Sarah Diefenbach

Sarah Diefenbach
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich | LMU · Department of Psychology

Dr. Dipl. Psych.

About

131
Publications
107,820
Reads
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2,565
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2015 - present
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
Position
  • Professor
October 2011 - March 2012
Julius-Maximilians University of Würzburg
Position
  • Research Assistant
May 2009 - March 2015
Folkwang University of Arts
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
From chatbots that simulate human conversation to cleaning robots with anthropomorphic appearance, humanlike designed technologies become increasingly present in our society. A growing strand of research focuses on psychological factors and motivations influencing anthropomorphism, that is, the attribution of human characteristics to non-human agen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Even in moments considered private, others often witness how we interact with technology. A typical example is smartphone use at home, in the presence of family members. This of course becomes even more likely in public - on streets, in libraries, or in the supermarket, places full of other people. The social context brings challenges and opportuni...
Article
The mediating nature of communication technologies (e.g., telephone, voice message, or chat) can buffer the experience of conversations by establishing a figurative shield between sender and receiver. From a psychological perspective, this buffer effect may affect senders’ communication channel choices depending on their respective communication go...
Article
Full-text available
Companion technologies, such as social robots and conversational chatbots, take increasing responsibility for daily tasks and support our physical and mental health. Especially in the domain of healthcare, where technologies are often applied for long-term use, our experience with and relationship to such technologies become ever more relevant. Bas...
Article
Full-text available
Technologies, such as smartphones or wearables, take a central role in our daily lives. Making their use meaningful and enjoyable requires a better understanding of the prerequisites and underpinnings of positive experiences with such technologies. So far, a focus had been on the users themselves, that is, their individual goals, desires, feelings,...
Article
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With impressive developments in human–robot interaction it may seem that technology can do anything. Especially in the domain of social robots which suggest to be much more than programmed machines because of their anthropomorphic shape, people may overtrust the robot's actual capabilities and its reliability. This presents a serious problem, espec...
Article
Full-text available
Robots increasingly act as our social counterparts in domains such as healthcare and retail. For these human-robot interactions (HRI) to be effective, a question arises on whether we trust robots the same way we trust humans. We investigated whether the determinants competence and warmth, known to influence interpersonal trust development, influenc...
Article
Full-text available
People’s choices of (electronic) communication channels are central to the quality of communication—and sometimes detrimental to their actual communication goals. However, while factors influencing media choice are abundant, potential means to intentionally influence these choices are scarce within computer-mediated communication research. We explo...
Article
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We propose that digital technologies and related data become increasingly prevalent and that, consequently, ethical concerns arise. Looking at four principal stakeholders, we propose corporate digital responsibility (CDR) as a novel concept. Specifically, we define CDR as the set of shared values and norms guiding an organization's operations with...
Article
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Current robot designs often reflect an anthropomorphic approach, apparently aiming to convince users through an ideal system, being most similar or even on par with humans. The present paper challenges human-likeness as a design goal and questions whether simulating human appearance and performance adequately fits into how humans think about robots...
Book
Digitisation has established itself as the change maker par excellence in business, science and society. Infrastructures, working methods and skills are at the forefront of many debates and increasingly determine the future viability of entire industries. We have obviously embraced the permanent change with increasing acceleration. But: Where is th...
Article
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A large part of everyday communication is mediated by technology, with a constantly growing number of choices. Accordingly, how people choose between different communication media is a long-standing research question. However, while prominent media theories focus on how media characteristics affect communication performance, the underlying psycholo...
Article
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The buzzword “smart home” promises an intelligent, helpful environment in which technology makes life easier, simpler or safer for its inhabitants. On a technical level, this is currently achieved by many networked devices interacting with each other, working on shared protocols and standards. From a user experience (UX) perspective, however, the i...
Chapter
Persuasive technologies to support behaviour change (e.g., fitness trackers) have become increasingly popular among consumers and healthcare providers. However, studies show that such technologies often fail to offer long-term engagement and tangible health benefits. In this regards, the specific design of persuasive messages provided by the device...
Article
Full-text available
Prototyping as a central method within innovation- and product development processes has a high acceptance in industry. Various prototyping tools provide impressive visualizations of product ideas in early development stages and especially low fidelity prototyping methods seem easily applicable. However, a closer look at prototyping in practice rev...
Conference Paper
The smartphone plays a dominant role in everyday life. Among young adults, the average daily usage time is almost four hours. The present study [N=399] examines the specific psychological role of smartphone usage during alone time (e.g. in the subway, waiting, in bed). Particularly, we explore its role in coping with negative emotions in the sense...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The analysis of tasks and workflows is a longstanding tradition in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In many cases, it provides a crucial basis for the usable design of interactive systems. However, established tools almost exclusively focus on task content and structure, thereby ignoring the more "experiential" aspects of task performance. To fill...
Chapter
Social norms are the informal understandings that govern the behavior within a society and are crucial for the feeling of togetherness and social cohesion. However, technology-mediated behavior often stands in conflict (e.g., parallel smartphone use undermining the norm of full attention for the conversation partner). Under the umbrella term ‘disre...
Chapter
Early stage prototyping gains ever more importance in product development and User Experience (UX) evaluation. Especially in innovative technology and service domains (e.g., VR, AR, IoT) with increasing relevance of experiential aspects, early prototyping and evaluation is crucial to assess a product idea’s success potential. A central question is...
Chapter
Social robots, specifically designed to interact with humans, already play an increasing role in many domains such as healthcare, transportation, or care of the elderly. However, research and design still lack a profound theoretical basis considering their role as social beings and the psychological rules that apply to the interaction between human...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ziel des Projekts Kommunikado war es, KMU bei der bewussten, kompetenten Gestaltung von B2B-Kommunikation und -Kundenbeziehungen zu unterstützen und hierfür Tools bzw. Musterlösungen zu entwickeln, die leicht in bestehende Softwaresysteme integriert werden können. Der Bericht stellt die Ziele, den Ablauf, die Ergebnisse und die zukünftige Verwertun...
Conference Paper
Digital assistant technologies are becoming increasingly common at home. These technologies also hold high potential through supporting individuals at work. However, it remains a challenge for research to understand which psychological features should be embodied by digital assistant technologies so that they can become meaningful everyday companio...
Article
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We present the main messages of a European Expert Round Table (ERT) on the unintended side effects (unseens) of the digital transition. Seventeen experts provided 42 propositions from ten different perspectives as input for the ERT. A full-day ERT deliberated communalities and relationships among these unseens and provided suggestions on (i) what t...
Article
Gratitude journals have been used frequently as forms of intervention and indicate a positive effect on wellbeing. The present study explored the potential of gratitude journal apps and appreciated design features. It is empirically based on prior research and theoretically related to experience design, the Fogg Behaviour Model and domestication th...
Article
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Consumer participation in the product production process offers chances for consumers and marketers alike, promising a better fit to consumer needs, a more fulfilling product relationship, and a higher willingness to pay (WTP). To exploit this potential, a key question is as to what type of participation evokes the most positive effects with respec...
Article
Full-text available
Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of...
Conference Paper
Social robots gain increasing relevance in many domains with high potential for social good (e.g., healthcare, care for the elderly, robots as social companion). However, their design bears high responsibility and asks for a profound understanding of to what degree psychological mechanisms of human-human interaction (HHI) apply to human-robot inter...
Article
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The present article gives an overview on central challenges humans face at the dawn of complex digital societies and the Internet of Things (IoT), i.e., a world completely connected to the Internet. Among the many challenges to be handled in digital societies is a growing fragmented life style leading to loss of productivity as well as moments for...
Article
Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are web-based tools designed to help voters to find a political party that matches their political views. In the past decade, VAAs have been developed in several countries in order to stimulate political discussion especially among the young and to facilitate a voting decision. At the same time, social media such a...
Conference Paper
Mit dem diesjährigen Branchenreport UX/Usability dokumentiert die German UPA (Berufsverband der deutschen Usability und User Experience Professionals, www.germanupa.de) die Situation von Usability und User Experience Professionals in Deutschland. 2017 haben sich 420 Personen an der Befragung beteiligt und liefern damit eine umfangreiche Information...
Conference Paper
Die Qualität der Kommunikation ist ein zentraler Erfolgsfaktor für nachhaltige Kundenbeziehungen und Kundenprojekte. Projekt- und Kundenbeziehungsmanagement-Systeme versprechen Unterstützung, indem sie relevante Daten verwalten sowie Prozesse und Analysen automatisieren. Dies geht jedoch an den tatsächlichen Problemen von Kommunikation und Beziehun...
Article
Full-text available
Designing an aesthetic interaction is an important issue for Interaction Design (ID) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). While a number of frameworks exist, the experimental study of potential underlying principles remains rare. In this paper, we suggest that particular interaction attributes (e.g., “fast”) are systematically related to particula...
Article
Full-text available
While a model-based analysis of behavior and experience is helpful in psychological research, the lack of approaches for the integration of qualitative data may lead to limited insights about essentially rich concepts. To overcome this, the present article suggests a combination of phenomenological and model-based analysis of qualitative data. We a...
Chapter
Der Bericht von Pascal über seinen Laptop (Fallstudie „Bericht über eine Produktbeziehung“) zeigt die vielschichtigen Wahrnehmungen und Bewertungen von Menschen bei der Interaktion mit Technik. Für Pascal ist der Laptop primär ein Arbeitsgerät, Leistungsdaten und Funktionalität müssen stimmen. Es geht aber um noch viel mehr: Auch Emotionen, die Pro...
Chapter
Wir verstehen unter der Ästhetik der Interaktion die Passung von Interaktion zu intendiertem Erlebnis. Ausgehend vom dem in Kap. 4 dargestellten Ebenenmodell lassen sich drei Ebenen unterscheiden: Warum, Was und Wie. Die Was-Ebene beschreibt Interaktion im Sinne von Praktiken und Handlungen, z. B. einen Telefonanruf tätigen. Das Wie bezieht sich au...
Chapter
Wir möchten an dieser Stelle nicht mehr viele Worte verlieren. Bereits im Vorwort haben wir unser Anliegen formuliert: Menschen glücklich machen und den Beitrag der Technik hierzu nicht nur kritisch zu hinterfragen, zu analysieren und zu evaluieren, sondern aktiv und bewusst zu gestalten. Interaktive Produkte sollen aus unserer Sicht Wohlbefinden m...
Chapter
Noch in den 1990er-Jahren ging es bei der Gestaltung interaktiver Produkte hauptsächlich um das Sicherstellen der effektiven und effizienten Aufgabenerledigung. Interaktive Produkte wurden primär als Werkzeuge verstanden. Eine kognitionspsychologische Perspektive dominierte die Gestaltung interaktiver Produkte (Kap. 1). Dies führte für Praktiker mi...
Chapter
Kompetenz (Fallstudie „Eieraufschlagen als Kompetenzerlebnis“) ist nur eines von verschiedenen psychischen Bedürfnissen, die bei einer erlebnis- und wohlbefindensorientierten Gestaltung im Vordergrund stehen können. Wie in Kap. 4 beschrieben, stellt das wohlbefindens- und erlebnisorientierte Gestalten die bewusste Auseinandersetzung mit dem intendi...
Chapter
Mit den neuen Freiheitsgraden in der Interaktionsgestaltung stellt sich auch die Frage nach der Ästhetik von Interaktion. Neben der visuellen Ästhetik ist auch die Interaktion als Bestandteil des Nutzungserlebnisses und Gegenstand bewusster Gestaltungentscheidungen zu begreifen. In Kap. 4 haben wir dies bereits angedeutet und die essenzielle Rolle...
Chapter
Prototyping ist eine zentrale Aktivität im Prozess der Gestaltung interaktiver Produkte. Prototypen dienen hierbei sowohl als Mittel der Exploration, der Demonstration und der Evaluation (▶ Kasten „Drei verschiedene Rollen von Prototypen“). Die in diesem Buch beschriebene Erlebnisperspektive auf interaktive Produkte, also eine erweiterte Sicht, wel...
Chapter
Interaktive Produkte sind aus unserem Alltag kaum mehr wegzudenken. Wir schreiben mit Word, lesen auf dem Kindle, hören Musik mit Spotify, sehen Serien mit Netflix, sind Barbaren in Clash of Clans, shoppen mit Amazon, bleiben mit Freunden in Kontakt über Facebook und planen unsere Reisen mit TomTom oder bahn.de. Wir zeichnen unsere Joggingerfolge m...
Chapter
In Kap. 2 haben wir Argumente gesammelt, warum Erlebnisse – das Subjektive, Freudvolle und Bedeutungsvolle, und damit auch Emotionen – in den Fokus der Gestaltung rücken sollten. In Kap. 3 haben wir dann bereits vorhandenes Wissen über eine frühe, recht einfache Unterscheidung in pragmatische und hedonische Qualitäten näher betrachtet. Diese Argume...
Article
Full-text available
Selfies appear as a double-edged phenomenon. Taking, posting, and viewing selfies has become a daily habit for many. At the same time, research revealed that selfies often evoke criticism and disrespect, and are associated with non-authenticity and narcissism. The present study (N=238) sheds further light on the somewhat contradictory phenomenon of...
Book
Das informative und spannende Buch richtet sich an eine Leserschaft aus Praxis, Forschung und Lehre in der Psychologie, Gestaltung und Informatik. Anhand zahlreicher Beispiele zeigen die Autoren wie psychologisches Wissen gezielt für die erlebnis- und wohlbefindensorientierte Gestaltung interaktiver Produkte eingesetzt werden kann. Ob im Privaten o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Interactive products for self-improvement (e.g., online trainings to reduce stress, fitness gadgets) have become increasingly popular among consumers and healthcare providers. In line with the idea of positive computing, these tools aim to support their users on their way to improved well-being and human flourishing. As an interdiscipl...
Conference Paper
Immer häufiger werden interaktive Produkte genutzt, um den Wunsch nach Selbstverbesserung und der damit einhergehenden Steigerung des Wohlbefindens zu unterstützen. Ein wichtiger Faktor für die Akzeptanz von Selbstverbesserungstechnologien scheint die Kommunikation zwischen Mensch und Produkt zu sein. Um diesen Dialog bewusst zu gestalten, muss in...
Conference Paper
Seit über zehn Jahren bietet die German UPA (Berufsverband der deutschen Usability und User Experience Professionals, www.germanupa.de) mit dem Branchenreport einen regelmäßigen Überblick der Situation von Usability und User Experience (UX) Professionals in Deutschland. 2016 haben sich 372 Personen an der Befragung beteiligt und liefern damit eine...
Conference Paper
The present research explores the potential roles that social robots could play for the well-being of wider parts of society. The present case focuses on a typical emotionally difficult situation for children and parents alike: The waiting situation in a pediatric practice. The children are bored or frightened, but parents cannot spend comfort at e...
Article
Full-text available
To a good part, well-being depends on individual engagement in beneficial activities. The present paper draws attention to the potential of encouraging and shaping well-being-enhancing activities through interaction with everyday objects and technology. Our case study started from the activity of keeping ‘small’ secrets as a way to experience auton...
Conference Paper
Technologies for self-improvement (e.g., fitness gadgets, nutrition apps) take an increasingly important role within the field of persuasive technology. Technology enters the role of a well-being coach, supporting people in the achievement of personal goals and behavior change. The present research explores the notion that just like in face-to-face...
Article
Full-text available
The present article explores potential success factors of sports mobile apps by the example of Freeletics. Our analysis followed a two-sided approach: On the one hand, Freeletics is discussed in light of existing research and theory, with a focus on psychology, motivation theory and behavior change. On the other hand, we present a survey among 113...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the potential use of interactive technologies as a means to motivate attitudinal and behavioral change. At the heart of this function is the provision of feedback, such as steps taken, kilowatt-hours used, or liters of water consumed. Often, however, this feedback involves a mere visualization—an appeal aimed at turn...
Conference Paper
Immer häufiger werden interaktive Produkte Unterstützer von Selbstverbesserung (z.B. Ernährungs-Apps, Fitness-Gadgets) und übernehmen damit eine verantwortungsvolle Rolle. Es scheint jedoch, dass Technikgestaltung und Psychologie hier noch nicht optimal verzahnt sind und der "therapeutische Dialog" zwischen Produkt und Nutzer mehr Beachtung finden...
Conference Paper
"Seit über zehn Jahren bietet die German UPA (Berufsverband der deutschen Usability und User Experience Professionals, www.germanupa.de) mit dem Branchenreport einen regelmäßigen Überblick der Situation von Usability und User Experience (UX) Professionals in Deutschland. 2015 haben sich 226 Personen an der Befragung beteiligt und liefern damit eine...
Conference Paper
Welche Ziele verfolgen Konsumenten beim Onlineshopping: Schnell ein konkretes Produkt zu finden, zu stöbern oder vor allen Dingen sicher zu bezahlen? Und welche Bedürfnisse stehen dabei im Vordergrund – Unterhaltung, Selbstbestimmung oder soziale Interaktion? Eine Möglichkeit für die Untersuchung von User Experience und Nutzerverhalten mittels Feld...
Article
Full-text available
We collected over a thousand technology-mediated positive experiences with media and obtained measures describing aspects of the experience itself (affect, psychological need fulfillment) and of the product (i.e., content and technology) integral to the experience (pragmatic quality, hedonic quality). We found a strong relation between intensity of...
Article
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Until recently, designers who set out to design user interfaces that are intuitive to use, innovative and inclusive of users of different ages did not receive much support to reach all three goals in one solution. It was assumed that products that are intuitive to use could not also be innovative or inclusive, because they would have to rely on mim...
Article
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Research into intuitive interaction often builds on the development of a definition and clear-cut criteria. The present paper suggests an alternative, more phenomenological approach. In line with the User Experience perspective, we focus on the experiential phenomenon and subjective feelings related to intuitive interaction. Our analysis makes use...
Chapter
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Nowadays, consuming activities, ideas, and experiences become more important than cherishing possessions. This apparent shift from the tangible, material to the intangible, immaterial poses a serious challenge for contemporary product design and industrial design. At the heart of designing the immaterial (i.e., experiences) is interaction. Interact...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New technologies provide expanded opportunities for interaction design. The growing number of possible ways to interact, in turn, creates a new responsibility for designers: Besides the product's visual aesthetics, one has to make choices about the aesthetics of interaction. This issue recently gained interest in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To initiate new behavior is challenging, but to maintain this new behavior can be even more so. In this paper, we present Keymoment, a key holder designed to increase physical activity by raising the frequency of taking the bike instead of the car. To accomplish this, it creates friction, but in a meaningful and light way. Keymoment is an example o...
Article
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Von Rebound, Prebound und Performanzlücken Rethink statt Rebound: Der Effizienzrevolution muss eine Suffizienz revolution vorangehen. Kann ein Esel tragisch sein? Den Ressourcen verbrauch durch Gleichheit drosseln Green Cloud Computing: Rebound komplex. Raus aus der Komfort zone: Smarter als Smart Technologies. Der wichtigste Grund ist der Zeitfakt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the recent years, the notion of a non-instrumental, hedonic quality of interactive products received growing interest. Based on a review of 151 publications, we summarize more than ten years research on the hedonic to provide an overview of definitions, assessment tools, antecedents, consequences, and correlates. We highlight a number of contr...