Sareen Elizabeth Galbraith

Sareen Elizabeth Galbraith
Leeds Beckett University | LEEDS MET · School of Clinical and Applied Sciences

BSc, MMedSci, PhD

About

38
Publications
2,891
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
814
Citations

Publications

Publications (38)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found across Asia that is closely related to West Nile virus. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be ef...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autophagy is an intracellular process, where cytosolic components are delivered in autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation, producing amino acids. Autophagy is part of the response to starvation and can provide an innate response to virus infection. Semliki forest virus (SFV) is a positive stranded RNA virus in the alphavirus genus. The effect...
Article
The U.K. has not yet experienced a confirmed outbreak of mosquito-borne virus transmission to people or livestock despite numerous autochthonous epizootic and human outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases on the European mainland. Indeed, whether or not British mosquitoes are competent to transmit arboviruses has not been established. Therefore, the c...
Chapter
Worldwide central nervous system (CNS) infections in human and animal populations differ with both the geographical location and the immune status of the host. Encephalitis is caused by viruses from many different taxonomic groups but most frequently occurs in rabies and insect-borne virus (arboviruses) infections. However, human herpes viruses cau...
Article
Full-text available
Following a suspected case of hantavirus in a patientsuffering from acute kidney injury, rodents fromthe patient's property in Yorkshire and the Humber,United Kingdom (UK) were screened for hantaviruses.Hantavirus RNA was detected via RT-PCR in two Rattusnorvegicus. Complete sequencing and phylogeneticanalysis established the virus as a Seoul hanta...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We looked for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in Malawian adults with clinically suspected meningitis. Methods We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from consecutive adults admitted with clinically suspected meningitis...
Article
Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes 35 000–50 000 cases and 10 000 deaths every year and is the most important cause of encephalitis worldwide. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Methods We performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of IVIG in 22 Nepalese children with suspected Japanese ence...
Article
Full-text available
Mortality from adult bacterial meningitis exceeds 50% in sub-Saharan Africa. We postulated that—particularly in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contribute to poor outcome. CSF from 149 Malaw...
Article
Full-text available
Dengue viruses (DENV) cause countless human deaths each year, whilst West Nile virus (WNV) has re-emerged as an important human pathogen. There are currently no WNV or DENV vaccines licensed for human use, yet vaccines exist against other flaviviruses. To investigate flavivirus cross-reactivity, sera from a human cohort with a history of vaccinatio...
Article
Background Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a common cause of viral encephalitis with wide spectrum of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology remains poorly understood and few prognostic markers are available. A few studies have attempted to use the viral load of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), to investigate the pathophysiology and prognosis,...
Article
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide but its origin is unknown. Epidemics of encephalitis suggestive of Japanese encephalitis (JE) were described in Japan from the 1870s onwards. Four genotypes of JEV have been characterised and representatives of each genotype have been fully sequenced. B...
Article
West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in Texas in 2002. During 2003, several isolates exhibiting significant attenuation of mouse neuroinvasiveness, and in some cases a small plaque and temperature sensitive phenotype when compared to other North American WNV isolates, were obtained from birds and mosquitoes in South-East Texas. To determine the...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus in North America has identified replacement of the originally introduced clade, Eastern United States (NY99), by the North American clade. In addition, the transient emergence of other clades and genetic variants has also been observed. In this study, we investigated the potential role of the mosquito in the...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of intranasal (IN) administration of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) recombinant particles expressing interferon-β [IFN-β, a partially effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS)] on the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model for MS) was investigated. The murine IFN-β gene was cloned from SFV-infecte...
Article
A Semliki Forest virus (SFV) recombinant particle vaccine vector was constructed expressing the viral E1 and E2 envelope proteins of the RA27/3 vaccine strain of rubella virus. This vector induced high titres of antibody after intramuscular administration to Balb/C mice, both following initial vaccination and a boost 4 weeks later. This occurred fo...
Article
Full-text available
We previously reported mutations in North American West Nile viruses (WNVs) with a small-plaque (sp), temperature-sensitive (ts), and/or mouse-attenuated (att) phenotype. Using an infectious clone, site-directed mutations and 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) exchanges were introduced into the WNV NY99 genome. Characterization of mutants demonstrated...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibition of tumour angiogenesis has been shown to restrict primary tumour growth and metastatic spread. This study examines the active induction of immune responses against tumour endothelial cells following immunization with recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) particles encoding murine vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)....
Article
Major virulence determinants of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) lie within the non-structural genes that form the replicase complex proteins. Gene exchange between virulent and avirulent viruses has shown that the nsP3 gene, which has essential 5' conserved domains and a non-essential hypervariable 3' domain, is one of the virulence determinants. This p...
Article
The alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus have recently been developed as prototype anti-cancer agents. These are RNA-containing enveloped viruses that code for only 9 proteins of unique sequence. The standard recombinant SFV vector system consists of suicide particles containing recombinant RNA. In addition, alphavirus vectors...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV), and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of CNS infection in their natural hosts. CNS complications are rare for measles virus (MV) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (RPV) and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in...
Article
Full-text available
The immune responses of cattle inoculated with either a virulent or an attenuated vaccine strain of rinderpest virus (RPV) were examined by measuring the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to whole RPV antigen preparations and to individual RPV major structural proteins expressed using recombinant adenoviruses. Responses to...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease of the CNS in which autoimmunity to myelin plays a role in pathogenesis. The epidemiology of MS indicates that it may be triggered by a virus infection before the age of adolescence, but attempts to associate a specific virus with MS have produced equivocal results. Many studies of the aet...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease of the CNS in which autoimmunity to myelin plays a role in pathogenesis. The epidemiology of MS indicates that it may be triggered by a virus infection before the age of adolescence, but attempts to associate a specific virus with MS have produced equivocal results. Many studies of the aet...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) is a cellular receptor for vaccine and laboratory-passaged strains of measles virus (MV). Following infection with these MV strains, CD46 is downregulated from the cell surface, and consequent complement-mediated lysis has been shown to occur upon infection of a human monocytic cell line. The...

Network

Cited By