Sarah Jack

Sarah Jack
Lancaster University | LU · Department for Entrepreneurship, Strategy and Innovation

About

94
Publications
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Publications

Publications (94)
Article
This paper examines the role of women in family business. Prior studies suggest that in Latin America the contribution of women in family business remains largely hidden, often relegated to a supportive role. Drawing on an entrepreneurial stewardship perspective, this study challenges that perception, paying close attention to the contribution of w...
Article
Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) are gaining traction as a research topic. Using a longitudinal case study of a Norwegian social venture - Nature Magic - funded through a SIB model, this article explores the embedding process of a SIB model into a local context – diverging from previous research focused on empirical cases from the UK and USA and refining...
Article
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Building on Alistair Anderson’s work, this paper proposes transforming enterprise education to deeply address questions of sustainability, social justice and hope in our time of multiple and complex crises. New pedagogies, practices, vocabularies and connections help us to enact crises in entrepreneurial, ethical and creative ways, enabling us to r...
Article
A lo largo de la historia se han sucedido diferentes contextos en los que ciertas condiciones y acontecimientos han creado oportunidades emprendedoras. Este artículo se enmarca en la segunda y tercera oleadas industrializadoras para analizar el nacimiento y evolución histórica de la industria del transporte urgente, cuyos orígenes se remontan a med...
Article
Entrepreneurs create our tomorrows and we have a responsibility to comprehend as well as appreciate what they do. A repositioning of entrepreneurship scholarship is essential, if we are to fulfill our purpose, enact our principles, and engage fully with the peoples, places, and processes of entrepreneuring’s edgy ecotones. We argue for embracing th...
Article
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This paper considers a concept gaining popularity: entrepreneurial ecosystems. It finds a significant lacuna in the concept as it stands as it does not sufficiently consider learning within regional ecosystems. Considering the established centrality of learning for entrepreneurial activity and regional development, it is surprising that the entrepr...
Article
Research summary Anticipating that innovation nurtures entrepreneurship, we began an extended case study of an innovative start‐up in the space industry. We quickly saw that institutions imposed formidable barriers to implementing entrepreneurship from innovation. Curious about how, why and the extent of this situation, we widened our study to othe...
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This editorial aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods when studying entrepreneurship. First, it outlines four characteristics of the domain of entrepreneurship that qualitative research is uniquely placed to address. In studying these characteristics, we urge researchers to leverage the plurality of different qualitative approaches...
Article
The concept of opportunity is central to entrepreneurship theory. This article contributes to theorizing family entrepreneurship across generations by examining how entrepreneurial opportunities are constructed, communicated, and acted upon at the intersection between family and business. Drawing on the experiences of four families in different bus...
Technical Report
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This report presents analyses of the experiences of the seven Social Innovation Actions undertaken in the SIMRA project. The aim of the report is to pool the knowledge gained in the practical implementation of Social Innovations in marginalised rural areas. As a result of the analysis, several elements have emerged as crucial for Social Innovation...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explores the influence of socialization upon the constitution and integration of learning leading to the development of entrepreneurial competence while at university, from the learner perspective. Self-reported learning is analyzed to illustrate ways in which students make use of institutional and social con...
Article
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This paper investigates the concept of the entrepreneurial university by examining roles of academic entrepreneurship departments in driving regional economic development outcomes. While a wealth of research investigates the role, activities and function of the entrepreneurial university, very little which focuses specifically on academic entrepren...
Article
Generally, investors tend to invest when likelihood of success is high. Many investors consider Africa as one market and neglect individual differences among African countries. Africa is mostly considered a high-risk market and conceptually innovativeness involves uncertainty, which precedes risk. However, it is known that when uncertainty is high...
Article
Few researchers have examined empirically the dynamics of human-non-human networking and its importance for strategic outcomes, particularly in the field of entrepreneurship. In this paper, we use Actor-Network Theory to observe and investigate the role of materially heterogeneous entities in the entrepreneurial network. Building on the results of...
Article
This study examines entrepreneurial learning through the observation of role models. Adopting an interpretive and inductive approach, and using biographical interviews and life course techniques, the article examines how sixteen entrepreneurs articulate their entrepreneurial learning from role models. The overarching research question ‘How do entre...
Article
Open innovation (OI) has become an established business practice followed by many organizations and industries. This paper extends understanding about how middle managers work with performance indicators to strategize OI by taking a bottom-up perspective in the organization. It draws on interviews carried out with eighteen (upper-level) middle mana...
Article
While entrepreneurship education increasingly uses various means to connect students to the ‘real world’, the impact of social networking on learning remains underexplored. This qualitative study of student entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom and Sweden shows that their entrepreneurial journey becomes increasingly complex, requiring skills and know...
Chapter
This case study illustrates how the Institute for Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development was transformed into the Department for Entrepreneurship, Strategy and Innovation (DESI). Since its inception, the focus has been on three key elements – research, education and business support. Through externally funded projects, DESI has assisted more t...
Article
This article will emphasize the status and relevance of narrative research in the study of families in business and family business strategy. It argues that narratives can provide a better understanding of the intricate connections between family and business and across family generations in business. Narratives generate knowledge by helping to sha...
Article
While recent work has considered network change, little is known about how certain factors determine such changes. This study focuses on two factors – the type of obstacles entrepreneurs face and their networking approach – and employs a two‐stage research design and network visualisation approach to capture entrepreneurs’ experiences in managing n...
Article
As the social and economic landscape changes, universities are coming under growing pressure to contribute to the economic development of their localities. This paper explores the increasing trends towards universities as key actors in the governance of regional economic development through activities to support economic and entrepreneurship develo...
Article
Larty J., Jack S. and Lockett N. Building regions: a resource-based view of a policy-led knowledge exchange network, Regional Studies. This study looks to understanding further about how important the choice of intermediary can be in supporting policy-makers in their regional development activities. Drawing on the resource-based view as a framework...
Article
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Recent calls for a historic turn in organization studies offer the opportunity to relaunch dialogue between management and business history research. Focusing on the specific domain of entrepreneurship research, this article illustrates the potential of mutual contributions from management and business history. In doing so, it highlights how histor...
Conference Paper
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Objectives. We aim to explore the relationship between the role of social capital and entrepreneurial learning by investigating the entrepreneurial journey of student and graduate entrepreneurs. Prior Work. It is widely acknowledged that the most powerful resource of an entrepreneur is their network: individuals, groups or organisations that suppor...
Article
This paper develops understanding about how incubation support and innovation strategy can determine the performance of academic spin-offs. Using a sample of spin-offs from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Norway, we analyse the potential moderating effect of incubation support (networking and entrepreneurial support) on innovation strategy...
Article
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A critical challenge for entrepreneurship scholars is the need to develop a greater understanding of (1) how, when and why entrepreneurial networks emerge, develop and change over time and (2) how network evolution impacts on the entrepreneurial trajectory. This special issue of Entrepreneurship & Regional Development begins to address these challe...
Article
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Continuity is about connection and cohesion over time. A defining question in the study of family business is how the family and the business can endure and survive across generations. Learning about continuity is fundamental in addressing that question. This study explores how family business members learn about continuity. It draws on concepts of...
Article
This paper adapts a franchising perspective to generate a better understanding of geographic distance in university–business engagement. The study utilized an in-depth case study of a leadership and management development intervention, a programme specifically designed for small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owner-managers (or directors) by the...
Article
This paper generates insight into the social processes of observational learning and how these relate to entrepreneurship. Building on established theoretical frameworks of observational learning, it goes beyond the link between role models, self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions to understand how entrepreneurial models are observed within th...
Article
The issue of network configuration has for long been debated in entrepreneurship. While the common view assumes that a heterogeneous network offers additional benefits to entrepreneurs, recent works have noted how contextual circumstances can motivate entrepreneurs to develop a homogeneous network. We pursue this issue further by uncovering how str...
Chapter
Developing greater understanding about if, how and why networks emerge, evolve and support growth has been recognized in the literature as an area for further research (Larson and Starr 1993; Uzzi 1997; Hite and Hesterly 2001). In this chapter we present data and demonstrate how the constant comparative approach can be used to develop theory and un...
Article
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This study investigates the relevance of social capital for entrepreneur-actor relationships for operating ventures in the low-trust environment. The study reveals that social capital serve as an asset, access to opportunities, protection, or is a danger for ventures. Entrepreneurs apply selectivity and verification to decide whom to deal with.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to understand the factors associated with perceptions of venture capital as a barrier to innovation in an important subset of knowledge-intensive service firms – technology-based business services. A general and longstanding neglect of services in studies of innovation and a common focus of innovation studies on the availa...
Article
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Social capital, which offers the broader theoretical construct to which networks and networking relate, is now recognized as an important influence in entrepreneurship. Broadly understood as resources embedded in networks and accessed through social connections, research has mainly focused on measuring structural, relational and cognitive dimension...
Article
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This study investigates the practice of NGO (nongovernment organizations)-donor relationships in a geographically isolated community in Alaska and explores the role of social capital in NGO sustainability. We employ the following parameters to apply social capital concepts to the needs of practitioners: study design centered on variables that are r...
Article
For small firms, network plays a significant role, especially during a new product development. Much has been revealed about the different characteristics of network but debate has remained concerning the benefit offered by different network characteristics. Most of these studies, unfortunately, have viewed network as static and do not change overt...
Article
The culture and attitudes of any institution are shaped by history and this may affect absorptive capacity and adjustment to change or responses to challenge or opportunity. The article explores how responses to policy initiatives played out within individual universities and the implications this had for their business engagement. The patterns of...
Article
Highlights ► This paper considers the nature of time and what it means for business owning families to manage in time. ► Using qualitative techniques, the experiences of twelve family firms are explored. ► Heidegger's ideas about time are considered as an explanation of how temporal practices and processes use time which is not only, always, sequen...
Article
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Although entrepreneurship seems to offer a universal economic solution, there are some doubts about whether it is universally attractive. We argue that entrepreneurship is a socially constructed concept and consequently the meanings, and hence the appeal, of the enterprise will vary internationally. We argue that how entrepreneurship is understood...
Article
This article presents findings from 14 in-depth interviews looking into the motivations and challenges of intermediaries and entrepreneurs engaged in the formation of a networking group for the information and communication technologies sector. The findings show that issues around communication and expectations exist and that the mechanisms used to...
Article
This study contributes to our understanding about entrepreneurial cultures in family businesses. Previous family business literature highlights that entrepreneurial cultures reside within a founding or incumbent generation. The identification and pursuit of opportunities leading to establishing or acquiring ventures revolves around a founder-center...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider why entrepreneurship theorising has become fragmented and how the research problem might be resolved. Design/methodology/approach – The authors first examine how entrepreneurial constructs reflect only part of what we “mean” by the construct to argue that we use different social constructions. This...
Article
This paper looks to broaden understanding about the networks of firms located in Business Incubators (BIs). To achieve this objective, a framework for understanding the networks of incubator firms was constructed. We argue that networks at incubators can be seen in two dimensions. In the first dimension, we define incubator firm networking activiti...
Article
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The small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector is crucial to regional and national economies [Thorpe, R., J. Cope, M. Ram, and M. Pedler. 2009. Leadership development in small-and medium-sized enterprises: The case for action learning. Action Learning: Research and Practice 6, no. 3: 201–8; Jones, O., A. Macpherson, and R. Thorpe. 2010. Learni...
Article
It has been widely argued that networks are critical for innovative firms. In the effort to support the growth of these firms, incubators seem to institutionalize support by having systems in place to encourage networking and help firms develop networks with other tenants and potential business allies. However, there is a lack of critical empirical...
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Purpose – The need to develop a greater understanding about the creation of social capital and how this might impact on entrepreneurship and the development of the small- to medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector requires further research. This paper aims to consider to what extent engagement with higher education institutions (HEIs) by SMEs creates...
Article
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It is now recognized that to broaden our understanding about networks more qualitative and longitudinal work is required that examines transformation and the change processes of networks; how they emerge and develop over time. The case study reported here deals with these issues. It considers the development of a network for new entrepreneurs first...
Article
Networking plays an important and well-studied role in entrepreneurial start-up processes, but its role in subsequent venture growth is less well understood. This paper reports on an in-depth longitudinal study of entrepreneurial networking practices through venture growth. We discover that the entrepreneur's growth-focused networking practices inv...
Article
Concerns have been raised about lack of clarity in conceptual consideration and difficulty of applying the network concept as an analytical tool. These concerns can be associated with reliance on quantitative techniques, designed to look at structural characteristics, when qualitative approaches will reveal other aspects of networks. This paper bui...
Article
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The paper aims to investigate the role of networks in the growth processes of family firms. The study adds to two main stream of literature, drawing together theoretical developments from the family firm realm and networking theory, to investigate the ways in which these structures and processes interact to facilitate and inhibit entrepreneurial gr...
Article
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There is increasing interest in the social entrepreneur and the process of social entrepreneurship. This has led to criticisms of fuzziness surrounding these concepts. This paper explores the concept of the social entrepreneur, considering whether social entrepreneurs can really be termed "entrepreneurs" or if they are something else - individuals...
Article
This article explores how people in the European schools' environment understand entrepreneurship, by tapping into the metaphors that they employ to describe entrepreneurs. Metaphors, where the characteristics of one thing are attributed creatively to another, have previously been shown to be a rich repository of socially constructed meanings.We fi...
Article
New venture capitalisation demands the formation of the necessary financial resources to launch. Social capital - the potential resources to which individuals have access due to their position within specific social networks of relationships - also plays a significant role in new venture capitalisation in three main ways. Firstly, social capital pr...
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In the UK, like in other countries, current social policy exhibits a push towards using social enterprises to provide a range of services. Characteristics of rural locations might present a suitable nurturing ground for social enterprise; however, the nature of rurality also raises concerns. This paper considers promoters/barriers to growth of soci...
Article
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Purpose of paper To examine how the context, approach and teaching techniques used for entrepreneurship education need to reflect the different roles that encompass enterprise. Design We analyse and reflect upon what attributes, qualities, skills and knowledge are required for the different roles involved in entrepreneurship. Findings From our anal...
Article
Within the UK the levels of female entrepreneurship are considerably lower than in many of its peer countries. As part of a strategy to remedy this apparent shortfall, and to improve the environment for existing female-owned businesses, the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) launched a ‘Strategic Framework for Women’s Enterprise’ in 2003. A...
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Although it is now well established that networks contribute to entrepreneurship by extending the individual entrepreneurial asset base of human, social, market, financial and technical capacity, little work, empirical or theoretical, has examined the dynamics of networking processes in a temporal framework. Drawing on evidence from three longitudi...
Article
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Recently there has been a boom in interest in the social entrepreneur and social entrepreneurship and increasingly social entrepreneurs and the organisations in which they are involved are perceived to play a significant role in contemporary society. The perceptions of policymakers are that the role of this sector could be even greater, particularl...
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Although the literature on social capital has increased dramatically in recent years, concerns have been raised about the expanse of applications of the term, diversity of constructs, definitions and variety of analyses. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the conceptualisation of social capital in entrepreneurship. To achieve this, the paper b...
Article
If entrepreneurship is to continue to deliver its promise of future prosperity (Finkle and Deeds, 2001) it is essential to maintain or grow the supply of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship education takes many forms and is a major and growing academic discipline world wide (Katz, 2003). Whether directly instrumental, role modeling or simply raising en...
Article
Effective management of people is increasingly recognized in the literature as a vital contributor to organizational performance and indeed survival. Nevertheless, studies of the dynamics of human resource management in small entrepreneurial ventures are relatively sparse. In this paper we draw upon a range of behaviourally-informed research public...
Article
The relevance of networks for entrepreneurship is now well established. However, despite the extent of work carried out there are still clear gaps in our understanding about how networks change and adapt over time and how entrepreneurs actually go about using their networks for entrepreneurship. To deal with these issues we focus on specific networ...
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A characteristic of studies seeking to explain the structure and operation of networks is the use of Granovetter's strong and weak tie hypothesis. Whilst this hypothesis has become an established paradigm, questions and disagreements arise over its applicability at demonstrating the real use and value of each tie. This study extends the work of Gra...
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Research has traditionally concentrated on formal kin involvement in the family business. This study investigates if, to what extent, and how entrepreneurs capitalised on resources embedded in the family, but beyond the formal traditionally-defined boundaries of the family firm. Employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches, the study find...