Sarah A Spaulding

Sarah A Spaulding
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)

Ph.D.

About

114
Publications
28,178
Reads
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2,900
Citations
Citations since 2016
41 Research Items
1442 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
A new species of Aulacoseira Thwaites is described from sediment deposits of Surprise Lake, an isolated lake located in the New Jersey Highlands. The species is characterized by (1) a low mantle, (2) unevenly distributed mantle areolae of variable size and shape, and (3) a valve face covered by rounded areolae. The new species is most similar to Au...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment diatoms are widely used to track environmental histories of lakes and their watersheds, but merging datasets generated by different researchers for further large-scale studies is challenging because of taxonomic discrepancies caused by rapidly evolving diatom nomenclature and taxonomic concepts. We collated five datasets of lake sediment d...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding patterns and drivers of species distribution and abundance, and thus biodiversity, is a core goal of ecology. Despite advances in recent decades, research into these patterns and processes is currently limited by a lack of standardized, high‐quality, empirical data that span large spatial scales and long time periods. The NEON fills t...
Article
Full-text available
Benthic cyanobacteria are widespread in streams and rivers and have the potential to release toxins. In large numbers, these microorganisms and their toxins present a risk to human health. Cyanobacterial abundance in stream biofilms is typically related to single or a limited set of environmental factors, mainly light availability, water temperatur...
Data
Open Access Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 Aug 13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425634/ Published in final edited form as: Ecol Indic. 2019 Jul 1; 102: 166–174. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.01.061 Supplementary data and R scripts are available in an open access data repository at U.S. EPA’s ScienceHub doi: https://doi.or...
Article
Full-text available
Benthic diatom assemblages are known to be indicative of water quality but have yet to be widely adopted in biological assessments in the United States due to several limitations. Our goal was to address some of these limitations by developing regional multi-metric indices (MMIs) that are robust to inter-laboratory taxonomic inconsistency, adjusted...
Article
Full-text available
Consistent identification of diatoms is a prerequisite for studying their ecology, biogeography, and successful application as environmental indicators. However, taxonomic consistency among observers has been difficult to achieve because taxonomic information is scattered across numerous literature sources, presenting challenges to the diatomist. F...
Article
This datasheet on Didymosphenia geminata covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fragilaria elliptica was described in 1867 by Schumann from freshwater material collected near Königsberg, Prussia. The two-line description and single drawing presented by Schumann triggered a long-running debate over the identity of the taxon, which continues to this day. At least three different morphotypes have been ascribed to this taxon in th...
Conference Paper
Fragilaria elliptica was described in t867 by Schumann from freshwater material collected near Kcinigsberg, Prussia. The two-line description and single drawing presented by Schumann triggered a long-running debate over the identity of the taxon, which continues to this day. At least tluee different morphotypes have been ascribed to this taxon in t...
Article
Several populations identified and reported from North America and Mongolia under the names Fragilaria ellip-tica Schumann or Staurosira elliptica (Schumann) Wil-liams et Round were analyzed in detail using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis yielded three variants that can not be ascribed to 'elliptica' of th...
Article
Full-text available
It is a critical time to reflect on the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) science to date as well as envision what research can be done right now with NEON (and other) data and what training is needed to enable a diverse user community. NEON became fully operational in May 2019 and has pivoted from planning and construction to operatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding patterns and drivers of species distributions and abundances, and thus biodiversity, is a core goal of ecology. Despite advances in recent decades, research into these patterns and processes is currently limited by a lack of standardized, high-quality, empirical data that spans large spatial scales and long time periods. The National...
Article
While describing the species Tetracyclus hinziae I. Bishop & Spaulding (2015, p. 200), it was noticed that the basionym and type specimens of the similar species Tetracyclus rupestre was unclear. This short note addresses those concerns.
Article
Environmental programs in the United States face technical challenges that inhibit the ability to use diatoms in water quality monitoring and assessment projects. Specifically, inconsistent taxonomy can obscure diatom responses to environmental variables. Problems are the result of (1) limited access to a common set of taxonomic references, especia...
Article
Full-text available
The Biological Condition Gradient (BCG) is a conceptual model that describes changes in aquatic communities under increasing levels of anthropogenic stress. The BCG helps decision-makers connect narrative water quality goals (e.g., maintenance of natural structure and function) to quantitative measures of ecological condition by linking index thres...
Article
Full-text available
While deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) in the twentieth century has been strongly linked to changes in diatom assemblages in high-elevation lakes, pronounced and contemporaneous changes in other algal groups suggest additional drivers. We explored the origin and magnitude of changes in two mountain lakes from the end of the Little Ice Age at ca...
Article
Full-text available
Inconsistency in taxonomic identification and analyst bias impede the effective use of diatom data in regional and national stream and lake surveys. In this study, we evaluated the effect of existing protocols and a revised protocol on the precision of diatom species counts. The revised protocol adjusts four elements of sample preparation, taxon id...
Article
The nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata is thought to have been spread by humans across North and South America and New Zealand. This diatom is of interest for its ability to form thick benthic mats in streams, altering ecosystem properties. Little is known, however, about its historic distribution and the parameters that are associated with it...
Chapter
Beginning with the nineteenth-century territorial surveys, the lakes and lacustrine deposits in what is now the western United States were recognized for their economic value to the expanding nation. In the latter half of the twentieth century, these systems have been acknowledged as outstanding examples of depositional systems serving as models fo...
Article
Full-text available
The non-marine diatom flora of the Antarctic Continent includes several endemic taxa recorded over the past 100 years. One of these taxa, Navicula adminensis D.Roberts & McMinn, was described from the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica. Detailed light and scanning electron microscopy observations have shown that based on its morphological features, th...
Article
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.97–5.33 Ma) is considered an extreme environmental event driven by changes in climate and tectonics, which affected global ocean salinity and shaped the biogeochemical composition of the Mediterranean Sea. Yet, after more than 50 years of research, MSC stratigraphy remains controversial. Recent studies agree th...
Article
Mountain lakes are often situated in protected natural areas, a feature that leads to their role as sentinels of global environmental change. Despite variations in latitude, mountain lakes share many features, including their location in catchments with steep topographic gradients, cold temperatures, high incident solar and ultraviolet radiation (U...
Presentation
Full-text available
Slides about taxonomic certification program development at the extended session: Forging Effective Use of Diatoms in Bioassessment at the National Monitoring Conference 2019 Denver, CO, USA
Article
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We observed four Gomphonema taxa with a high abundance of Janus cells, which are cells that have valves of two different morphologies, also termed heterovalvar cells. The specimens were collected from a habitat with periodic drying, alternating with standing water. A high proportion of Gomphonema Janus cells (up to 20% of the frustules for each tax...
Article
Full-text available
Diatom data have been collected in large-scale biological assessments in the United States, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). However, the effectiveness of diatoms as indicators may suffer if inconsistent taxon identifications across different analysts obscure the relationships between...
Article
A highly diverse, mostly benthic flora was collected and characterized from Happy Jack Chalk Mine, a former diatomite mine near Scotia, NE. Extensive examination of a single sample from the mine revealed 91 species, including taxa from most major freshwater lineages. Five of these species are new to science and the following names are proposed: Str...
Preprint
Full-text available
The environmental health of aquatic ecosystems is critical to society, yet traditional assessments of water quality have limited utility for some bodies of water such as large rivers. Sequencing of environmental DNA (eDNA) has the potential to complement if not replace traditional sampling of biotic assemblages for the purposes of reconstructing aq...
Article
Full-text available
Iran is a large country with a great diversity of aquatic ecosystems including rivers, springs, shallow seas, lakes, waterfalls, lagoons, and wetlands. Despite the many types of aquatic habitats, there has been a limited study of the diatom flora. The purpose of this study is to present the diatom species and characterize their distribution in the K...
Article
Full-text available
This flora is intended to serve as an image voucher for samples analyzed for the U.S. Geological Survey Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA). The SESQA study included measurement of watershed and water quality parameters to determine the factors that have the greatest potential to alter biotic condition. Algal samples were collected at 108 s...
Article
Full-text available
Didymosphenia geminata has received a great deal of attention in the last 25 years, and considerable effort has gone into determining the origin, ecologic impact, and economic consequences of its invasive behavior. While environmental conditions are a controlling influence in distribution, the extreme success of the species may be tied to its basic...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial life flourishes in the ponds of the McMurdo Sound Region, which includes the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) and the exposed coastal areas of Ross Island, Antarctica. Diatoms live within resident microbial mats, and because of the simplified trophic structure and limited dispersal vectors, the McMurdo Sound Region is an ideal locality to invest...
Article
This monophyletic group of diatoms has the evolutionary innovation of a raphe system, which has afforded its members the ability to move longer and faster, relative to their body size. Species within the 105 genera treated here occupy a wide range of habitats, including living adnate on substrates, being motile in benthic environments, living attac...
Article
Full-text available
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic sources has been altering ecosystem function in lakes of the Rocky Mountains, other regions of western North America, and the Arctic over recent decades. The response of biota in shallow lakes to atmospheric deposition of Nr, however, has not been considered. Benthic algae are dominant in shallow, high-elev...
Article
Here we describe a new freshwater diatom species from the Cascade Mountain Range in Washington State, including observations of living cells and chloroplast structure. The species represents the fourth known extant species within the genus, as most species of Tetracyclus Ralfs are extinct. The new species can be distinguished from other Tetracyclus...
Article
Full-text available
Algal blooms caused by the stalk-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata impact the habitat structure and functioning of stream ecosystems.Weevaluated site-specific geomorphic controls on D. geminata in a cobble bed river in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Entrainment potential, defined as the ratio of mean bed shear stress to the critical sh...
Article
Sources of seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region of northwestern Washington include deep earthquakes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, and shallow earthquakes associated with some of the numerous crustal (upper-plate) faults that crisscross the region. Our paleoseismic investigations on one of the more prominent crustal faults, the D...
Article
The stable isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) in organic lake sediments is frequently used to infer changes in the source or cycling of N prior to sedimentation. However, diagenetic processes that occur after sedimentation can systematically alter the primary isotopic signal recorded in sedimentary organic matter and must be accounted for in o...
Article
Full-text available
The names Mastogloia smithii Thwaites ex Smith and M. smithii var. lacustris Grunow have been attributed to a variety of related diatom morphologies, partly due to the poor availability of type material and complicated nomenclatural history. The history is detailed, clarifying the type morphologies of M. smithii and reconfirming a neglected elevati...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a critically threatened North American conifer. In modern times, it has experienced a significant decline in population due to pine beetle infestations, blister rust infections, fire suppression, and climate change. While climate, fire, and vegetation are strongly linked on regional...
Article
Full-text available
Stauroneis pachycephala was described in 1881 from the Baakens River, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Recently, it was found during surveys of the MacKenzie River (Victoria, Australia), the Florida Everglades (USA) and coastal marshes of Louisiana (USA). The morphology, ecology and geographic distribution of this species are described in this article...
Article
Full-text available
We reconstructed the phylogeny of representatives from nine genera and three families of the Cymbellales using two nuclear and three chloroplast genes. After rooting with Anomoeoneis, Placoneis was found as sister to a clade composed of Cymbella, Cymbopleura, Encyonema, Gomphonema, and Gomphoneis. The latter group was divided into lineages with mai...
Article
Full-text available
Alpine lakes receive a large fraction of their nutrients from atmospheric sources and are consequently sensitive to variations in both the amount and chemistry of atmospheric deposition. In this study we explored the spatial changes in lake water chemistry and biology along a gradient of dust deposition in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Regional di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The diatom flora of rivers of Iran has not yet been documented. While a number of species have been reported from rivers across the country, these species have not been verified and documented by light microscopy. Here we report the occurrence, distribution and verification of 70 species of diatoms from the Karaj River in the Central Alborz, Iran....
Chapter
Full-text available
The abundance and distribution of algal mats were studied in three streams flowing into Lake Fryxell, located in lower Taylor Valley. Algal mats were most abundant at sites which have moderate gradients and streambeds composed of large cobbles arranged in a flat stone pavement through periglacial processes. Algal abundance was less at high gradient...
Data
Cyclotella iranica sp. nov. is described from the Karaj River, Iran. The morphology of Cyclotella iranica is documented with light and scanning electron micrographs and discussed in comparison with several related species: Cyclotella fottii, C. delicatula, C. andancensis var. adnanensis, C. andancensis var. bauzilensis and C. andancensis var. bipol...
Article
The diatom Didymosphenia geminata, which forms nuisance blooms in low nutrient streams worldwide, was documented as an aggressive invader in South America in 2010 from the Futaleufú basin (43.2°S), in Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia. Within 1 year it was confirmed from 20 rivers distributed over 800 km. Driven by perceived economic impacts to tou...
Article
Full-text available
Size analysis of diatom populations has not been widely considered, but it is a potentially powerful tool for understanding diatom life histories, population dynamics, and phylogenetic relationships. However, measuring cell dimensions on a light microscope is a time-consuming process. An alternative technique has been developed using digital flow c...