Sarah Fowler

Sarah Fowler
Save Our Seas Foundation

BSc Zoology with Marine Zoology (1st class, joint honours, University College of North Wales). MSc Conservation (University College London)

About

83
Publications
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Publications

Publications (83)
Book
Full-text available
This is the essential illustrated guide for anyone interested in these fascinating fishes. The number of shark species has increased over the past 15 years with over 20% of all known species having been described. In fact, the new Sharks of the World book have about 50 species that have been added since the previous edition, bringing the total numb...
Book
Full-text available
A Pocket Guide to Sharks of the World is the only field guide to identify, illustrate, and described every known shark species. Its compact format makes it handy for many situations, including recognising living species, fishery catches, or parts sold at markets. This expanded second edition presents lavish images, details on newly discovered speci...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the details of local and regional extinctions allows for more efficient allocation of conservation activities and resources. This involves identifying where populations persist, where populations may still be present, and where populations may be locally extinct. Three threatened angel sharks occur in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterr...
Article
Full-text available
Europe has a long tradition of exploiting marine fishes and is promoting marine economic activity through its Blue Growth strategy. This increase in anthropogenic pressure, along with climate change, threatens the biodiversity of fishes and food security. Here, we examine the conservation status of 1,020 species of European marine fishes and identi...
Book
Full-text available
The European Red List of Habitats provides an overview of the risk of collapse (degree of endangerment) of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the European Union (EU28) and adjacent regions (EU28+), based on a consistent set of categories and criteria, and detailed data and expert knowledge from involved countries1. A total of 257 benthi...
Book
Full-text available
The European Red List of Habitats provides an overview of the risk of collapse (degree of endangerment) of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the European Union (EU28) and adjacent regions (EU28+), based on a consistent set of categories and criteria, and detailed data and expert knowledge from involved countries. A total of 257 benthic...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document was submitted to CITES CoP17 by the Secretariat on behalf of the IUCN to inform the Parties in reference in particular to agenda items 15 (Capacity building), 22 (National laws for implementation of the Convention), 23 (CITES compliance matters), 25 (Enforcement matters), 26 (Illegal international trade in wildlife), 36 (Introduction...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Aim | The European Red List is a review of the conservation status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level, so that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This Red List publication summarises results fo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Aim | The European Red List is a review of the conservation status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level, so that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This Red List publication summarises results fo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Aim | The European Red List is a review of the conservation status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level, so that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This Red List publication summarises results fo...
Article
Full-text available
Intestinal rinsing via eversion through the cloaca has been documented in a number of sharks that possess a scroll or conicospiral type of valvular intestine (Bspiral valve^). This valve was first described by Marcus Aurelius Severinis in 1645 and is the lower part of a shark's intestine that is twisted to allow a greater surface area for digestion...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Global Strategy for the Conservation of Sharks and Rays (2015–2025), summarized here, is the product of an intensive 18-month strategic planning process incorporating extensive data analysis and synthesis, including a set of background documents, several technical workshops, and ongoing consultation and review. This process involved a team of e...
Book
Full-text available
● the first pocket guide to all 501 shark species ● all species illustrated and described ● handy, compact format with concise text ● a six-page guide to shark teeth identification ● an eight-page guide to the identification of the shark fins most commonly encountered in the fin trade
Data
The Data Deficient chondrichthyan species that are potentially threatened. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00590.024
Data
(A) IUCN Red List status of chondrichthyans in the fin trade, including (i) families with the most-valued fins, and (ii) the most prevalent species utilized in the Hong Kong fin trade. (B) Chondrichthyan species threatened by (i) control measures, and (ii) habitat destruction and degradation, pollution or climate change with the corresponding IUCN...
Data
Number and IUCN Red List status of chondrichthyan species in IUCN Red List categories by family (alphabetically within each order).DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00590.013
Article
Full-text available
The rapid expansion of human activities threatens ocean-wide biodiversity. Numerous marine animal populations have declined, yet it remains unclear whether these trends are symptomatic of a chronic accumulation of global marine extinction risk. We present the first systematic analysis of threat for a globally distributed lineage of 1,041 chondricht...
Article
All possible tools need to be marshalled for marine fish conservation. Yet controversy has swirled around what role, if any, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) should play for marine fishes. This paper analyses the relevance and applicability of CITES as a complementary tool for fisheries man...
Article
This study examines the processing of fins from blue sharks Prionace glauca caught by the Spanish longline fleet and landed in Vigo, Spain, and implications of these practices for enforcing the E.U. ban on shark finning, which relies on a maximum fin-to-carcass-mass ratio. Two major sources of variability in fin-to-carcass ratios are quantified and...
Article
Full-text available
Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer...
Technical Report
This study on EU shark fin catching, processing and trade practices, and their global significance. was undertaken to contribute to the current debate on strengthening the EU Finning Regulation. Since the world’s first shark finning prohibition was introduced in 1993, various methods for enforcing such bans have been tested. Over the past five yea...
Chapter
In 1999, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Committee of Fisheries adopted the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (IPOA-Sharks). Since 2001, the IUCN Shark Specialist Group, with assis tance from TRAFFIC, has been monitoring its implementation and reporting back to the Convention on In...
Chapter
Introduction Management tools available for pelagic sharks International and regional management action Domestic management action Conclusions Recommendations
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes the results of a thematic Red List Workshop held at the University of Oxford's Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, UK, in 2007, and incorporates seven years (2000-2007) of effort by a large group of Shark Specialist Group members and other experts to evaluate the conservation status of the world's pelagic sharks and rays. It...
Article
Full-text available
1. Fishing spans all oceans and the impact on ocean predators such as sharks and rays is largely unknown. A lack of data and complicated jurisdictional issues present particular challenges for assessing and conserving high seas biodiversity. It is clear, however, that pelagic sharks and rays of the open ocean are subject to high and often unrestric...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes the results of a regional Red List Workshop held at the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), Peterborough, UK, in 2006, as a contribution towards the IUCN Species Survival Commission's Shark Specialist Group's 'Global Shark Red List Assessment'. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the conservation status of the ch...
Technical Report
Full-text available
European fleets are among the world’s leaders in fishing for sharks, reporting over 13% of global landings to the FAO in 2004. The most valuable parts of most sharks are their fins, which are a delicacy in Chinese cuisine. Shark meat is less profitable, which results in a strong economic incentive to cut off the fins and discard the carcass back in...
Technical Report
The IUCN Species Survival Commission Shark Specialist Group (IUCN SSG) was commissioned by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the CMS Secretariat to prepare a database of all migratory chondrichthyan fishes (the sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) and to identify potential species that would benefit from a CMS lis...
Technical Report
In 1999, the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation adopted a voluntary International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (IPOA-Sharks). This called upon all states to produce a Shark Assessment Report (SAR) and, if they have shark fisheries, to develop and implement National P...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The first regional SSG Red List Workshop was held by the AO Regional SSG on 7–9 March 2003 at the University of Queensland’s Moreton Bay Research Station on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. This group is responsible for the largest geographical SSG area, encompassing the Western Central Pacific, Southwest Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans. This...
Technical Report
This is a desk study report on the extent and distribution of commercial and non-commercial bait collection and its impacts on features of conservation interest (particularly in Special Protection Areas, Ramsar Sites and candidate marine Special Areas of Conservation). It utilised a literature review, an interview survey (by telephone followed up b...
Research Proposal
During the late 1990s, the economic importance of whale sharks for ecotourism and target fisheries expanded rapidly in several parts of the species' range. This stimulated the addition of the species to Appendix II of the Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) and an unsuccessful proposal for Appendix II of the Convention on Int...
Technical Report
This report aims to describe the collection of bait (mainly ragworms, lugworms and peeler crabs) and non-bait animals from the shore, and to provide practical advice to managers of coastal sites on this activity and the range of options available for managing them, if deemed necessary. It does not include an assessment of the effects of commercial...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sharks and their relatives - the rays and chimaeras - are the diverse group of cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes) that have evolved over 400 million years. ... ... ... This report serves as an introduction to the ecology, status and conservation of the sharks and their relatives for a general audience. It draws attention to their unique bi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Donateurs en faveur du Programme de communication de la CSE et du document occasionnel Les requins et autres poissons cartilagineux : écologie et conservation La Commission pour la sauvegarde des espèces (CSE) de l'UICN s'est engagée à communiquer les informations importantes pour la conservation des espèces aux gestionnaires de ressources naturell...
Conference Paper
The first detailed study of shark and ray (elasmobranch) biodiversity in Sabah, East Malaysia is presented. A large number of species (34 sharks and 35 rays) were identified during fish market visits and field surveys, 23 of which were new records for Sabah, including an undescribed river shark Glyphis sp. Several other species, some of which are p...
Technical Report
This report reviews current knowledge of the biology and life cycle of winkles, particularly in relation to the fishery in Scotland and the implications for its management. It assesses the extent of collection around the Scottish coast with the aid of questionnaires and contacts with the industry, and makes management recommendations. Further resea...
Chapter
This chapter is divided into three sections: rural land use, covering agriculture (especially as it affects important coastal wildlife habitats) and woodland; infrastructure, covering population distribution, industry, ports, harbours, ferries and power generation; and coastal defence, including sea defence and coast protection. Shetland comprises...
Technical Report
The common mussel is widely distributed around Scotland, both on rocky shores and within sediment areas in inlets. Large, commercially exploitable stocks are generally confined to more sheltered areas and make up large beds in the lower littoral and shallow sublittoral zones. They comprise an important part of the ecosystem, support a wide range of...
Chapter
This chapter describes national, local and regional coastal management initiatives taking place wholly or partly within Region 6. GB and UK national initiatives without a specific regional focus, notably those led by non-governmental agencies and user groups, are outside its scope. However, as the whole chapter concludes with a list of contacts wit...
Chapter
This chapter is divided into three sections: (rural) land use, covering agriculture (especially as it affects important coastal wildlife habitats) and woodland; infrastructure, covering population distribution, industry, ports, harbours, ferries, pipelines, cables and power generation; and coastal defence, including sea defence and coast protection...
Technical Report
The Shetland Islands Council commissioned a baseline ecological survey of proposed locations for new sewage outfalls at Burra and Walls and an environmental assessment of the effect on the seabed of the existing sewage outfall at Rova Head, Lerwick, during July 1994. The field survey methodology was designed to provide a standard low cost transect-...
Article
A marine monitoring programme was established by the UK Nature Conservancy Council in 1984 at the Lundy and Isles of Scilly proposed marine nature reserves in southwest England to help determine their management requirements. The aim was to provide information on important marine habitats, longterm changes in community structure and the life histor...
Technical Report
Includes a case study of the Isle of Thanet, Kent.
Technical Report
The Nature Conservancy Council established a littoral and sublittoral marine monitoring programme in the Isles of Scilly and Lundy in 1984, to provide information on important marine habitats, long term changes in community structure and the life history and ecology of species of high nature conservation importance. Annual monitoring was continued...
Article
In order to ensure the maintenance of natural processes, ecosystems and wildlife, nature conservation initiatives in the North Sea must attempt to resolve the conflicts between the numerous human uses of coastal and estuarine zones. The Nature Conservancy Council's reviews of geology, maritime, marine and estuarine sites, habitats and communities p...
Technical Report
The study provides an overview of resources and their current management and aims to identify the potential for integrated coastal zone management (CZM) in the Falmouth Bay and Estuaries area. Chapters cover Natural resources, Historic and cultural resources, Economic resources, the Current management framework, Conflicts of interest and threats to...
Technical Report
Under the Control of Pollution Act 1974, fish farms in Scotland must apply for consents to discharge wastes from marine cages. Consents are granted subject to various conditions being met. These may include monitoring of effluents to ensure that the discharge is not significantly damaging to the environment. The Shetland Islands Council's Departmen...
Technical Report
The main effort of this monitoring programme has been directed towards studies of subtidal populations of the eel grass or sedge Zostera marina and of deep circalittoral faunal populations (with Mediterranean-Atlantic species) on bedrock.
Article
Lumb, C.M. and S.L. Fowler. 1989. Assessing the benthic impact of fish farming, p. 75–78. In J. McManus and M. Elliott (eds.), Developments in Estuarine and Coastal Study Techniques. Olsen and Olsen, Fredenborg, Denmark.
Technical Report
This report reviews the main impacts of commercial fishing operations on the seabed and their significance for marine nature conservation. Sources of information are from scientific journals, unpublished research reports, the fishing press, anecdotal comments from divers and fishermen and reports of ICES Committees.
Article
Marine Conservation. The newsletter of the Marine Conservation Society

Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
Conservation and management of UK marine and coastal biodiversity
Project
From 1991 to present: working on evaluations of species conservation status and improving conservation and management policies for the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, batoids and chimaeras).