about how and when this skill is acquired in children. The current work investigated the developmental trajectory of morphological processing in a 2-year longitudinal stu...
Article
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When analyzing eye movement data from the reading of multi-line texts, it is important to ensure that fixations are assigned correctly to the lines of the text. This is a non-trivial problem as eye movement data are noisy and often show complex non-linear distortions. Here, we introduced Slice, a new algorithm to assign fixations in multi-line text...
Chapter
Studien zu Transfereffekten auf die Persönlichkeit bilden einen komplexen Teilbereich innerhalb der Forschung zur Kulturellen Bildung. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir eine Sichtung und Strukturierung dieses Forschungsfeldes vor, welches drei Dimensionen unterscheidet: Kulturelle Sparten, Transfervariablen und Methoden. Durch Einordnung bisheriger Stu...
Article
This experiment investigated interactions between lower- and higher-level processing when reading in a second language (L2). We conducted an eye-tracking experiment with the within-subject manipulation inconsistency (to tap higher-level coherence-building) crossed with a within-subject manipulation of word-processing difficulty (to alter the ease o...
Article
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If the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, as assumed by Boucher and Osgood's (1969) famous Pollyanna hypothesis and computationally confirmed for large text corpora in several languages (Dodds et al., 2015), then children and youth literature (CYL) should also show a Pollyanna effect. Here we tested this prediction...
Preprint
Shared reading has the potential to promote a wide range of language skills that are important for reading acquisition. Dialogic reading interventions in preschool facilitate the acquisition of vocabulary and narrative production skills, but it is unclear (a) whether dialogic reading can also foster inferential and literal narrative comprehension a...
Article
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Leisure reading is a main contributor to print exposure, which is in turn related to individual differences in reading and language skills. The Author Recognition Test (ART) is a brief and objective measure of print exposure that has been used in reading research since the 1990s. Life span studies have reported contradicting results concerning age...
Article
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Words are seldom read in isolation. Predicting or anticipating upcoming words in a text, based on the context in which they are read, is an important aspect of efficient language processing. In sentence reading, words with congruent preceding context have been shown to be processed faster than words read in neutral or incongruous contexts. The onse...
Article
The present study examined cross-linguistic differences in morphological processing in the visual and auditory modality. French and German adults performed a visual and auditory lexical decision task that involved the same translation-equivalent items. The focus of the study was on nonwords, which were constructed in a way that made it possible to...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined cross-linguistic differences in morphological processing in the visual and auditory modality. French and German adults performed a visual and auditory lexical decision task that involved the same translation-equivalent items. The focus of the study was on nonwords, which were constructed in a way that made it possible to...
Article
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Masked priming studies have shown that readers decompose morphologically complex words (read+er). Interindividual differences have been suggested to affect this phenomenon. However, its development is poorly understood. We addressed this issue by taking a longitudinal approach that allows greater rigor in establishing the relationship between grade...
Article
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In the present study, we investigated effects of double letter processing on handwriting production in beginning and skilled writers of German. One hundred thirty-seven children from grades 2 and 3 and 31 adult participants were asked to copy words with double consonants (e.g., “Kanne”) and matched words without double consonants (e.g., “Kante”) fr...
Article
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The present study investigated whether morphological processing in reading is influenced by the orthographic consistency of a language or its morphological complexity. Developing readers in Grade 3 and skilled adult readers participated in a reading aloud task in four alphabetic orthographies (English, French, German, Italian), which differ in term...
Data
Supplemental materials to: Grolig, L., Cohrdes, C., Tiffin-Richards, S. P., & Schroeder, S. (2020). Narrative dialogic reading with wordless picture books: A cluster-randomized intervention study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 51, 191–203. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.11.002 Free access to the article until January 18 2020: https://authors.els...
Preprint
This experiment investigated interactions between bottom-up and higher-level processing when reading in a second language (L2). While interactions between bottom-up and higher-level processes are pivotal to understanding reading comprehension and targeting instruction, they are far from fully understood, especially for close-to-the-text processes s...
Article
Shared reading has the potential to promote a wide range of language skills that are important for reading acquisition. Dialogic reading interventions in preschool facilitate the acquisition of vocabulary and narrative production skills, but it is unclear (a) whether dialogic reading can also foster inferential and literal narrative comprehension a...
Article
Full-text available
Children struggle with the resolution of pronouns during reading, but little is known about the sources of their difficulties. We conducted a longitudinal eye tracking experiment with 70 children in the final years of primary school. The children read sentences with a contextual resolution preference in which gender was either an informative resolu...
Article
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Phonological similarity effects are biases to judge words as phonologically similar (i.e., rhyming), even if they are not. First found in rime awareness tasks in preliterates, these biases have recently also been found in proficient adult readers. In this study, we evaluated underlying phonological processing in rime judgment longitudinally, across...
Article
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The development of preschoolers’ language skills is influenced by literacy environments and individual differences in storybook exposure. Extant research is limited as most studies (a) investigate the effects on lower level language (LLL; e.g., vocabulary, grammar), but not the effects on higher level language (HLL; e.g., comprehension monitoring,...
Article
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Thematic relations are important semantic features in the young child’s lexicon. So far, it is unclear how the ability to distinguish di erent strengths of thematic relations develops, whether this ability depends on speci c word characteristics (homonyms), and whether it is linked to reading acquisition. In this longitudinal study, 62 children wer...
Article
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Research on morphological processing has been mainly conducted in the single-word reading domain using the lexical decision task. Similar research in the sentence reading domain has been conducted using eye-tracking techniques, yet the experimental paradigms used in each domain are not directly comparable. In the present study, we investigated morp...
Article
Syllables are thought to be processing units in handwritten word production. Yet, little is known about whether the orthographic characteristics of different languages influence syllabic processing during handwriting, which is critical for the evaluation and further development of extant models of handwritten language production. In the present stu...
Article
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In this study, we examine the development of orthographic networks in the mental lexicon using graph theory. According to this view, words are represented by nodes in a network and connected as a function of their orthographic similarity. With a sampling approach based on a language corpus for German school children, we were able to simulate lexica...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. In dem vorliegenden Artikel wird der Wortschatztest WOR-TE für deutsche Grundschulkinder vorgestellt. Der Test basiert auf der Ja / Nein-Methode, bei der die Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer aus einer Liste von Wörtern und Pseudowörtern diejenigen ankreuzen sollen, die sie kennen. Er wurde für verschiedene Altersgruppen (1./2. Klasse...
Article
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Although it is well established that beginning readers rely heavily on phonological decoding, the overlap of the phonological pathways used in visual and auditory word recognition is not clear. Especially in transparent languages, phonological reading could use the same pathways as spoken word processing. In the present study, we report a direct co...
Article
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Current models of morphological processing differ in their assumptions about the recognition of compound words. The relative contribution of the first and second constituent and the whole-word remains unsolved. Particularly for beginning readers, the first constituent might have a privileged role due to more sequential decoding strategies. In a ser...
Article
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Reading comprehension is the product of constructing a coherent mental model of a text. Although some of the processes that are necessary to construct such a mental model are executed incrementally, others are deferred to the end of the clause or sentence, where integration processing is wrapped up before the reader progresses further in the text....
Article
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The present study investigated the development and training of music competencies in children in transition from kindergarten to school. In an intervention study with three experimental groups (music training, language training, no training) we investigated music performances of N = 202 5-year-old children before and after a period of 6 months. Res...
Article
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We report data from an eye tracking experiment on the repeated name penalty effect in 9-year-old children and young adults. The repeated name penalty effect is informative for the study of children's reading because it allows conclusions about children's ability to direct attention to discourse-level processing cues during reading. We presented chi...
Article
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In this study, we investigated the baseword frequency effect in children and its implications for models of visual word recognition. The baseword frequency effect reflects the finding that response latencies in the lexical decision task to nonwords derived from high-frequency basewords (e.g., GREAN derived from GREEN) are shorter than for those der...
Article
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Investigating the impact of linguistic characteristics on visual word recognition in children, we studied whether differences in native (L1) and second language (L2) processing already emerge at the beginning of reading development. German elementary school students in grades 2 to 6 completed a battery of standardized tests and a lexical decision t...
Article
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Studien haben gezeigt, dass bereits im Vorschulalter ein positiver Zusammenhang zwischen Lesevolumen und Sprachentwicklung besteht. Eine objektive und ökonomische Methode zur Erfassung des Lesevolumens sind Titelrekognitionstests. Hierbei geben die Teilnehmenden für eine Reihe von Buchtiteln an, ob ihnen diese bekannt sind. Um Ratetendenzen zu mini...
Article
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German children do not formally learn letter-sounds before school entry. In this study, we evaluated kindergarten children's sensitivity to the frequency of letters and visually similar symbols in child-directed texts, how it develops and whether it predicts early reading abilities. In a longitudinal study from kindergarten to primary school, child...
Article
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With the Developmental Lexicon Project (DeveL), we present a large-scale study that was conducted to collect data on visual word recognition in German across the lifespan. A total of 800 children from Grades 1 to 6, as well as two groups of younger and older adults, participated in the study and completed a lexical decision and a naming task. We pr...
Article
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The developmental trajectory of the use of morphemes is still unclear. We investigated the emergence of morphological effects on visual word recognition in German in a large sample across the complete course of reading acquisition in elementary school. To this end, we analyzed lexical decision data on a total of 1,152 words and pseudowords from a l...
Article
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Children have been found to use units such as syllables and morphemes in fine-grained reading processes, before they transition to a coarse-grained, holistic route. Which units they prefer at different stages in reading development is unresolved. The present study compares the use of syllables and morphemes. Second graders, fourth graders, and adul...
Article
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Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relatio...
Article
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Aims and objectives Recent findings on the mechanisms of lexical access suggest that bilinguals are sensitive to the orthographic structure of their languages. Several studies have demonstrated that if presented with language-specific sub-lexical information, bilingual adults use this information to speed up word recognition, which provides evidenc...
Article
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In Germany, there is a substantial gap in reading literacy between monolingual children and their L2-speaking peers. Nevertheless, it is still unclear where these performance differences are rooted. We investigated children of grades 5, 6 and 7 with comparable socio-economic status, who completed a battery of tests assessing their linguistic and ex...
Conference Paper
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The Development of a Letter Concept in the Transitional Period to School Before children acquire the alphabetic system in school, they are continuously surrounded by speech and text. However, whereas speech predominately consists of speech sounds, text does not only consist of letters but also of symbols (e.g. pictographic symbols). In addition to...
Article
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In this study, we looked at masked morphological priming effects in German children and adults beyond mean response times by taking into account response time distributions. We conducted an experiment comparing suffixed word primes (kleidchen-KLEID), suffixed nonword primes (kleidtum-KLEID), nonsuffixed nonword primes (kleidekt-KLEID), and unrelate...
Article
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In this article we present a new method for estimating children’s total vocabulary size based on a language corpus in German. We drew a virtual sample of different lexicon sizes from a corpus and let the virtual sample “take” a vocabulary test by comparing whether the items were included in the virtual lexicons or not. This enabled us to identify t...
Poster
The global similarity effect describes a preference to judge any type of phonological overlap of two words as rhyme and has been found in preschoolers (Carroll & Snowling, 2001). Early literates and adults have been found to have a strong sensitivity for rime overlap (Wagensveld et al., 2012; Wagensveld et al., 2013). The Lexical Restructuring Mode...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether beginning bilingual readers activate orthographic as well as semantic representations in both of their languages while reading in one of them. Balanced bilingual third graders who were learning to read concurrently in German and English completed two lexical decision tasks, one in each language, including cognates, false fri...
Article
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In the present study we focus on the component processes of reading comprehension in adolescents. To accomplish this we applied the component processes task (CPT, Hannon & Daneman, 2001) in two connected studies to assess higher-level reading comprehension processes and the cognitive-components-resource (CC-R, Hannon, 2012) model to structure the p...
Article
This paper provides a summary of the main issues that arose in the final "Discussion" session at the Volkswagen Workshop on Developmental Eye-tracking Research in Reading held in Hannover, Germany, October 2013. The Workshop focused on eye movement research investigating reading development, that is, change in reading performance with age. Developm...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir childLex vor, eine online-Datenbank zur Schriftsprache fur Kinder im Deutschen. childLex basiert auf einem Korpus aus Kinder- und Schulbuchern, das ca. 10 Millionen Worter umfasst, und stellt verschiedene linguistische Normen auf der lexikalischen, superlexikalischen und sublexikalischen Ebene zur Verf...
Article
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In the present study we measured the eye movements of a large sample of 2(nd) grade German speaking children and a control group of adults during a silent reading task. To be able to directly investigate the interaction of word length and frequency effects we employed controlled sentence frames with embedded target words in an experimental design i...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir den K-TRT (Kinder-Titelrekognitionstest) vor, ein ökonomisches und objektives Verfahren, um das Lesevolumen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen im Deutschen zu erfassen. Der K-TRT orientiert sich an vergleichbaren Instrumenten aus dem Englischen, die eine Rekognitionsmethode verwenden: Die Probanden sollen an...