Sarah J. Kelloway

Analytical Chemistry, Archaeology, Geochemistry

B.Sc., B.A.(Hons.), PhD
13.61

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of instrumental neutron activation analysis of ceramics recovered from the Solomon Islands, associated with Alvaro de Mendaña y Neira’s 16th century colonizing expedition to the region (c.1595–6). Based on the chemical and typological data and previously published petrological and geochronological research, this study assigns the provenance of the ceramics variously to Peru, Panama, Spain, China and Thailand. A comparison of the provenance results with historical records related to Mendaña’s voyage also shows the value of the archaeological assemblage in providing a detailed picture of provisioned ceramic types and their provenance.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Archaeometry
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we characterize the production and circulation of Early Green Glazed (EGG) Ware, an innovative variety of lead-glazed ceramics produced in Peru’s North Coast region in the wake of the Spanish colonization of the Andes. INAA of pastes and LA-ICP-MS of glazes of EGG Ware samples collected from sites in Peru’s Zaña, and Chicama river valleys reveal contrasting patterns of composition. While paste characterization via INAA identified a great deal of compositional diversity, LA-ICP-MS data from glazes falls into two discrete groups. We interpret these results as evidence of 1) disperse production of pastes, employing either a wide variety of source materials and/or recipes, mirroring the production of Late Preshispanic paddle-stamped wares, and 2) more nucleated collection of materials for glaze production, perhaps from distinct sources of lead ore. We interpret the presence of small numbers of samples with glaze compositions characteristic of the Zaña valley in Chicama Valley assemblages as evidence of possible trade between indigenous communities in artisanal goods and/or raw materials during the late 16th century CE.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Archaeological Science

  • No preview · Chapter · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Recent developments in instrumentation mean that chemical analysis of large drill cores taken for geological purposes can be performed rapidly at sub-millimetre scales using core scanners equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers. The present study describes the development of a calibration for the Itrax Core Scanner (Cox Analytical, Sweden), intended for whole cores of coal-seam sections, without the need for sample preparation. The calibration was developed for key major elements (Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe) based on pressed pellets of reference coals, allowing semi-quantitative and, at times, quantitative analyses. The influence of core curvature and surface roughness compared with an ideal flat-surface was also examined using model samples, and their influence on the apparent sample composition evaluated.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Powder Diffraction
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    ABSTRACT: A study has been carried out to test the possibility of measuring detailed quantitative profiles of the abundance of different inorganic elements through exploration cores of coal seams using automated energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) core scanning instrumentation. Such an approach has potential application for rapidly determining the distribution of mineral matter in a coal seam, identifying horizons at which particular elements (such as phosphorus) may be concentrated, evaluating in detail the relationships between different elements in the coal, and maximising the data available to guide broader-scale sampling for conventional analysis programs. Profiling was carried out on a series of segments from a 60 mm diameter core of the Goonyella Middle seam in the northern Bowen Basin of Queensland, using an Itrax core scanner (Cox Analytical, Sweden). The scanning process included high resolution optical imaging, X-radiography, and ED-XRF spectroscopy covering the principal major elements, with XRF spectra being obtained at intervals of 200 μm along the axis of each core. A series of calibration curves derived from separately-scanned pressed pellets of reference coals was used to determine the concentration of each element for each step in each sample, allowing a set of quantitative element profiles to be created for each core segment. These were evaluated in conjunction with the relevant X-radiographs and optical images to provide an integrated basis for assessing the variations in inorganic element characteristics through the core sections. The results were also compared to conventionally-determined chemical and mineralogical data for a representative core, to confirm the validity of the quantifications developed.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · International Journal of Coal Geology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2014
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: A geochemical study using pXRF and LA–ICP–MS to characterise artefacts from sites dating to the initial phase of colonisation on Aore and Malo islands, Vanuatu, has confirmed the dominance of obsidian from the distant Kutau/Bao source in West New Britain, with a smaller group from local outcrops in the Banks Islands, Vanuatu. Three flakes from the Umleang/Umrei source in the Admiralty Islands have also been identified in later levels. Distance fall-off analysis of metric and technological attributes suggests that during the early phase of human colonisation of Remote Oceania, obsidian circulated within a series of separate, loosely connected social spheres.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Archaeology in Oceania
  • Sarah J. Kelloway
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    ABSTRACT: This thesis explores Spanish colonisation through the provisioning of colonisation fleets to the West Pacific during the 16th to early 17th Centuries. Historical research focussed on fleets departing from the Americas, namely, those of Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón, Ruy López de Villalobos, Miguel López de Legazpi, Alvaro de Mendaña y Neira and Pedro Fernández de Quirós. The provisions recorded for each fleet were identified, allowing insights into provisioning patterns over time. The fleets were also placed in a colonisation model, allowing insights into these patterns, along with historical research. Research indicates that a generic provisioning pattern existed: local items (in close proximity to point of departure/provisioning) were generally sourced, unless the provisions were of poor quality, unavailable and/or the items were desired because their value was partially or wholly dependent on non-local origin and/or sourcing. The gathering of local resources was dependent on a number of factors including cultural preference, function, cost, production and distribution. The analysis of archaeological assemblages from Graciosa Bay and Pamua, Solomon Islands, was also undertaken, both sites associated with Mendaña’s second voyage to the region, c. 1595-1596. Research focussed on the ceramic component to gain insights into pottery production and distribution in the Viceroyalty of Peru and material culture at the close of the 16th Century. A ceramic attribute database collated finds from both sites, providing an updated range and description of pottery types and counts, and site plans were collated to better understand pottery distribution. Vessel forms and ceramic provenance were determined through typological, petrological and geochemical studies (instrumental neutron activation analyses), along with U-Pb dating of detrital zircons. Ceramics were variously provenanced to Peru, Panama, Spain, Thailand and China. The provenance results support the notion that the Pamua assemblage originally formed part of Mendaña’s fleet assemblage, and contribute to the chemical and petrological profiles of ceramics from colonial Peru and Panama, Spain and Thailand. The identification of Peruvian-made ceramics indicates distribution of colonial Peruvian-made vessels in Ecuador and Panama, evidence of the wide-ranging trade networks operating in the Americas during the late 16th Century, of which the Viceroyalty of Peru was an integral part. The provenance results also indicate that provisioned ceramics were available locally due to production in the area and trade. Ceramic selection appears to have relied upon ceramic production and distribution and its relationship to trade and cost, as well as cultural preference. By examining provisioning both historically and archaeologically, insights are thus gained into not only what was taken, but also into the society that provisioned them. (Available for download from: http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/12872)
    No preview · Thesis · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present U-Pb ages of zircons extracted from olive jars recovered from two sites associated with Alvaro de Mendaña y Neyra's colonising expedition to the Solomon Islands, c. 1595–1596 A.D. The olive jars were previously associated with Panamanian and Peruvian origins based on petrological and geochemical studies. To further define provenance, 143 zircons were extracted from five olive jar sherds, analyzed and dated. The resultant U-Pb ages range from the Archaean to the Cenozoic (2977.2 ± 29.0–3.2 ± 4.0 Ma), but the dominance of Cretaceous and Palaeogene ages (∼ 90% of the total age population is between ∼ 145 and 23 Ma) supports a Peruvian origin based on comparative geology, with the Coastal Batholith of Peru a prime candidate area of ceramic production. These results are significant for the characterization of 16th Century Peruvian-made pottery and our understanding of its production and trade.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Geoarchaeology
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    Robin Torrence · Sarah Kelloway · Peter White
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the proposal that the widespread distribution of early-mid Holocene obsidian stemmed tools in Papua New Guinea signifies wide ranging social networks, studies of their morphology, technology, and geochemical composition were conducted. It is argued that strong similarities in technology and form of artifacts made from both Manus and New Britain obsidians and their characterization to only one sub-source in each region indicate significant social interaction between these two island groups. Away from the obsidian sources, stemmed tools made from local raw material as well as imported obsidian suggest knowledge and practices were also distributed through a series of overlapping social networks. Long-distance voyaging to confirm and enhance status might explain the far-flung distribution of some tools. The new data about stemmed tool production on Manus and the early use of the Umleang-Umrei sub-source highlight the importance of further research in that region.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology
  • Sarah J. Kelloway · Martin Gibbs · Steven Craven
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence linking vessel forms with ceramic wares resulting from the petrological analysis of 33 sherds from two sixteenth century Spanish colonial sites in the Solomon Islands. Our results expand the range of fabric types previously published, and comparative literature analyses support earlier studies suggesting probable ceramic origins in the Americas and Spain.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Archaeology in Oceania
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    Robin Torrence · Sarah J. Kelloway · Peter White

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology
  • Robin Torrence · Peter White · Sarah J. Kelloway

    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic silicate glass produced when highly viscous felsic lava cools rapidly through the glass transition temperature, not allowing sufficient time for crystal growth. Obsidian was a popular raw material in prehistory because its amorphous and isotropic nature means that little force is required to produce conchoidal fractures of predictable shapes and sizes and it is easily flaked or knapped into desired shapes.A class of obsidian artefacts known as ‘stemmed tools’ has been found in locations across lowland Papua New Guinea and has been roughly dated to the early and middle Holocene periods (ca. 10,000–3400 BP). The rarity of obsidian in the natural world, the large size, fragility, brilliance, and distinctive shapes of these objects, as well as their manufacture by craft specialists, suggest that the tools were highly valued in the past.This inter-disciplinary project aims to determine when and how prehistoric obsidian stemmed tools were used to structure social relations and if they defined status differences. This involves studying the history, typology, technology, function, and geological sources of the stemmed tools and comparing this information with other highly worked stone tools from the major obsidian sources of West New Britain and Manus.Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis have been previously used by the authors to discriminate between three major Pacific obsidian sources, an important first step in tracking the movement of stemmed tools through social networks. This paper assesses the viability of using a portable Raman spectrometer (EZRaman-i, 785 nm, ∼6 cm−1 spectral resolution) for identification of the geological source of obsidian through the comparison of spectra collected from 65 samples of known provenance using both a portable and laboratory-based instrument (Renishaw inVia, 785 nm, ∼1–2 cm−1 spectral resolution). The paper demonstrates that results achieved with the portable instrument are similar to those obtained with a laboratory-based instrument.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Vibrational Spectroscopy
  • Sarah J. Kelloway · Judy Birmingham

    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Australasian historical archaeology: journal of the Australasian Society for Historical Archaeology

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