Sarah Milliken

Sarah Milliken
University of Greenwich · School of Design

BA Hons. PGDip, MSc, DPhil
Research Fellow, University of Greenwich

About

29
Publications
9,334
Reads
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355
Citations
Introduction
I originally trained as an archaeologist, and have taught at various universities in the UK, Ireland, and Italy. A keen interest in environmental issues and a desire to actively address them led me to undertake postgraduate qualifications in landscape architecture and urban sustainability. My research interests include urban green infrastructure policies in the EU, urban controlled environment agriculture, biophilic design, ecological restoration of drylands, landscape character and ecosystem services assessment, and best practice in online teaching.
Additional affiliations
May 2012 - present
University of Greenwich
Position
  • Research Associate
September 2003 - July 2021
University of Oxford
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2000 - September 2003
University College Cork
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (29)
Chapter
Aquaponics is an innovative and sustainable food production technology which has the potential to make a significant contribution to twenty-first century food systems, especially if there is an adequately trained workforce. In this chapter we review the efforts of an international consortium to develop a curriculum for teaching the basics of aquapo...
Article
Full-text available
Under the new Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/848 which has entered into law in January 2021, aquaponic produce cannot be certified as organic in the European Union. Given the multiple components of an aquaponic system, which involve growing plants in hydroponic conditions, recycling of fish waste and raising fish in artificial conditions, the achi...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaponic food production requires a broad spectrum of knowledge in order to understand and manage the processes involved, and for commercial aquaponics to develop its full potential, it will require an appropriately trained workforce. Devised in collaboration as an Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership for Higher Education, Aqu@teach covers the basics of...
Article
Full-text available
Green roofs can be an innovative and effective way of mitigating the environmental impact of urbanization by providing several important ecosystem services. However, it is known that the performance of green roofs varies depending on the type of vegetation and, in drier climates, without resorting to irrigation, these are limited to xerophytic plan...
Book
AQU@TEACH is a unique multidisciplinary curriculum for Higher Education. The 15 module Aquaponics Curriculum and the supplementary Entrepreneurial Skills module can be taught either using blended learning or as an instructor-led, cohort-based e-learning course. The Aquaponics Curriculum is intended for tertiary level teachers who want to introduc...
Book
The Entrepreneurial Skills for Aquaponics textbook accompanies the Aqu@teach supplementary module which introduces the main processes involved in developing a business idea into a start-up company – business models, customer segmentation, value proposition, marketing and pricing, and financing.
Chapter
This chapter describes a research project in Gujarat, north-west India, which resulted from a request for help with developing a strategy to deal with Prosopis juliflora, an invasive thorny shrub also known as ‘Mesquite’. After due consideration, we concluded that any attempt at eradication would not only be impractical, it would also be unlikely t...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides an overview of possible strategies for implementing aquaponics in curricula at different levels of education, illustrated by case studies from different countries. Aquaponics can promote scientific literacy and provide a useful tool for teaching the natural sciences at all levels, from primary through to tertiary education. An...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents some examples of recent initiatives by social enterprises using aquaponics. Aquaponics offers an innovative form of therapeutic horticulture, which can provide employment and promote well-being for people with disabilities. If implemented as a program to be managed by local communities, aquaponic systems also have the potentia...
Article
Full-text available
at the University of Greenwich share their experiences of Gujarat, the country's second most industrialised state. D eveloping countries offer opportunities to introduce integrated approaches to land-use planning before the industrialisation process adversely affects the environment. India has seen a marked increase in both population and industria...
Article
Full-text available
Prosopis juliflora is an invasive non-native shrub species which has an adverse impact on natural habitats in many parts of India, with detrimental effects on both wildlife and traditional livestock-based economies. Attempts to eradicate this very adaptable and resilient species tend to be unsuccessful and expensive. Here we report on two managemen...
Chapter
Reflections This chapter presents a brief synthesis of recent literature on ecosystem services in urban environments. Different types of urban habitats generate different types of ecosystem service, including the supply of food, mitigation of air pollution, human health and well-being, and biodiversity. These services can play an important role in...
Article
Landscape Character Assessment has provided the context for land use planning decisions and for identifying priorities for environmental restoration and enhancement in England since the 1990s. Increasing awareness of the importance of ecosystem services has led to the method being refined in order to enable informed management of change, with the i...
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Full-text available
Restoration efforts in the Mediterranean Basin have been changing from a silvicultural to an ecological restoration approach. Yet, to what extent the projects are guided by ecological restoration principles remains largely unknown. To analyse this issue, we built an on-line survey addressed to restoration practitioners.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Aquaponics combines recirculation aquaculture systems with hydroponics. This innovation in food production produces fish as well as vegetal products within recirculating water systems which offer significant potential for more sustainable food production. As aquaponics grows in popularity amongst researchers, with great strides being t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Article
Traditionally, accounts of the Middle–Upper Palaeolithic transition focus almost exclusively on the evidence from south-western Europe. Interpretations based on data from this area are then generalized to produce a relatively uncomplicated pan-European model, with the appearance of novel technologies, new patterns of land use, expanded social netwo...
Chapter
The northern Mediterranean Mesolithic tradition evolved during a period of climatic amelioration following the Younger Dryas cold event, with the sea rising nearly to present-day levels and the consequent drowning of the Late Glacial coastal plain. In some parts of the Mediterranean such as the Adriatic sea, this land loss was considerable, because...
Article
This paper is concerned with the Late Palaeolithic settlement of south-eastern Italy at the close of the Pleistocene. The Late Palaeolithic assemblages of the region have been studied previously from a rigid typological stance, with various schemes put forward suggesting evolution of the assemblages through different stages of an Epigravettian trad...
Article
The aim of this article is twofold : on one hand we believe it to be opportune to present a synthesis of the interdisciplinary results of the palaeoenvironmental research which has been carried out at the Palaeolithic site of Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo, as well as to provide detailed descriptions of the large number of refits found. These are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Some data of a general nature enable us to propose a sufficiently exhaustive interpretation of the technical and typological aspects of the industry from Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo. On the basis of several considerations we found ourselves in an ideal position to be able to carry out an organic and interdisciplinary study in which the partecip...
Article
Full-text available
Recent surveys in the Agro Pontino in west-central Italy have led to the discovery of a number of open air Lower Palaeolithic sites. The excavation in 1994 at one of these sites, Quarto delle Cinfonare in the Astura river valley, resulted in the collection of an abundant lithic industry which can be dated to the Middle Pleistocene. The lithic indus...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
Blue-Cycling is an ERA-NET Cofund on Food Systems and Climate (FOSC) project that focuses on improving the circular economy of aquaponic food production by optimising waste and resource management. The project consortium is composed of: * The University of Gothenburg (Sweden) - lead partner * Wageningen University (Netherlands) * Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops (Germany) * Stellenbosch University (South Africa) * SINTEF Nord (Norway) * University of Greenwich (United Kingdom) * Maseno University (Kenya In aquaponics, the fish feed needs to fulfil the nutritional requirements of the fishes, the plants and the bacteria. To optimize the performance and cost-effectiveness of production, species-specific tailor-made feed may be optimized to suit the aquaponic system as a whole. Feed for carnivorous fish is largely comprised of fishmeal and fish oil, which are becoming increasingly limited in supply, so alternative ingredients are used in the form of soy bean, protein concentrates and vegetable oils. Soy, which is also a component of the feed for vegetarian fish, is the most used protein source in aquaculture feeds worldwide, and there is a pressing need to find deforestation-free alternatives. The University of Greenwich, funded by Defra, will devise a range of feeds which are optimised for tilapia using alternative protein sources such as black soldier fly, mealworms and algae, investigate their palatability and digestibility for the fish and their performance in relation to fish and plant growth, and assess their environmental impact compared with off-the-shelf feeds used in aquaponics. Aquaponics is an adaptable technology, since farms can be situated in areas that are otherwise unsuitable for food production, such as in buildings and on rooftops where a synergy can be created between a farm and its host building by coupling the flows of the production process – heat, water, and CO2 – with those of the building, in order to close the waste, resource, and energy loops. We will conduct environmental impact assessments of aquaponic system designs in different scenarios along three vectors – community/commercial, urban/peri-urban/rural, and northern/southern Europe – in order to draw up best practice guidelines. https://www.era-learn.eu/network-information/networks/fosc/food-systems-and-climate-call-2019/blue-cycling-integrated-aquaculture-and-agriculture-for-resource-efficient-food-production
Project
The Blue Green City project aims to promote green and blue infrastructure as an integral part of a local/regional natural heritage preservation strategy. Blue Green City seeks to increase awareness and knowledge of the concept of ecosystem services and of the value of green and blue infrastructures through project events, such as workshops and training sessions. This will be accomplished through a process of interregional learning and a strong collaboration in finding common solutions to common challenges posed by climate change, in particular by sharing experience and exchanging good practices. It is in this context that Blue Green City aligns with the EU Green Infrastructure Strategy and with the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy, referring to the important role that green and blue infrastructures play in protecting, conserving and enhancing the EU’s natural capital, by providing functional ecological connectivity between cities and peri-urban protected areas. The partnership is composed of the following institutions: • Metropolis Nice Côd’Azur (France) - lead partner • University of Greenwich (UK) – advisory partner • Piedmont Region (Italy) • Southern Regional Assembly (Ireland) • Bucharest-Ilfov Regional Development Agency (Romania) • City of Ingolstadt (Germany) • Rijeka Development Agency (Croatia) • Municipality of Växjö (Sweden) The University of Greenwich participates in the project as Advisory Partner, and as such brings to the consortium its extensive experience in the field of green infrastructure for sustainable urban living. The role of the University of Greenwich is to provide input in the form of training for the partners and their stakeholders, to monitor the implementation of the Action Plans, and to draft best practice recommendations. Blue Green City is co-funded by Interreg Europe https://www.interregeurope.eu/bluegreencity/
Project
With careful planning and governance, blue and green infrastructure (BGI) can help our cities adapt to climate change and improve resilience to extreme weather events, enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services, and improve public health and wellbeing. Although BGI is promoted for its multifunctionality, many projects tend to focus on a particular benefit, such as stormwater abatement, rather than the full suite of socio-economic and environmental benefits. The provision of urban blue and green infrastructure should be an integral part of the creation of sustainable communities and, alongside strategic planning by local governments, non-state actors such as NGOs, active citizens, social enterprises, and local businesses, can all contribute to the planning process, thereby ensuring that true multifunctionality is achieved. This Special Issue of Land seeks to compile examples of innovative strategies that successfully combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to the strategic planning of multifunctional urban blue and green infrastructure, and that can potentially be applied to other cities and communities around the world. We invite you to submit articles on topics including, but not limited to, the following: * Incorporating community perspectives into urban blue and green infrastructure planning methodologies * Strategies for engaging diverse stakeholders in urban blue and green infrastructure governance * Innovative financial models for urban blue and green infrastructure creation and management * Socio-cultural value mapping of urban blue and green infrastructure Equity planning of urban blue and green infrastructure Deadline for manuscript submission: 20 May 2022 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/land/special_issues/planning_urban_infrastructure