Sarah E Diamond

Sarah E Diamond
Case Western Reserve University | CWRU · Department of Biology

PhD

About

87
Publications
16,976
Reads
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3,585
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
Case Western Reserve University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 2010 - December 2013
North Carolina State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
August 2005 - May 2010

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
The increase in species diversity from temperate to tropical regions is one of the most widespread patterns in biogeography. As humans continue to drastically modify natural habitats, land‐use changes such as the development of cities could potentially alter typical latitudinal diversity gradients. Cities could depress or enhance biodiversity throu...
Article
Full-text available
Transformative governance is key to addressing the global environmental crisis. We explore how transformative governance of complex biodiversity–climate–society interactions can be achieved, drawing on the first joint report between the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and E...
Article
Evolutionary change impacts the rate at which insect pests, pollinators, or disease vectors expand or contract their geographic ranges. Although evolutionary changes, and their ecological feedbacks, strongly affect these risks and associated ecological and economic consequences, they are often underappreciated in management efforts. Greater rigor a...
Article
The effects of chronic thermal stress during development on thermal performance traits are not well characterized under urban heat islands, despite these conditions being biologically relevant for how organisms experience the urban environment and the often strong linkages between thermal performance traits and fitness. Here we use the terrestrial...
Article
Despite widespread evidence of urban evolution, the adaptive nature of these changes is often unclear. We review different phenotypic and molecular lines of evidence used for assessing urban adaptation, discussing the benefits and limitations of each approach, and rare examples of their integration. We then provide a synthesis of local adaptation t...
Article
Although research performed in cities will not uncover new evolutionary mechanisms, it could provide unprecedented opportunities to examine the interplay of evolutionary forces in new ways and new avenues to address classic questions. However, while the variation within and among cities affords many opportunities to advance evolutionary biology res...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Scientific Outcome was produced by participants in the first-ever IPCC-IPBES co-sponsored workshop which took place in December 2020. This workshop is placed in the context of recent international agreements including the Paris Agreement, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and ongoing preparation for the post-2020 global biodiversi...
Article
Full-text available
Because ectotherm activity and metabolism are sensitive to temperature, terrestrial arthropods may be especially responsive to ongoing climatic warming. Here, we quantified responses of arthropod abundance to two years of warming in an outdoor temperature manipulation experiment at Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA. Nine open‐top chambers were indiv...
Article
Full-text available
Urban‐driven evolution is widely evident, but whether these changes confer fitness benefits and thus represent adaptive urban evolution is less clear. We performed a multi‐year field reciprocal transplant experiment of acorn‐dwelling ants across urban and rural environments. Fitness responses were consistent with local adaptation: we found a surviv...
Article
Full-text available
Cities are emerging as a new venue to overcome the challenges of obtaining data on compensatory responses to climatic warming through phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. In this Review, we highlight how cities can be used to explore physiological trait responses to experimental warming, and also how cities can be used as human-made space...
Article
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Cities are often hotter and drier compared with nearby undeveloped areas, but how organisms respond to these multifarious stressors associated with urban heat islands is largely unknown. Terrestrial isopods are especially susceptible to temperature and aridity stress as they have retained highly permeable gills from their aquatic ancestors. We perf...
Article
Full-text available
Cities are uniquely complex systems regulated by interactions and feedbacks between natural and social processes. Characteristics of human society – including culture, economics, technology, and politics – underlie social patterns and activity, creating a heterogeneous environment that can influence and be influenced by both ecological and evolutio...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic rates of ectotherms are expected to increase with global trends of climatic warming. But the potential for rapid, compensatory evolution of lower metabolic rate in response to rising temperatures is only starting to be explored. Here, we explored rapid evolution of metabolic rate and locomotor performance in acorn‐dwelling ants (Temnothor...
Article
Current narratives suggest that urban adaptation – the adaptive evolution of organisms to cities – is pervasive across taxa and cities. However, in reviewing hundreds of studies, we find only six comprehensive examples of species adaptively evolving to urbanization. We discuss the utility and shortcomings of methods for studying urban adaptation. W...
Preprint
Full-text available
Urban-driven evolution is widely evident, but whether these changes confer fitness benefits and thus represent cases of adaptive urban evolution is less clear. We performed a multi-year field reciprocal transplant experiment of acorn-dwelling ants across urban and rural environments. Fitness trade-offs via survival were consistent with local adapta...
Article
Although there is considerable optimism surrounding adaptive evolutionary responses to global change, relatively little attention has been paid to maladaptation in this context. In this review, we consider how global change might lead populations to become maladapted. We further consider how populations can evolve to new optima, fail to evolve and...
Chapter
As humans continue to modify the climatic conditions organisms encounter, downstream effects on the phenotypes of organisms are likely to arise. In particular, the worldwide proliferation of human settlements rapidly generates pockets of localized warming across the landscape. These urban heat island effects are frequently intense, especially for m...
Article
Environmental temperature can alter body size and thermal tolerance, yet the effects of temperature rise on the size-tolerance relationship remain unclear. Terrestrial ectotherms with larger body sizes typically exhibit greater tolerance of high (and low) temperatures. However, while warming tends to increase tolerance of high temperatures through...
Article
Full-text available
Although studies increasingly disentangle phenotypic plasticity from evolutionary responses to environmental change, few test for transgenerational plasticity in this context. Here, we evaluate if phenotypic divergence of acorn ants in response to urbanization is driven by transgenerational plasticity rather than evolution. F2 generation worker ant...
Preprint
Full-text available
Disentangling the mechanisms of phenotypic shifts in response to environmental change is critical, and although studies increasingly disentangle phenotypic plasticity from evolutionary change, few explore the potential role for transgenerational plasticity in this context. Here, we evaluate the potential role that transgenerational plasticity plays...
Article
For many species, the timing of life cycle events is advancing under contemporary global climate change. However, much less is known regarding phenological shifts as a result of other sources of anthropogenic change, such as urban warming. In both cases, progress has been hampered by a focus on phenological traits such as the timing of emergence, r...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization is expected to reduce biodiversity. However, an increasing number of studies report urban biodiversity comparable to that of surrounding nonurban areas, leaving open the question: what maintains biodiversity in cities? We characterized patterns of ant biodiversity across urbanization gradients of three major cities in the Midwestern Un...
Article
Full-text available
Urban ecosystems are rapidly expanding throughout the world, but how urban growth affects the evolutionary ecology of species living in urban areas remains largely unknown. Urban ecology has advanced our understanding of how the development of cities and towns changes environmental conditions and alters ecological processes and patterns. However, d...
Article
Within-species diversity is often driven by changing selective regimes along environmental gradients. Here, we pro- vide a direct test of the environmental factors underlying phenotypic diversity across the wide native distribution of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). We investigated life-history and body-shape divergence (including mul- t...
Article
The question of parallel evolution-what causes it, and how common it is-has long captured the interest of evolutionary biologists. Widespread urban development over the last century has driven rapid evolutionary responses on contemporary time scales, presenting a unique opportunity to test the predictability and parallelism of evolutionary change....
Article
Quantifying the amount of climatic change organisms can withstand before exceeding their physiological tolerance is a cornerstone of vulnerability forecasting. Yet most work in this area treats tolerance as a fixed trait. We review recent work that quantifies variation in high temperature tolerance across bioclimatic gradients, and we explore the i...
Article
Full-text available
Because cities contain high levels of impervious surfaces and diminished buffering effects of vegetation cover, urbanized environments can warm faster over the day and exhibit more rapid warming over space due to greater thermal heterogeneity in these environments. Whether organismal physiologies can adapt to these more rapid spatio-temporal change...
Article
As the climate continues to change, species are moving to track their climatic niches. Although we are gaining a clearer picture of where and how quickly species ranges are moving, a mechanistic understanding of these changes is still nascent. 2.Evolutionary changes in ranges and range-limiting traits over contemporary timescales has received relat...
Article
Full-text available
Species may exhibit similar traits via different mechanisms: environmental filtering and local adaptation (geography) and shared evolutionary history (phylogeny) can each contribute to the resemblance of traits among species. Parsing trait variation into geographic and phylogenetic sources is important, as each suggests different constraints on tra...
Article
Synopsis: Few studies have quantified the relative importance of direct effects of climate change on communities versus indirect effects that are mediated thorough species interactions, and the limited evidence is conflicting. Trait-based approaches have been popular in studies of climate change, but can they be used to estimate direct versus indi...
Article
Full-text available
The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resou...
Article
Rates of urbanization are accelerating worldwide. The increases in temperature associated with ‘urban heat island’ effects provide both an ecological imperative and a unique opportunity to explore the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie organismal responses to rapid environmental change. We used the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispin...
Article
Full-text available
Some populations will cope with human-induced environmental change, and others will undergo extirpation; understanding the mechanisms that underlie these responses is key to forecasting responses to environmental change. In cases where organisms cannot disperse to track suitable habitats, plastic and evolved responses to environmental change will d...
Article
Full-text available
How species respond to temperature change depends in large part on their physiology. Physiological traits, such as critical thermal limits (CTmax and CTmin), provide estimates of thermal performance but may not capture the full impacts of temperature on fitness. Rather, thermal performance likely depends on a combination of traits-including thermal...
Article
Full-text available
How will ecological communities change in response to climate warming? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of warming on the dynamics and turnov...
Article
Plasticity has been acknowledged as having a central role in organismal evolutionary responses to environments (e.g. West-Eberhard 2003; Sultan 2015; Sgrò et al. 2016). As the field of plasticity expands (Bradshaw 1965, Schlichting and Pigliucci 1998; Sultan 2015), rich datasets of reaction norm variation across organisms, trait types and ecologica...
Article
Given the multiple commentaries on Morrissey (Morrissey 2016) published here, we focus our comments on Morrissey's re-analyses of previous synthetic analyses of phenotypic selection gradients (β and γ). Morrissey argues that formal meta-analyses of selection that account for sampling error are important; we agree, and have conducted such analyses (...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change conservation planning relies heavily on correlative species distribution models that estimate future areas of occupancy based on environmental conditions encountered in present-day ranges. The approach benefits from rapid assessment of vulnerability over a large number of organisms, but can have poor predictive power when transposed...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization profoundly alters biological systems; yet the predictability of responses to urbanization based on key biological traits, the repeatability of these patterns among cities, and how the impact of urbanization on biological systems varies as a function of background climatic conditions remain unknown. We use insects as a focal system to r...
Article
Full-text available
Global climate change is causing shifts in phenology across multiple species. We use a geographically and temporally extensive data set of butterfly abundance across the state of Ohio to ask whether phenological change can be predicted from climatological data. Our focus is on growing degree days (GDD), a commonly used measure of thermal accumulati...
Chapter
This chapter is an exercise in curve-thinking for integrative biologists, as applied to phenotypic plasticity and developmental trajectories. The ideas and methods are quite general, but it uses two main case studies to illustrate curve-thinking: thermal performance curves of insects, and growth trajectories of plants. First, the chapter discusses...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological communities are being reshaped by climatic change. Losses and gains of species will alter community composition and diversity but these effects are likely to vary geographically and may be hard to predict from uncontrolled "natural experiments". In this study, we used open-top warming chambers to simulate a range of warming scenarios for...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization and global climate change can profoundly alter biological systems, yet scientists often analyze their effects separately. We test how the timing of life cycle events (phenology) is jointly influenced by these two components of global change. To do so, we use a long-term phenological data set of 20 common butterfly species from 83 sites...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Understanding the evolution of reaction norms remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. Investigating evolutionary divergence in reaction norm shapes between populations and closely related species is one approach to providing insights. Here we use a meta-analytic approach to compare divergence in reaction norms of closely relate...
Article
Full-text available
Historical records of species are compared with current records to elucidate effects of recent climate change. However, confounding variables such as succession, land-use change, and species invasions make it difficult to demonstrate a causal link between changes in biota and changes in climate. Experiments that manipulate temperature can overcome...
Article
Climate change will increase both average temperatures and extreme summer temperatures. Analyses of the fitness consequences of climate change have generally omitted negative fitness and population declines associated with heat stress.Here, we examine how seasonal and interannual temperature variability will impact fitness shifts of ectotherms from...
Article
Full-text available
Local adaptation, adaptive population divergence and speciation are often expected to result from populations evolving in response to spatial variation in selection. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the major features that characterise the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength a...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Shifts toward earlier phenology (the timing of life cycle events) are a hallmark of species’ responses to global climate change. While the majority of species examined to date tend to exhibit shifts toward earlier phenology, there is considerable variation in both the magnitude, and to a lesser degree, the direction of...
Conference Paper
Physiological tolerance of high temperatures places constraints on organismal responses to the temperature increases associated with global climate change. Understanding how these constraints on physiological tolerance vary across space, time, and among species can be used to improve forecasts of responses to climate change. Because ants are geogra...
Article
Full-text available
Physiological intolerance of high temperatures places limits on organismal responses to the temperature increases associated with global climatic change. Because ants are geographically widespread, ecologically diverse, and thermophilic, they are an ideal system for exploring the extent to which physiological tolerance can predict responses to envi...
Article
Full-text available
Aim. Global conservation planning is often oriented around vertebrates and plants, yet most organisms are invertebrates. To explore the potential conservation implications of this bias, we assessed how well patterns of diversity for an influential group of invertebrates, the ants, correspond with those of three vertebrate groups (birds, mammals and...
Article
Full-text available
Climatic warming is altering the behavior of individuals and the composition of communities. However, recent studies have shown that the impact of warming on ectotherms varies geographically: species at warmer sites where environmental temperatures are closer to their upper critical thermal limits are more likely to be negatively impacted by warmin...
Article
Full-text available
Social insects exhibit remarkable variation in their colony breeding structures, both within and among species. Ecological factors are believed to be important in shaping reproductive traits of social insect colonies, yet there is little information linking specific environmental variables with differences in breeding structure. Subterranean termit...
Article
Full-text available
Population changes and shifts in geographic range boundaries induced by climate change have been documented for many insect species. On the basis of such studies, ecological forecasting models predict that, in the absence of dispersal and resource barriers, many species will exhibit large shifts in abundance and geographic range in response to warm...
Article
Full-text available
Physiological tolerance of environmental conditions can influence species-level responses to climate change. Here, we used species-specific thermal tolerances to predict the community responses of ant species to experimental forest-floor warming at the northern and southern boundaries of temperate hardwood forests in eastern North America. We then...
Article
Full-text available
The efficient investment of resources is often the route to ecological success, and the adaptability of resource investment may play a critical role in promoting biodiversity. The ants of the "hyperdiverse" genus Pheidole produce two discrete sterile castes, soldiers and minor workers. Within Pheidole, there is tremendous interspecific variation in...
Data
Full-text available
Proportional investment in soldiers of Pheidole from the current study and previously published reports. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
There are now thousands of estimates of phenotypic selection in natural populations, resulting in multiple synthetic reviews of these data. Here we consider several major lessons and limitations emerging from these syntheses, and how they may guide future studies of selection in the wild. First, we review past analyses of the patterns of directiona...