Sarah C Gilbert

Sarah C Gilbert
University of Oxford | OX · Jenner Institute

BSc PhD

About

440
Publications
73,063
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34,536
Citations
Citations since 2017
162 Research Items
22303 Citations
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Publications

Publications (440)
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T-cell responses 14 days after single-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination in black Africans with and without HIV in South Africa, as well as determine the effect of AZD1222 vaccination on cell-mediated immune responses in people...
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Full-text available
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic and re-emerging virus, which causes sporadic but severe infections in humans. Currently, no vaccines against NiV have been approved. We previously showed that ChAdOx1 NiV provides full protection against a lethal challenge with NiV Bangladesh (NiV-B) in hamsters. Here, we investigated the efficacy of ChAdOx1...
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Background: People with HIV on antiretroviral therapy with good CD4 T cell counts make effective immune responses following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on longer term responses and the impact of a booster dose. Methods: Adults with HIV were enrolled into a single arm open label study. Two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 were foll...
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Full-text available
The COVID‐19 pandemic caught the world largely unprepared, including scientific and policy communities. On April 10–13, 2022, researchers across academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations met at the Keystone symposium “Lessons from the Pandemic: Responding to Emerging Zoonotic Viral Diseases” to discuss the successes and challenges...
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Background COVID-19 vaccine rollout is lagging in Africa, where there has been a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination with the ChAdOx-nCoV19 (AZD1222) vaccine on antibody responses through to 180 days. Methods We did an unmasked post-hoc immunogenicity analysis after the firs...
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Full-text available
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus–vectored vaccine encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, based on the first published full-length sequence (Wuhan-1). AZD1222 has been shown to have 74% vaccine efficacy against symptomatic disease in clinical trials. However, variants of concern (VoCs) have been detected,...
Preprint
Omicron has demonstrated a competitive advantage over Delta in vaccinated people. To understand this, we designed a transmission chain experiment using naive, intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) vaccinated, and previously infected (PI) hamsters. Vaccination and previous infection protected animals from disease and virus replication after Delt...
Preprint
In this South African phase 1/2b study, we demonstrated vaccine efficacy (VE) of two doses of AZD1222 for asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: 90.6% against wild-type and 77.1% against the Delta variant ≥9 months after vaccination. VE against infection with the Beta variant, which preceded circulation of Delta, was 6.7%. Clinical tri...
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Virus‐like particles (VLPs) induce strong humoral and cellular responses and have formed the basis of some currently licensed vaccines. Here we present the method used for production of R21, a VLP‐based anti‐sporozoite malaria vaccine, under current Clinical Good Manufacturing Practice regulations (cGMP). Previous pre‐clinical studies in BALB/c mic...
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Background There is an ongoing global effort to design, manufacture, and clinically assess vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Over the course of the ongoing pandemic a number of new SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates or variants of concern (VoC) have been identified containing mutations in key proteins. Methods In this study we describe the generation and precli...
Article
Background In animal, epidemiological, and human challenge studies, a pre-existing T-cell response to internal proteins of influenza A has been associated with improved virological and disease outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess whether inducing additional responses to conserved CD4 and CD8 T-cell antigens provides added benefit to standa...
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a globally ubiquitous pathogen with a seroprevalence of approximately 50% in the UK. CMV infection induces expansion of immunosenescent T cell and NK cell populations with these cells demonstrating lower responsiveness to activation and reduced functionality upon infection and vaccination. In this study, we found that CMV+...
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Duration of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH) following vaccination is unclear. In a sub-study of the phase 2/3 the COV002 trial (NCT04400838), 54 HIV positive male participants on antiretroviral therapy (undetectable viral loads, CD4+ T cells >350 cells/ul) received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) 4-6 weeks apart...
Preprint
Full-text available
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus–vectored vaccine encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, based on the first published full-length sequence (Wuhan-1). AZD1222 was shown to have 74% vaccine efficacy (VE) against symptomatic disease in clinical trials and over 2.5 billion doses of vaccine have been released...
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Accurate and sensitive detection of antibody to SARS-CoV-2 remains an essential component of the pandemic response. Measuring antibody that predicts neutralising activity and the vaccine response is an absolute requirement for laboratory-based confirmatory and reference activity. The viral receptor binding domain (RBD) constitutes the prime target...
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Bluetongue, caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is a widespread arthropod-borne disease of ruminants that entails a recurrent threat to the primary sector of developed and developing countries. In this work, we report MVA and ChAdOx1-vectored vaccines designed to simultaneously express the immunogenic NS1 protein and/or NS2-Nt, the N-terminal half of...
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The global supply of COVID-19 vaccines remains limited. An understanding of the immune response that is predictive of protection could facilitate rapid licensure of new vaccines. Data from a randomized efficacy trial of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine in the United Kingdom was analyzed to determine the antibody levels associated with protecti...
Article
There is a critical need to develop superior influenza vaccines that provide broader protection. Influenza vaccines are traditionally tested in naive animals, although humans are exposed to influenza in the first years of their lives, but the impact of prior influenza exposure on vaccine immune responses has not been well studied. Pigs are an impor...
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Background ChAdOx1-vectored vaccine candidates against several pathogens have been developed and tested in clinical trials and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has now been licensed for emergency use for COVID-19. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 MERS vaccine in a phase 1b trial in healthy Middle Eastern adults. Method MERS002 is an open-la...
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Several COVID-19 vaccines have shown good efficacy in clinical trials, but there remains uncertainty about the efficacy of vaccines against different variants. Here, we investigate the efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) against symptomatic COVID-19 in a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a Phase 3 randomised trial in Brazil (trial registration ISR...
Article
AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a replication-deficient simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine, has demonstrated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in clinical trials and real-world studies. We characterized CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses induced by AZD1222 vaccination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC...
Preprint
Full-text available
Duration of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH) following vaccination is unclear. In a sub-study of the phase 2/3 the COV002 trial ( NCT04400838 ), 54 HIV positive male participants on antiretroviral therapy (undetectable viral loads, CD4+ T cells >350 cells/ul) received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) 4-6 weeks apa...
Article
There is an urgent requirement for safe and effective vaccines to prevent COVID-19. A concern for the development of new viral vaccines is the potential to induce vaccine-enhanced disease (VED). This was reported in several preclinical studies with both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS vaccines but has not been reported with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We have used fe...
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Background COVID-19 vaccine supply shortages are causing concerns about compromised immunity in some countries as the interval between the first and second dose becomes longer. Conversely, countries with no supply constraints are considering administering a third dose. We assessed the persistence of immunogenicity after a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCo...
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Manufacturing has been the key factor limiting rollout of vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring rapid development and large-scale implementation of novel manufacturing technologies. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222, Vaxzevria) is an efficacious vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, based upon an adenovirus vector. We describe the development of a proce...
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British Society for immunology and International Veterinary Vaccinology Network report on the value of veterinary vaccines.
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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects dromedary camels and zoonotically infects humans, causing a respiratory disease with severe pneumonia and death. With no approved antiviral or vaccine interventions for MERS, vaccines are being developed for camels to prevent virus transmission into humans. We have previously developed...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pre-existing T cell responses to influenza have been correlated with improved clinical outcomes in natural history and human challenge studies. We aimed to determine the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of a T-cell directed vaccine in older people. Methods: This was a multicentre, participant- and safety assessor-blinded, randomis...
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Background People living with HIV are at an increased risk of fatal outcome when admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19 compared with HIV-negative individuals. We aimed to assess safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine in people with HIV and HIV-negative individuals in South Africa. Methods In this ongoing, double-blin...
Article
Full-text available
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 is an approved adenovirus-based vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently being deployed globally. Previous studies in rhesus macaques revealed that intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 provided protection against pneumonia but did not reduce shedding of SARS-CoV-2 f...
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Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently required, but early development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-1 resulted in enhanced disease after vaccination. Careful assessment of this phenomena is warranted for vaccine development against SARS CoV-2. Here we report detailed immune profiling after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) and subsequent high dose challe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Although 6 COVID-19 vaccines have been approved by the World Health Organisation as of 7th June 2021, global supply remains limited. An understanding of the immune response associated with protection could facilitate rapid licensure of new vaccines. Methods: Data from a randomised efficacy trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine in t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Emerging evidence shows the substantial real-world impact of authorised vaccines against COVID-19 and provides insight into the potential role of vaccines in curbing the pandemic. However, there remains uncertainty about the efficacy of vaccines against different variants of the virus. Here we assessed efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD122...
Article
AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a replication-deficient simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine, has demonstrated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in clinical trials and real-world studies. We characterized CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses induced by AZD1222 vaccination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC...
Preprint
There is an ongoing global effort, to design, manufacture, and clinically assess vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Over the course of the ongoing pandemic a number of new SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates or variants of concern (VoC) have been identified containing mutations that negatively impact the role of neutralising antibodies. In this study we describe t...
Article
Full-text available
p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused a global pandemic, and safe, effective vaccines are urgently needed<sup>1</sup>. Strong, Th1-skewed T cell responses can drive protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses<sup>2</sup> and might reduce the p...
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SARS-CoV-2 has undergone progressive change with variants conferring advantage rapidly becoming dominant lineages e.g. B.1.617. With apparent increased transmissibility variant B.1.617.2 has contributed to the current wave of infection ravaging the Indian subcontinent and has been designated a variant of concern in the UK. Here we study the ability...
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Background Data on vaccine immunogenicity against SARS-CoV-2 are needed for the 40 million people globally living with HIV who might have less functional immunity and more associated comorbidities than the general population. We aimed to explore safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine in people with HIV. Methods In this...
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Full-text available
An effective vaccine would be a valuable tool for malaria control and elimination; however, the leading malaria vaccine in development, RTS,S/AS01, provided only partial protection in a Phase 3 trial. R21 is a next-generation RTS,S-like vaccine. We have previously shown in mice that R21 administered in Matrix-M is highly immunogenic, able to elicit...
Article
Full-text available
Several vaccines have demonstrated efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 mediated disease, yet there is limited data on the immune response induced by heterologous vaccination regimens using alternate vaccine modalities. Here, we present a detailed description of the immune response, in mice, following vaccination with a self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine a...
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Full-text available
p>More than 190 vaccines are currently in development to prevent infection by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Animal studies suggest that while neutralizing antibodies against the viral spike protein may correlate with protection, additional antibody functions may also be important in preventing infection. Previously, we...
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Full-text available
Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are likely to be critical in the management of the ongoing pandemic. A number of candidates are in Phase III human clinical trials, including ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate. In preclinical trials, the efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against SARS-CoV-2 chall...
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Full-text available
Influenza B viruses (IBV) cause respiratory disease epidemics in humans and are therefore components of seasonal influenza vaccines. Serological methods are employed to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity prior to licensure. However, classical methods to assess influenza vaccine immunogenicity such as the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) and the...
Preprint
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects dromedary camels and zoonotically infects humans, causing a respiratory disease with severe pneumonia and death. With no approved antiviral or vaccine interventions for MERS, vaccines are being developed for camels to prevent virus transmission into humans. We have previously developed...
Article
Full-text available
Vaccine development against the SARS-CoV-2 virus focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Adenovirus-vectored vaccines offer an effective platform for the delivery of viral antigen, but it is important for the generation of neutralizing antibodies that they produce appropriately processed and...
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Full-text available
Heterologous prime-boost strategies are known to substantially increase immune responses in viral vectored vaccines. Here we report on safety and immunogenicity of the poxvirus Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccine expressing four Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antigens as a single dose or as a booster vaccine following a...
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Full-text available
Background Assessment of the safety and efficacy of vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in different populations is essential, as is investigation of the efficacy of the vaccines against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including the B.1.351 (501Y.V2) variant first identified in South Africa. M...
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Background ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is a recombinant adenovirus vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 that has passed phase III clinical trials and is now in use across the globe. Although replication-defective in normal cells, 28 kbp of adenovirus genes is delivered to the cell nucleus alongside the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein gene. Methods We used direct RNA sequenci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations: P.1 from Brazil, B.1.351 from South Africa and B.1.1.7 from the UK (12, 10 and 9 changes in the spike respectively)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern ¹ . People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with HIV-negative individuals ²⁻⁵ , and are a high-risk group for COVID-19 prevention ⁴ . The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has demonstrated safety and efficacy...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigated ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 in Syrian hamsters. We previously showed protection against SARS-CoV-2 disease and pneumonia in hamsters vaccinated with a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Here, we observed a 9.5-fold reduction of virus neutralizing antibody...
Article
Full-text available
Background The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4–12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first d...
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Full-text available
Lassa virus (LASV) infects hundreds of thousands of individuals each year, highlighting the need for the accelerated development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions. To date, no vaccine has been licensed for LASV. ChAdOx1-Lassa-GPC is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the Josiah strain LASV glycoprotein precurso...
Article
Full-text available
Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations: P.1 from Brazil, B.1.351 from South Africa and B.1.1.7 from the UK (12, 10 and 9 changes in the spike respectively)...
Article
Full-text available
Background A new variant of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7, emerged as the dominant cause of COVID-19 disease in the UK from November, 2020. We report a post-hoc analysis of the efficacy of the adenoviral vector vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), against this variant. Methods Volunteers (aged ≥18 years) who were enrolled in phase 2/3 vaccine efficacy studie...
Article
Full-text available
Background The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4-12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Assessing safety and efficacy of Covid-19 vaccines in different populations is essential, as is investigation of efficacy against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern including the B.1.351 (501Y.V2) variant first identified in South Africa. Methods We conducted a randomized multicentre, double blinded controlled trial on safety and e...
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Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03099-2
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SARS-CoV-2 has caused over 2M deaths in little over a year. Vaccines are being deployed at scale, aiming to generate responses against the virus spike. The scale of the pandemic and error-prone virus replication is leading to the appearance of mutant viruses and potentially escape from antibody responses. Variant B.1.1.7, now dominant in the UK, wi...
Article
Full-text available
The race to produce vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 began when the first sequence was published, and this forms the basis for vaccines currently deployed globally. Independent lineages of SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported: UK–B.1.1.7, South Africa–B.1.351 and Brazil–P.1. These variants have multiple changes in the immunodominant spike protein whic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several vaccines have demonstrated efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 mediated disease, yet there is limited data on the immune response induced by heterologous vaccination regimens using alternate vaccine modalities. Here, we present a detailed description of the immune response, in mice, following vaccination with a self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vaccine development against the SARS-CoV-2 virus focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Adenovirus-vectored vaccines offer an effective platform for the delivery of viral antigen, but it is important for the generation of neutralizing antibodies that they produce appropriately processed and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 protected rhesus macaques against pneumonia but did not reduce shedding of SARS-CoV-2. Here we investigate whether intranasally administered ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reduces shedding, using a SARS-CoV-2 virus with the D614G mutation in the spike protein. Viral load in swabs obtained from intranasally va...