Sarah Johnson

Sarah Johnson
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene · Environmental Health

MS, MPH

About

44
Publications
5,683
Reads
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1,055
Citations
Citations since 2016
16 Research Items
812 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - May 2016
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Position
  • Analyst

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with hundreds of premature mortalities every year in New York City (NYC). Current air quality and health impact assessment tools provide county-wide estimates but are inadequate for assessing health benefits at neighborhood scales, especially for evaluating policy options related to energy efficiency or climate goals...
Article
Using spatially- and temporally-resolved data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS) and the New York State (NYS) Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) network, we characterized changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) following the COVID-19 shutdown in NYC (3/20/20 – 6/7/20). Difference-in-differ...
Article
Previous source apportionment analyses of New York City (NYC) PM2.5 have found that transported pollution can account for up to half of total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass. In recent years, several local and federal emissions regulations on both the transportation and energy sector have been introduced, such as the Clean Heavy-Duty Bus and T...
Article
Strategies that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may also provide significant public health benefits and their estimation can help prioritize the case for climate change mitigation policies. In 2014, New York City (NYC) committed to reduce GHG emissions by 80% by 2050 (80x50). In this analysis we quantified the air quality-related public healt...
Conference Paper
This project explored the feasibility of using stationary low-cost monitoring networks for spatial and temporal estimation of ambient fine particulate concentrations in two environmental justice communities in New York City-El Puente (Brooklyn) and Youth Ministries for Peace and Justice (Bronx). The data from the community-based low-cost stationary...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the relationship between within-city spatial variation of ambient temperatures and land-use characteristics would be useful for developing mitigation strategies for urban heat island effects in the warming climate, but relatively few published studies collected high-density ambient temperature data in large cities to date. We applied la...
Article
Full-text available
In conducting a study of ambient air pollution and pregnancy outcome in New York City, we identified delivery hospital as a potential confounder, given its association with both maternal residence and therefore air pollution exposure, and with clinical practices and as a potential marker of outcome misclassification in the coding of pregnancy compl...
Article
Full-text available
Power outages can impact health, and certain populations may be more at risk. Personal preparedness may reduce impacts, but information on power outage preparedness and risk perception among vulnerable populations is limited. We examined power outage preparedness and concern among New York City residents, including vulnerable populations defined as...
Article
Previous studies have shown that higher ambient air temperature is associated with increased incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses, possibly as a result of leaving potentially hazardous food in the temperature danger zone for too long. However, little is known about the effect of hot weather on restaurant practices to maintain safe food temperatu...
Article
Background: Previous studies investigated potential health effects of large-scale power outages, including the massive power failure that affected the northeastern United States and Ontario, Canada, in August 2003, and outages associated with major storms. However, information on localized outages is limited. Objective: The study sought to exami...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to cold weather can cause cold-related illness and death, which are preventable. To understand the current burden, risk factors, and circumstances of exposure for illness and death directly attributed to cold, we examined hospital discharge, death certificate, and medical examiner data during the cold season from 2005 to 2014 in New York C...
Article
Few past studies have collected and analyzed within-city variation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) elements. We developed land-use regression (LUR) models to characterize spatial variation of fifteen PM2.5 elements collected at 150 street-level locations in New York City during December 2008 - November 2009: aluminum, bromine, calcium, copper, i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. Objective: To assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008-2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. Methods: We analyzed 258,294 singl...
Article
Previous studies suggested a possible association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, but effect sizes have been small and methodologic weaknesses preclude firm conclusions. We linked birth certificates in New York City in 2008-2010 to hospital...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution dat...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of climate change, the frequency of extreme temperature events is expected to increase and such events are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Vulnerability patterns, and corresponding adaptation strategies, are most usefully conceptualized at a local level. We used a case-only analysis to examine subject and neighborhood...
Article
Urban forest pollution removal potential has not been well explored at the neighborhood resolution and in relation to neighborhood-level emissions. In NYC's five counties, modeled NO2 removed by the primarily-deciduous urban forest ranges from <1% (New York) to 13% (Richmond) of total emissions; modeled PM10 removal ranges from <4% (New York) to 20...
Article
Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confou...
Article
Full-text available
Recent epidemiological studies have examined the associations between air pollution and birth outcomes. Regulatory air quality monitors often used in these studies, however, were spatially sparse and unable to capture relevant within-city variation in exposure during pregnancy. This study developed two-week average exposure estimates for fine parti...
Article
Full-text available
Although intra-urban air pollution differs by season, few monitoring networks provide adequate geographic density and year-round coverage to fully characterize seasonal patterns. Here, we report winter intra-urban monitoring and land-use regression (LUR) results from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Two-week integrated samples of fi...
Article
Full-text available
Routine air monitoring provides data to assess urban scale temporal variation in pollution concentrations in relation to regulatory standards, but is not well suited to characterizing intraurban spatial variation in pollutant concentrations from local sources. To address these limitations and inform local control strategies, New York City developed...
Article
Full-text available
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report MMWR. 2012;37:733-736. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a pervasive urban rodent that can carry a variety of pathogens transmissible to humans, bring stress to residents of infested neighborhoods, damage property, and cause financial loss.¹⁻⁴ Several areas of New York City have experienced persistent rat i...
Article
Full-text available
Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to as...
Data
Full-text available
Details on GIS-based source indicators.
Data
Translation of abstract into Chinese by YZ. (0.03 MB DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasonography allows for non-invasive examination of the liver and spleen and can further our understanding of schistosomiasis morbidity. We followed 578 people in Southwest China for up to five years. Participants were tested for Schistosoma japonicum infection in stool and seven standard measures of the liver and spleen were obtained using ultr...
Article
Anthropogenic land use changes often alter natural patterns of disease transmission. The goal of this study was to determine whether phosphorus input from sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., cultivation in northern Belize could pose a significant environmental impact on malaria transmission by changing vegetation structure and composition of wetla...
Article
Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cove...
Article
The coastal plain of northern Belize consists of relatively undisturbed freshwater marshes that are strongly phosphorus-limited and characterized by monodominant stands or mixtures of emergent macrophytes. In order to assess the impact of agricultural activities on the nutrient dynamics and plant species composition in adjacent wetlands, we sampled...
Article
The effects of water level and nutrient additions on seed germination from the seed banks of phosphorus-limited freshwater herbaceous wetlands in Northern Belize, Central America, were tested in a greenhouse study. Seed bank soil was exposed to both draw-down and flooded conditions with and without added phosphorus (P) in a replicated germination a...
Article
The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and fl...

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