Sarah Zohdy

Sarah Zohdy
Auburn University | AU · School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

About

87
Publications
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781
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Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Anopheles stephensi, a malaria vector species previously only known from Asia, was first detected in Africa in Djibouti in 2012, has been subsequently collected in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia, and may be spreading further. Countries may wish to implement mosquito surveys to determine if An. stephensi is present, or to determine the extent of its d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The global shipping network (GSN) has been suggested as a pathway for the establishment and reintroduction of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus primarily via the tire trade. We used historical maritime movement data in combination with an agent-based model to understand invasion risk in the United States Gulf Coast and how the risk of these invasi...
Article
Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) are widely distributed to communities where malaria is a major cause of mortality, especially to those under the age of 5 years-old. To protect people from this illness, LLINs provide physical and chemical barriers by containing insecticides within the matrix of the polymer fibers or on the surface. Syn...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pyrethroid resistance observed in populations of malaria vectors is widespread in Ethiopia and could potentially compromise the effectiveness of insecticide-based malaria vector control interventions. In this study, the impact of combining indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) on mosquito behaviour and mortal...
Preprint
1. Stable nucleic acid storage and preservation in resource limited settings is often a barrier to widespread pathogen surveillance. 2. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) filter paper has a long history of preserving nucleic acid in whole blood, we tested extending this technology to the room temperature storage of DNA extract. 3. We found that DNA extracted f...
Preprint
Background Malaria remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in Cameroon. To inform vector control intervention decision making, malaria vector surveillance was conducted monthly from October 2018 to September 2020 in five selected sentinel sites (Gounougou and Simatou in the North, Bonabéri, Mangoum and Nyabessang in the South). Me...
Article
Full-text available
Avian malaria is a vector-borne disease that is caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites are transmitted via mosquito bites and can cause sickness or death in a wide variety of birds, including many threatened and endangered species. This Primer first provides contextual background for the avian malaria system including the life cycle, geogr...
Article
The public health implications of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens are numerous because domestic animals, such as dogs, live in close proximity to humans. Blood was collected from 116 domestic dogs in Cairo, Egypt from three different settings at the human-animal interface. The three settings the dogs came from were: privately owned animals seeking...
Article
Full-text available
Background About two out of three Ethiopians are at risk of malaria, a disease caused by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Anopheles stephensi , an invasive vector typically found in South Asia and the Middle East, was recently found to be distributed across eastern and central Ethiopia and is capable of transmitting both P....
Article
Full-text available
Durability monitoring of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing a pyrethroid in combination with a second active ingredient (AI) must be adapted so that the insecticidal bioefficacy of each AI can be monitored independently. An effective way to do this is to measure rapid knock down of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of mosquitoes to assess the...
Article
Full-text available
Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis , remains a major public health threat in Madagascar. To better understand the risk of transmission to humans and to guide targeted plague prevention and control measures, a survey of Y. pestis infection and exposure in mammals and their fleas was implemented. Small mammals were cap...
Preprint
Background : The use of synthetic insecticides against mosquitoes may lead to resistance development and potential health hazards in humans and the environment. In connection to these adverse effects, a paradigm needs to shift towards the alternative use of botanical insecticides that could strengthen an insecticide resistance management program. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Durability monitoring of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing a pyrethroid in combination with a second active ingredient (AI) must be adapted so that the insecticidal bioefficacy of each AI can be monitored independently. An effective way to do this is to measure rapid knock down of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of mosquitoes to assess the...
Preprint
Preservation of samples requiring cold-chain storage is an often unavoidable challenge especially when doing laboratory work outside the western world. Samples are a precious commodity and it is imperative to maintain their viability. One method for collection and storage of samples in a liquid form (blood, saliva, serum) at room temperature is on...
Article
Full-text available
Anopheles stephensi is a malaria vector that has been recently introduced into East Africa, where it threatens to increase malaria disease burden. The use of insecticides, especially pyrethroids, is still one of the primary malaria vector control strategies worldwide. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the...
Article
Vector-borne pathogens (VBP) associated with ectoparasitism are of concern for animal health, and there are many gaps in surveillance and reporting data. The purpose of this study was to test for four VBPs in a subset of non-owned dogs from county humane societies in Alabama and Georgia that were admitted to the Auburn University College of Veterin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Human landing catches (HLC) are an entomological collection technique in which humans are used as attractants to capture medically relevant host-seeking mosquitoes. The use of this method has been a topic of extensive debate for decades mainly due to ethical concerns. Many alternatives to HLC have been proposed; however, no quantitative...
Article
Full-text available
Background The recent detection of the South Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in the Horn of Africa (HOA) raises concerns about the impact of this mosquito on malaria transmission in the region. Analysis of An. stephensi genetic diversity and population structure can provide insight into the history of the mosquito in the HOA to improve pre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anopheles stephensi is an efficient malaria vector commonly found in South Asia and the Arabian Peninsula, but in recent years it has established as an invasive species in the Horn of Africa (HoA). In this region An. stephensi was first detected in a livestock quarantine station near a major seaport in Djibouti in 2012, in Ethiopia in 2016, in Suda...
Preprint
Background Malaria is responsible for over 435,000 deaths annually, with most cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Detecting the presence of Plasmodium spp. sporozoites (spzs) in the salivary glands of Anopheles vectors of the parasites using the circumsporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (csELISA) is an important malaria surveillance met...
Article
Full-text available
Background Plasmodium spp. sporozoite rates in mosquitoes are used to better understand malaria transmission intensity, the relative importance of vector species and the impact of interventions. These rates are typically estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmod...
Article
Full-text available
Mosquito-borne viruses cause diseases of great public health concern. Arboviral disease case distributions have complex relationships with socioeconomic and environmental factors. We combined information about socio-economic (population, and poverty rate) and environmental (precipitation, and land use) characteristics with reported human cases of a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Anopheles stephensi , an invasive malaria vector, was first detected in Africa nearly 10 years ago. After the initial finding in Djibouti, it has subsequently been found in Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia. To better inform policies and vector control decisions, it is important to understand the distribution, bionomics, insecticide susceptibi...
Article
Full-text available
Body size and secondary sexual characteristics are drivers of male reproductive success among polygynous species. A gene complex found to be associated with morphology in several species is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). However, while several studies have found that greater MHC diversity is associated with larger body size and seconda...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Plasmodium spp. sporozoite rates in mosquitoes are used to better understand malaria transmission intensity, the relative importance of vector species and the impact of interventions. These rates are typically estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein of P. fal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Preservation of samples requiring cold-chain storage is an often unavoidable challenge especially when doing laboratory work outside the western world. Samples are a precious commodity and it is imperative to maintain their viability. One method for collection and storage of samples in a liquid form (blood, saliva, serum) at room temperature is on...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Anopheles stephensi , an invasive malaria vector, was first detected in Africa nearly 10 years ago. After the initial finding in Djibouti, it has subsequently been found in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia. To better inform policies and vector control decisions, it is important to understand the distribution, bionomics, insecticide susceptib...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent detection of the South Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in the Horn of Africa (HOA) raises concerns about the impact of this mosquito on malaria transmission in the region. The mode and history of introduction is important for predicting the likelihood of continued introduction and future spread. Analysis of An. stephensi genetic...
Article
Full-text available
Testosterone is strongly associated with the annual development of antlers in cervids, but endocrine research on wild, freely breeding ungulates is often done without repeated capture of known‐aged individuals. As a result, our knowledge on how testosterone fluctuates over the course of a lifetime and variation in lifetime patterns among individual...
Article
Philophthalmus is a genus of globally distributed parasitic eye flukes with some members of the genus found in disparate locales. In particular, Philophthalmus gralli, a zoonotic trematode, appears to be a relatively new introduction to the Americas, facilitated by spillover from the invasive snails Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) and T...
Article
Full-text available
Background Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar hav...
Article
Eight species of ectoparasites were collected during 225 gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (J. F. Miller), captures, in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar, in 2010-2011. The ixodid tick, Haemaphysalis lemuris Hoogstraal, was the most common ectoparasite and was mostly represented by nymphs. Other ectoparasites recorded include the polyplac...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally prevalent coccidian parasite that fatally infects a wide range of endangered avian and mammalian hosts in Hawai'i including the Hawaiian Monk Seal (llio holo I ka uaua; Monachus schauinslandi), Hawaiian Goose (Nēnē; Branta sandvicensis) and Hawaiian Crow ('Alalā; Corvus hawaiiensis). Thus, identifying environmental f...
Article
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Synopsis One of the key foci of ecoimmunology is understanding the physiological interactions between reproduction and immune defense. To assess an immune challenge, investigators typically measure an immune response at a predetermined time point that was selected to represent a peak response. These time points often are based on the immunological...
Article
Each mosquito species has a different wingbeat frequency by which they attract mates. With just a brief recording (<1/10th of a second) these acoustic signatures can be analyzed to quickly determine if mosquitoes belong to a species that is known to transmit different pathogens. A recent study has shown that mobile phones are capable of capturing a...
Article
There are many known species of Bartonella, Gram-negative bacteria that can cause febrile illness and fatality in humans and animals. These pathogens are often transmitted through hematophagous arthropod vectors such as fleas and lice. Despite increasing awareness about Bartonella spp. and their zoonotic potential, as well as existing literature on...
Article
Full-text available
Flies—a small name for an enormous taxonomic group of over 110,000 described species that have unique ecological roles. Nonbiting flies ingest organic material in faecal matter or carrion, which is rich in microbes and nutrients that benefit both adults and their offspring (maggots). These are often referred to as “filth flies” because they are oft...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Gulf Coast of the United States is home to mosquito vectors that may spread disease causing pathogens, and environmental conditions that are ideal for the sustained transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. Understanding public perceptions of mosquito-borne diseases and mosquito prevention strategies is critical for the development...
Article
Mosquito-borne diseases are on the rise globally, and have the potential to thrive along the Gulf Coast of the United States, where subtropical conditions may facilitate the introduction or movement of mosquito vectors. Despite surveillance efforts, Aedes aegypti (L.) had not been detected in the Gulf state of Alabama for nearly three decades. The...
Article
Human infestation with head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is the most prevalent ectoparasitic condition in the modern world. The purpose of this study was to test human head lice from Madagascar for infection with 2 louse-borne bacteria, Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter spp. including Acinetobacter baumannii, to assess the potential...
Article
Hapalemur sps. and Prolemur simus (bamboo lemurs, collectively) stand out among the relatively homogeneous lemurids because they are bamboo feeders and vertical clingers and leapers. This unique diet presents equally unique challenges, like its verticality, toughness, and toxicity. The bamboo lemurs share the generalized anatomy of the other lemuri...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Much work has been done in recent years to determine the vector competence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for Zika virus (ZIKV). If competent, Ae. albopictus could become an important vector in the spread of ZIKV to areas which until now have been considered safe from the virus. Despite much speculation about Ae. albopictus' competence fo...
Article
Parasitic infection risks in domestic animals may increase as a result of outdoor activities, often leading to transmission events to and from owners, other domestic animals and wildlife. Furthermore, outdoor access has not been quantified in domestic animals as a risk factor with respect to latitude or parasite transmission pathway. Cats are an id...
Article
Full-text available
The lemurs of Madagascar are threatened by human activities. We present the first molecular detection of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis)in a wild non-human primate, the mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus). Zoonotic D. immitis infection has been associated with clinical pathology that includes serious and often fatal cardiac and pulmonary reaction...
Article
Global habitat fragmentation is associated with the emergence of infectious diseases of wildlife origins in human populations. Despite this well-accepted narrative, the underlying mechanisms driving this association remain unclear. We introduce a nuanced hypothesis, the ‘coevolution effect’. The central concept is that the subdivision of host popul...
Article
Full-text available
We documented ectoparasites found on wild black-and-white ruffed lemurs ( Varecia variegate) in the southeastern rain forests of Madagascar and describe trends in parasitism. In this study, 235 mesostigmatic mites (1 male, 87 females, 147 nymphs) identified as Liponyssella sp., in the acarine family Macronyssidae, were collected during 87% (34/39)...
Article
Biological invasions have the potential to influence parasite dynamics by altering ecological interactions. Similarly, parasitism can influence invasion by aiding or limiting expansion. While many parasite-invasion relationships have been evaluated, many have not been described. Here, we present a conceptual framework of potential interactions, and...
Article
Lemurpediculus madagascariensis sp. nov. (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) is described from the Gray Mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (J. F. Miller) (Primates: Cheirogaleidae), from Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. Lemurs were trapped using Sherman Live Traps and visually inspected for lice, which were preserved in 90% ethanol. Adults...
Article
Full-text available
With the establishment of Zika virus in the Americas, an accurate understanding of the geographic range of its primary vector, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), is vital to assessing transmission risk. In an article published in June 2016, Hahn and colleagues compiled county-level records in the United States for the presence of...
Article
Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, affects 50 million people worldwide, and results in 100,000 deaths annually. It is particularly prevalent in developing nations where poverty and poor sanitation contribute to contamination of food and water. E. histolytica is also a zoonotic protozoan parasite with the potential to infect non-human prim...
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Full-text available
Animal behaviours, like aggression, can directly affect host health by influencing exposure to parasites. Aggressive individuals may experience an increase in agonistic interactions and contact rates with conspecifics, which might increase their probability of acquiring parasites. However, aggression is not the only factor that shapes parasitism; p...
Article
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though...
Article
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1. Madagascar is home to the smallest primates in the world, the mouse lemurs (Microcebus species). Twenty-four species of mouse lemur are currently recognised and are found in variable ecosystems, from dry forests and spiny deserts to humid forests. Due to their widespread distribution and the large number of sympatric species, mouse lemurs can be...
Article
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Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advant...
Article
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Background: Deforestation and land-use change have the potential to alter human exposure to malaria. A large percentage of Madagascar's original forest cover has been lost to slash-and-burn agriculture, and malaria is one of the top causes of mortality on the island. In this study, the influence of land-use on the distribution of Plasmodium vector...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria is the 4th largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have...
Article
Full-text available
Diarrhea-associated viruses are common causes of morbidity in humans in developing countries; however, they have seldom been studied in wild primates despite their pathogenic and zoonotic potential. This is of particular concern in Madagascar, one of the world’s poorest and most biodiverse countries. To improve our understanding of diarrhea-associa...
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Full-text available
Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of...
Conference Paper
Evolution is a long-term and often stochastic process. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of long-lived animals such as primates, as well as the complex ecosystems in which they interact, requires both collaborative and integrative research that spans several decades of behavioral, ecological, and climatic observations. Unfortunately, whi...