Sarah Coyne

Sarah Coyne
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus | BYU · School of Family Life

About

168
Publications
227,233
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Publications

Publications (168)
Article
Infants can help and share in the second year of life. However, there is limited knowledge as to variability in these behaviors as a function of target (e.g., caregiver vs. unfamiliar adult) and the influence of caregiver support on infant prosocial behavior. Infants (N = 268, 124 female) at 1-2 years of age (M = 1.47, SD = .27) and again at 2-3 ye...
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During adolescence, music consumption drastically increases and many adolescents become romantically involved. Popular songs often depict romance, and teens may incorporate tenets of these lyrics into their own romantic experiences. Romantic attachment style is a primary indicator of relationship functioning, and individuals’ attachment style may s...
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Men seek help for problems less often and more hesitantly than women across a wide range of contexts. While there are many potential sources for this gender discrepancy, one possibility is that masculine attitudes and behaviors discourage help-seeking behaviors and create help-seeking barriers. As the superhero genre often changes over time to refl...
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This study examines associations between media use and mental health for adolescents prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using two separate datasets that sampled adolescents (8th, 10th, and 12th graders) in 2018 (n = 31,825) and 2020 (n = 1,523), mental health (hopelessness and happiness), media use (time spent using a variety of media), and...
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Superheroes are extremely popular among children, adolescents, and adults in the United States (and worldwide). However, there is little research on the impact of superhero exposure on developmental outcomes, particularly over time. The current paper includes a 5-year longitudinal study examining the relationship between superhero exposure in early...
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Recent research has started to examine problematic media use in early childhood. However, the vast majority of research has been questionnaire based, has assumed relative within-person stability in problematic media use patterns, and has rarely examined antecedents to problematic media use. We utilized an ecological momentary assessment design (EMA...
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Infant television exposure has been related to poorer language development and poorer executive functions in preschool and early childhood. Wide variability exists in the amount of television infants are exposed to in the first few years of life. The current study examined 256 primary caregiver-infant dyads over the first four years of life. Primar...
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Problematic media use, or media use that interferes with daily functioning, is most often studied in adolescent or young adult age groups. Less research has examined problematic media use within the family system, among parents and young children. The current three-year longitudinal study examines associations between symptoms of maternal postpartu...
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One of the key challenges faced by many parents is to manage the pervasiveness of social media in adolescents’ lives and its effects on adolescents’ well-being (e.g., life satisfaction) and ill-being (e.g., depressive symptoms). Parents may manage adolescents’ social media use and social media-induced well-being and ill-being through media-specific...
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Depictions of gender in media are often scrutinized for stereotypical patterns. Disney films are of particular interest, as they are often watched by children and may play a role in children’s gender socialization. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to assess gender depictions of characters in animated Disney films (released between 1937...
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This paper examines depictions of SES in Disney animated films to learn about the stereotypes of different socioeconomic status (SES) groups that these films reinforce or dispel. As Disney films are frequently watched by children, and may have important developmental implications for the internalization of stereotypes. Sixty-one animated Disney fil...
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Suicide rates have increased over the past decade, and screen media (and social media in particular) are often blamed for this marked increase. However, there is little longitudinal research on this topic. The current study examined the link between various types of screen media use over a 10-year period (from adolescence to emerging adulthood) to...
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Often parents are discouraged from using media around their infants, particularly during feeding time, as media use is thought to harm the development of parent-infant attachment. Little research, however, has examined the relationship between parent media use during infant feeding and parent-infant dysfunction and attachment over time. This paper...
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Wearing costumes is a common experience during early childhood and is often important to sociodramatic play. Costumes tend to be highly gendered for both girls and boys (such as princess and superhero costumes). However, there is very little research on the impact that wearing costumes has on gender-differentiated behavior, such as toy preference,...
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The purpose of this study was to examine how problematic media use (technoference, internet gaming disorder symptoms, and pornography use) predicted later partner relationship outcomes, operating through the mediator of partner responsiveness. Participants ( N = 1039) were from Waves II–IV of a nationally representative quantitative study on marria...
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Princess culture is criticized for contributing to gender stereotypes and poor body esteem, however, there is little longitudinal research examining these claims. This study examines associations between engagement with princess culture during early childhood and gender stereotypes, body esteem, and adherence to hegemonic masculinity in early adole...
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Maternal depression and anxiety are potential risk factors to children's language environments and development. Though existing work has examined relations between these constructs, further work is needed accounting for both depression and anxiety and using more direct measures of the home language environment and children's language development. W...
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With the rise in affordability of digital media and mobile devices, children under age 2 on average spend significantly more time with digital media than is recommended. Although concerns have been expressed about how parent and child media use might negatively impact parent–child attachment, there continues to be a scarcity of research on the topi...
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Parents regularly use media to help regulate their child’s difficult emotions, particularly for those with a more difficult temperament. However, no research has examined how this may be related to the development of problematic (or addictive-like) media use in early childhood. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between temperamen...
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A host of studies have examined the impact of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. However, longitudinal research is rare, and existing studies have allowed little room for individual variability in the trajectories of violent video game play. The current study used a person-centered approach to examine trajectories, predictors, and...
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The extant literature suggests that relational aggression appears in early childhood, and gradually increases throughout adolescence. However, very little research has examined the growth of relational aggression from adolescence to emerging adulthood. In addition, research generally examines socializing factors of relational aggression, such as pa...
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Early conversations are an important source in shaping children's cognitive and emotional development, and it is vital to understand how parents use media as a platform to engage in conversations with their young children and what might predict the quality of these interactions. Thus, in the current study we explored the nature of parent–child disc...
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Digital media availability has surged over the past decade. Because of a lack of comprehensive measurement tools, this rapid growth in access to digital media is accompanied by a scarcity of research examining the family media context and sociocognitive outcomes. There is also little cross-cultural research in families with young children. Modern m...
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Smartphones are ubiquitous in American lives and can interfere with parent-child relationships. This technoference, or the interruption of interpersonal time by technology, has been associated with negative parent-child interactions and can indirectly threaten child safety. Nonetheless, little is known concerning possible precursors or factors that...
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Background and objectives: Child mobile device use is increasingly prevalent, but research is limited by parent-report survey methods that may not capture the complex ways devices are used. We aimed to implement mobile device sampling, a set of novel methods for objectively measuring child mobile device use. Methods: We recruited 346 English-spe...
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Interruptions to parent–child interactions due to technology, or “technoference,” have been correlated with a host of negative child developmental outcomes. Yet, the influence of technoference on parent–infant interactions and infant behaviors has received less attention and more experimental work is warranted. For this study, parent–infant dyads (...
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The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of pathological video game symptoms over a 6-year period from adolescence to emerging adulthood. We also examined a number of predictors and outcomes for different trajectories. Participants included 385 adolescents (M age = 15.01 at the initial time point) who completed multiple questionnaires once...
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Adult siblings maintain contact and remain close to one another. The current study used participants recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk ( n = 491) to conduct regression analyses examining five methods of contact (in person, telephone, email, texting, and social media) predicting sibling closeness and conflict. Further, two- and three-way interact...
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Parental attitudes and behavior can impact infant media use, though all existing research examines this after the baby is born. However, many studies suggest that prenatal attitudes and behavior can influence parenting practices around many different types of parenting decisions. This study examines whether this extends to parenting practices surro...
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Introduction: Couched in Positive Youth Development (PYD) theory and relevant empirical work, this study investigated bidirectional associations between intentional self-regulation and prosocial behavior toward strangers from age 12 to age 18. Method: Participants included 500 adolescents (52% female, 77% European American; age Time 1 = 12 years...
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Introduction: The current study examined motivations for social networking site use across three years during the transition from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. While research has been conducted examining reasons for social networking site usage and behavior, the clear majority have focused on samples of undergraduate college students and...
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For most people, playing video games is a normal recreational activity, with little disruption to gamers’ emotional, social, or physical health and well-being. However, for a small percentage of gamers, video gaming can become pathological (Fam, 2018). Substantial research has examined pathological gaming in teens and young adults (Cheng, Cheung, &...
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The sibling role is often the longest lasting relationship between individuals. As such, older adults may turn to siblings in later life as it is a relationship that is already familiar. Having a close and less conflictual relationship with a sibling may be especially important as older adults value siblings for emotional and practical support exhi...
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Children who experience a parent’s suicide are vulnerable to an increased risk for mental health disorders and suicide attempts. In this study, 17 adults, each a child survivor of their parent’s suicide, shared their perceptions of support following the suicide. Helpful experiences included opening communication about suicide and offering individua...
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Many studies have found a link between time spent using social media and mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety. However, the existing research is plagued by cross-sectional research and lacks analytic techniques examining individual change over time. The current research involves an 8-year longitudinal study examining the association...
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Bullying intervention research points to the important role of children standing up for victims (defending behavior). This study provides an initial look at how certain parenting practices may be generally related to the socialization of defending behavior among children. Defenders typically enjoy significant social status, allowing them the social...
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Prosocial violent media (e.g., media that combines both violent and prosocial content) is especially popular in entertainment media today. However, it remains unclear how parental media monitoring is associated with exposure to prosocial violent content and adolescent behavior. Accordingly, 1,193 adolescents were asked about parental media monitori...
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Parental monitoring of adolescent media use has been associated with decreased negative effects of media on adolescent behavior, but we know little about the explanatory mechanisms behind these associations. The current study sought to explore the links between parental media monitoring and adolescent behaviors via adolescents’ levels of media disc...
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Purpose: Decades of research have examined the impact of exposure to nonexplicit portrayals of sexual content in media. There is only one meta-analysis on this topic, which suggests that exposure to "sexy media" has little to no effect on sexual behavior. There are a number of limitations to the existing meta-analysis, and the purpose of this upda...
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A number of studies suggest that adolescents who view relational aggression on television are more likely to engage in higher levels of subsequent relational aggression in social interactions. This study examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on television and relationally aggressive behavior in text messaging over...
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For a small percentage of cell phone users, cell phone use becomes problematic or addictive, characterized by excessive time spent on the cell phone, interference with social relationships and responsibilities, and difficulty disengaging from cell phones. Researchers have argued that depression, anxiety, and self-regulation may be risk factors or o...
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Decades of research on the effects of media violence have examined associations between viewing aggressive material in the media and aggression and prosocial behavior. However, the existing longitudinal studies have tended to exclusively examine aggression and prosocial behavior as outcomes, with a limited range of potential mediators. The current...
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Introduction: The pervasive and derogatory use of homophobic language is a threat to safe, respectful, and inclusive school environments. Group membership has been shown to influence how students use homophobic language. Previous qualitative studies have largely approached the use of this language from the theoretical framework of hegemonic masculi...
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Introduction: The pervasive and derogatory use of homophobic language is a threat to safe, respectful, and inclusive school environments. Group membership has been shown to influence how students use homophobic language. Previous qualitative studies have largely approached the use of this language from the theoretical framework of hegemonic mascul...
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We examined whether time together as a problem mediates the link between frequency of video game use and relational outcomes (relationship quality, relational aggression, physical aggression) among 431 married couples. We also examined the moderating effect of couple attachment behaviors on the association between time together as a problem and out...
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A burgeoning literature supports the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning as an index of physiologic sensitivity to the environment, but extant research is limited in its focus on single branches of the ANS, childhood samples, and solely negative environmental factors. This study seeks to address these limitations by exploring whether...
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This study examined differential patterns of time spent using social media in a sample of 457 adolescents over a 6‐year period. The majority of adolescents (83%), termed moderate users, reported steady social media use over time. A second group (increasers: 12%) reported low social media use that increased gradually and ended high at the end of the...
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Technoference has been defined as interruptions to social interactions because of technology. Previous research has examined technoference in parent-child relationships, but little research has been conducted examining the influence of technoference on parent-adolescent relationships. Previous researchers have shown that parental technoference in p...
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Purpose: To date, little is known about underlying psychophysiological contributions to the impact of media content and overall screen time on adolescent psychological functioning. In the present study we examine respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a moderator of the link between specific types of media content use, overall media exposure, and th...
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Though recent research has highlighted prosocial behavior as negatively associated with problem behavior during adolescence, we know little about how these variables might be associated longitudinally, whether there are bidirectional effects, and whether there might be different patterns of co-occurrence of behaviors for different individuals. Thus...
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Cyberbullying perpetration continues to be a prevalent and harmful phenomenon. Despite the recent wealth of studies that examine cyberbullying frequency, further research is needed to investigate protective factors or variables that decrease the likelihood of engaging in cyberbullying perpetration. Past work has identified certain types of parentin...
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Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression ‘scripts’ for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the st...
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The goal of the current study was to examine the protective role that maternal media monitoring might have for adolescents. This was done by considering whether styles of media monitoring either directly reduced media use, or whether they buffered the associations between aggressive media use and adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and del...
Chapter
The majority of the existing research on media aggression has focused on media violence and its effects on physical aggression. However, more recently, scholars have focused their attention on other forms of aggression in the media, such as relational aggression, and its effects on viewer attitudes and behaviors. This chapter reviews the existing t...
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Exposure to televised relational aggression can negatively influence youths’ well-being. Research shows that parent–child interactions about media – parental mediation – can alter children’s responses to media exposure. Therefore, this study explored the relation between US parents’ perceptions of relational aggression in the media, parental mediat...
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The American Psychiatric Association recently included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a potential diagnosis, recommending that further study be conducted to help illuminate it more clearly. This paper is a summary of the review undertaken by the IGD Working Group as part of the 2015 National Academy of Sciences Sackler Colloquium on Digital Medi...
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Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 ye...
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Understanding the family dynamic surrounding media use is crucial to our understanding of media effects, policy development, and the targeting of individuals and families for interventions to benefit child health and development. The Families, Parenting, and Media Workgroup reviewed the relevant research from the past few decades. We find that chil...
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Studies examining the effects of exposure to prosocial media on positive outcomes are increasing in number and strength. However, existing meta-analyses use a broad definition of prosocial media that does not recognize the multidimensionality of prosocial behavior. The aim of the current study is to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of exposur...
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Background: The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS) is a widely used measure of video game addiction, a pathology affecting a small percentage of all people who play video games. Emerging adult males are significantly more likely to be video game addicts. Few researchers have examined how people who qualify as video game addicts based on the IGD...
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Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This...
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This study examined growth trajectories of texting (and other media) over a 6-year time period. Participants were 425 adolescents from Washington, USA (age 13 at Time 1, age 18 at Time 6; 48% male, 68% European American). Analyses suggested a curvilinear pattern for texting and social media use, with rates peaking during midadolescence. There was a...
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Although research has documented a connection between media and body image for women, little research has explored this connection among pregnant or postpartum women. The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of media and body image during the perinatal period. Fredrickson's objectification theory provided a theoretical framework...
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The use of social networking websites (SNS’s) among emerging adults is very common. While evidence suggests that the use of SNS’s can be positive, some research indicates that SNS use may lead to negative outcomes. Research shows that social networking websites have the potential to be used pathologically, and that the pathological use of SNS’s may...
Chapter
Violent content appears frequently in screen and audio media and takes many forms, including physical and relational aggression, gory images, violent stereotypes, and cyberbullying. Over six decades of research demonstrates that different types of media violence have significant detrimental effects, both immediately and in the long term. Exposure t...
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Many schools and parents try to motivate children to become defenders of victimized peers. Defending behavior is common in the media (particularly in superhero programs); however, no study has examined the effect of media on defending behavior. The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal associations between superhero engagement and a variety...
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Full-text available
Relational aggression occurs in many different contexts, including in romantic relationships. The current study examined associations between two subtypes of relational aggression (love withdrawal and social sabotage) and marital quality over a 5-year time period. Participants consisted of 311 married couples who completed a number of questionnaire...
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Ordinal scales can be used in latent growth curve modeling in three ways: mean, weighted mean scores, and factors measured by scale items. Sum and mean scores are commonly used in growth curve modeling in spite of certain discouragement. It was unclear how much bias these practices could produce in terms of the change rates and patterns. This study...
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Social comparisons on social networking sites can be problematic for some individuals. However, this has never been examined in a parenting context, where the pressure for mothers to portray themselves as “perfect parents” may be high. The aim of the current study was to examine associations between making social comparisons on social networking si...
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Technology devices and their characteristics have become more pervasive and enticing. The use of these new devices is common, and interruptions due to these devices are likely. This study examines the frequency of technology interference in (a) coparenting relationships—the relationship between parents as they parent their children together—during...