Sarah Calabrese

Sarah Calabrese
George Washington University | GW · Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences

Ph.D.

About

85
Publications
14,754
Reads
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2,844
Citations
Citations since 2017
53 Research Items
2505 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a safe and effective preventive intervention that could play a central role in ending the HIV epidemic. However, low uptake in general, and among certain social groups in particular, underscores the need to identify and address barriers to PrEP use. PrEP stigma has emerged as a key factor i...
Article
There is widespread unawareness and disbelief regarding the evidence-based conclusion that people who have a sustained undetectable HIV viral load cannot sexually transmit HIV-ie, undetectable=untransmittable (U=U). Long-standing, misguided fear about HIV transmission persists; consequently, so does the policing of sexual expression and the penalis...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the acceptability and impact of a web-based PrEP educational video among women (n = 126) by comparing two Planned Parenthood centers: one assigned to a Web Video Condition and one to a Standard Condition. Most women reported the video helped them better understand what PrEP is (92%), how PrEP works (93%), and how to take PrEP (92%). On...
Article
Full-text available
Social biases may influence providers’ judgments related to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and patients’ consequent PrEP access. US primary and HIV care providers (n = 370) completed an experimental survey. Each provider reviewed one fictitious medical record of a patient seeking PrEP. Records varied by patient race (Black or White) and risk behav...
Article
Full-text available
Patient-provider communication is a key factor affecting HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and access among Black sexual minority men (SMM). Optimizing patient-provider communication requires a deeper understanding of communication dynamics. In this study, we investigated the perspectives of both HIV-negative/status-unknown Black SMM an...
Article
The high incidence of HIV among US Black sexual minority men is a public health crisis that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV can help address. Public health campaigns, which often include pictures of Black sexual minority men alongside PrEP-related messaging, have been developed to encourage PrEP awareness and uptake. However, the acceptabil...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Daily antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a safe and effective method of preventing HIV. Clinicians' assumptions, biases, and judgments may impede access to PrEP. Specifically, concern that patients will engage in more condomless sex ("risk compensation") has been cited by clinicians as a reason for not prescribing PrEP...
Article
Full-text available
In a nationwide sample of Black women in the U.S., we assessed preferences for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, including long-acting injectable (LAI) PrEP and once-daily oral PrEP. Among 315 respondents, 32.1% were aware of PrEP and 40.6% were interested in using it; interest increased to 62.2% if PrEP were provided for free. Oral PrEP...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-prevention is an essential component of national plans to end the HIV epidemic. Despite its well-documented safety and effectiveness, PrEP prescription has not met the public health need. Significant disparities between White and Black people exist with respect to PrEP prescription, as do...
Article
Integrating pregnancy and HIV prevention services would make reproductive health care settings an optimal venue for the promotion and delivery of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to cisgender women. However, these settings have been slow to adopt PrEP. Planned parenthood clinicians and leaders possess critical insight that can help accelerate PrEP im...
Article
Purpose: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) people experience many health care disparities. We aimed to determine if medical students viewed sexual minority patients (lesbian, gay, or bisexual [LGB] men/women) as more complex than heterosexual patients, even when presenting with the same symptoms, and whether this perceived complexity affected confid...
Article
Background: Communities of color have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. We explored barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake among African American, Latinx, and African immigrant communities in Washington, DC. Methods: A total of 76 individuals participated in qualitative interviews and focus groups, and 208 individuals f...
Article
Full-text available
Expanding PrEP access necessitates training that supports healthcare providers’ progression along the PrEP implementation cascade, moving from PrEP awareness to prescription. We surveyed 359 USA providers about PrEP training content and format recommendations. We examined the association between cascade location and training recommendations. Most p...
Article
Full-text available
People on HIV treatment with undetectable virus cannot transmit HIV sexually (Undetectable = Untransmittable, U = U). However, the science of treatment-as-prevention (TasP) may not be widely understood by people with and without HIV who could benefit from this information. We systematically reviewed the global literature on knowledge and attitudes...
Article
Full-text available
Minority stress theory proposes that sexual minority mental health disparities can be largely explained by stressors induced by heterosexist culture, which often results in a lifetime of discrimination. Because gay men's experiences reflect both being gay and being men, it is important to account for the intersection of their masculinity and sexual...
Article
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is critical for ending the HIV epidemic, and a necessary part of health professions education. We present data from a US survey study (N = 2085) about educational experiences (coursework and extracurricular), in which medical, physician assistant, nursing, and pharmacy students received training about HIV risk fa...
Article
Full-text available
Using a community-based participatory approach, we developed a film to promote HIV testing among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá. Using a 5-step process to develop the intervention, we conducted 11 focus groups with MSM (n = 141) to receive community feedback at each step. To evaluate the intervention we recruited 300 young MSM to c...
Article
Introduction To explore associations between birth control sabotage, a form of reproductive coercion, and women's sexual risk among women attending family planning health centers. Data were collected from a 2017 cross-sectional online survey of 675 women who attended Connecticut Planned Parenthood centers. Participants reported birth control sabota...
Article
Introduction: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective, pharmacologic method of HIV prevention. Despite its safety and efficacy, PrEP prescription remains low in those patients who are at highest risk for HIV infection. One possible reason for this may be the lack of inclusion of PrEP and HIV prevention discussions within the curricul...
Article
In a body of research typically focused on risk reduction and disease prevention, other factors motivating the sexual behaviours of Latino sexual minority men, such as resource-based power and sexual pleasure, are less well understood. To this end, Latino immigrant sexual minority men living in New York City were surveyed about their sexual behavio...
Poster
Full-text available
The purpose of this mixed methods study with Black MSM (BMSM) was to systematically evaluate the acceptability of targeted PrEP advertisements and explore PrEP advertising preferences.
Article
Women with syndemic conditions, i.e., two or more co-occurring epidemics, are at elevated risk for HIV acquisition and are therefore prime candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). However, PrEP uptake remains low among women, especially among Black and Hispanic women. This study examined associations of syndemic conditions with PrEP attitude...
Article
Addressing women's low uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires improved understanding of their product preferences. Such preferences should be contextualized according to other aspects of their reproductive health, including their contraception practices. We investigated women's preferences across 10 PrEP modalities currently availab...
Article
Full-text available
Struck down by the Supreme Court of India in September 2018, Section 377 penalized same-sex sexual activity in India, disproportionately targeting men who have sex with men and transwomen. There is little empirical research on the psychological impact of this law, which represents a form of structural stigma likely to have lasting psychological seq...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among US women, but whether IPV influences other steps along the PrEP care continuum remains unclear. This study estimated the causal effects of IPV on the early stages of the PrEP care continuum using doubly robust (DR) estimation (statistical method a...
Article
This article updates previous content analyses that identified a relative paucity of U.S.-based psychological research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of color by extending the period covered to 2018. In addition to documenting how many such studies occurred and when, it considers the research questions asked, funding sourc...
Article
Full-text available
Although young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, they may be more heterogeneous as a group than is typically appreciated. Thus, the present study used a person-centered data-analytic approach to determine profiles of HIV-related risk among YBMSM and whether these profiles could be distinguished by age,...
Article
Full-text available
Primary care physicians (PCPs) are critical for promoting HIV prevention by prescribing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Yet, there are limited data regarding PCP's preferred approaches for PrEP implementation. In 2015, we conducted an online survey of PCPs' PrEP prescribing and implementation. Participants were general internists recruited from a...
Article
Clinical guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been instrumental in the implementation of PrEP in medical practices throughout the country. However, the eligibility criteria contained within may inadvertently limit PrEP access for some pat...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective biomedical HIV prevention method. PrEP uptake has been persistently low among US women, particularly Black women, who account for 61% of new HIV diagnoses among women. Further understanding of barriers to Black women accessing PrEP is needed. This 2017 cross-sectional survey study explored race-based...
Article
Background: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical guidelines for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are widely used to assess patients' PrEP eligibility. The guidelines include 2 versions of criteria-guidance summary criteria and recommended indications criteria-that diverge in a potentially critical way for heterosexually active...
Article
Full-text available
Uptake of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV has been limited for multiple reasons, including low awareness. Clinicians’ concerns that an increased sense of protection will lead to greater risk taking among PrEP users are another important factor.
Article
Efforts to identify and address social inequities in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) access are urgently needed. We investigated early-adopting PrEP prescribers' beliefs about how stigma contributes to PrEP access disparities in health care and explored potential intervention strategies within the context of PrEP service delivery. US-based PrEP...
Article
Background: In the United States, women represent less than 5% of all pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users. Social networks may promote and/or inhibit women's PrEP awareness, which could influence PrEP intentions. Furthermore, women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) may have smaller, less supportive networks, which could deter or have...
Article
Full-text available
Individual perceptions of HIV risk influence willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male sex workers (MSWs), temporal or episodic changes in risk behavior may influence perceived risk and PrEP acceptability over time. We investigated fluctuations in perceived HIV risk and PrE...
Data
Data S1. PrEP background information, claims, and primary measures.
Poster
Full-text available
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an evidence-based, user-controlled method for the prevention of HIV among men and women at high risk. 1  Despite its efficacy, uptake among women has been disproportionately low 2,3 and PrEP implementation efforts to date have largely focused on men who have sex with men.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Despite healthcare providers’ growing awareness of pre‐exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), prescription rates remain low. PrEP is an efficacious HIV prevention strategy recommended for use with condoms but still protective in their absence. Concern about the impact of PrEP on condom use and other risk behaviour is, nonetheless, among the barr...
Article
Background: PrEP uptake has lagged among US women. PrEP stigma is a recognized barrier to uptake among MSM but remains largely unexplored among women. This study examined the pervasiveness of PrEP stigma among US women and its implications for uptake. Setting/Methods: In a 2017 online survey of Planned Parenthood patients drawn from the three citi...
Article
Full-text available
Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants report...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual stereotypes may adversely affect the health of Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Greater understanding of the nature and nuances of these stereotypes is needed. This online, survey-based study used an inductive, intersectional approach to characterize the sexual stereotypes ascribed to Black MSM by the U.S. general public, their distinc...
Article
More than 3 decades since its emergence in the United States, HIV continues to spread and disproportionately affect socially marginalized groups. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a highly effective prevention strategy federally approved since 2012, could fundamentally alter the course of the epidemic. However, PrEP’s potential has not been fully rea...
Article
Daily HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective form of HIV protection that remains unknown and inaccessible for many people in the United States despite receiving federal approval over five years ago. PrEP is supported by the public health community, but forgoing condoms while taking PrEP has proven controversial; this controversy may be...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how HIV-related shame is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people living with HIV (PLHIV). Structural equation modeling tested whether HIV-related shame was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL (physical, emotional, and social well-being) and whether there were significant indirect associat...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP) is recommended for people who inject drugs (PWID). Despite their central role in disease prevention, willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID among primary care physicians (PCPs) is largely understudied. We conducted an online survey (April–May 2015) of members of a society for academic general internists regard...
Article
Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and evidence that most PrEP users do not engage in risk compensation (i.e., increased risk behavior due to a perceived decrease in HIV susceptibility), some healthcare providers report patient risk compensation to be a deterrent to prescribing PrEP. Overcoming this barrie...
Article
Background Among health care providers, prescription of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been low. Little is known specifically about primary care physicians (PCPs) with regard to PrEP awareness and adoption (i.e., prescription or referral), and factors associated with adoption. Objective To assess PrEP awareness, PrEP adoption, and factors...
Article
Full-text available
Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the...
Article
Full-text available
Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers’ adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers’ firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription—financial coverage, implementation logist...
Article
Full-text available
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-repor...
Article
Full-text available
Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP; emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [Truvada]) prevents HIV without penalizing sexual pleasure, and may even enhance pleasure (e.g., by reducing HIV-related anxiety). However, concern about sexual risk behavior increasing with PrEP use (risk compensation) and corresponding stereotypes of pro...
Article
Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated 100-fold greater among MSM than in the general population. Drinking expectancies have been associated with the intent to drink and engage in high-risk behaviours. Assessing them in this population may uncover attractive i...
Article
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Marked overlap between the HIV and injection drug use epidemics in St. Petersburg, Russia, puts many people in need of health services at risk for stigmatization based on both characteristics simultaneously. The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of internalized HIV and drug stigmas on health status and health service ut...
Article
We investigated message comprehension and message framing preferences for communicating about PrEP efficacy with US MSM. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 38) and n = 56 individual interviews with MSM in Providence, RI. Facilitators probed comprehension, credibility, and acceptability of efficacy messages, including percentages, non-numerical pa...
Article
Access to biomedical HIV prevention technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires individuals to disclose risk behavior to clinicians, but experiences of discrimination and medical mistrust may limit disclosure among male sex workers and other MSM. We explored experiences of perceived discrimination, medical mistrust, and behavior d...
Article
Objectives: This study tested the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between life stress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people, 50 years of age and older, living with HIV/AIDS (OPLWHA). Method: Data from 299 OPLWHA were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to define a novel resilience construct (...
Article
Full-text available
Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Black lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) women assume a triply marginalized social status in American society due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. This “triple jeopardy” may increase their exposure to discrimination and risk for negative mental health outcomes as compared to social groups facing fewer forms of oppression. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men’s healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation. Methods W...
Article
Full-text available
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has received increasing recognition as a viable prescription-based intervention for people at risk for HIV acquisition. However, little is known about racial biases affecting healthcare providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP. This investigation sought to explore medical students' stereotypes about se...
Conference Paper
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has gained momentum as a promising new prevention strategy for people at high risk for HIV acquisition. However, little is known about personal biases and clinical considerations affecting health care providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients of diverse backgrounds. The purpose of the current i...
Conference Paper
Background. As the proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) aged 50 years and older increases, health professionals must understand how HIV-related shame may affect aging populations. This study aimed to determine how HIV-related shame is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among diverse PLWHA aged 50 and older. Metho...
Conference Paper
Background: By 2015, 50% of all HIV/AIDS cases in the United States will be in persons 50-plus years of age. Very little, if any, research has examined resilience in older HIV-infected persons. This research investigated the mediating effect of resilience between HIV-related stress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PLWHA over fifty. Met...
Conference Paper
Background: Older African Americans living with HIV represent a growing population in urgent need of affordable and accessible health care services. Understanding barriers to care and their links to health service utilization and clinical health outcomes is necessary. Methods: 136 HIV-positive African Americans ages 50+ completed measures of percei...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Black men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. An online survey of sexual behavior was completed by Black, White, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and other-race MSM (n=11,766) ages 18-87 years. Complete condom use, semen exposure, pre-coital rectal douching (enema use), and lu...
Article
Little is known about the immunological and virological impact of diagnosis disclosure among HIV-positive children and adolescents. The current cross-sectional study examined medication hiding as a mediator of the relationship between disclosure to friends and three medical outcomes: CD4+ absolute count, CD4+ percentage, and viral load. Participant...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual pleasure has been identified as an important consideration in decision-making surrounding condom use. We examined the impact of perceived pleasure loss associated with condom use on recent history of insertive and receptive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States. A total of...
Article
According to cognitive dissonance theory, the co-occurrence of inconsistent cognitions may result in psychological distress. This distress may lead to undesirable health outcomes. This study explored the role of sexual behavior/identity congruence on women's mental, physical and sexual well-being. A total of 2,578 women who reported sexual attracti...
Article
Full-text available
Disease-specific characteristics of pediatric illnesses may influence the functioning of families and the coping responses they enact. This study compared family functioning and coping styles within and between 2 different medical groups: families of children with cancer (n = 44) and HIV disease (n = 65). Most caregivers reported healthy family fun...
Article
Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate)....
Conference Paper
Background: Sex party attendance has been associated with increased sexual risk behavior among gay men. The current study sought to characterize sex parties and to compare the sexual histories of Latino MSM who had previously attended sex parties and those who had not. Methods: Immigrant Latino MSM (n=482) were surveyed about their sexual health...