Sarah Boyle

Sarah Boyle
Rhodes College · Department of Biology

About

57
Publications
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2,336
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Introduction
Sarah Boyle is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biology, Rhodes College. Sarah conducts research in the areas of ecology, conservation, and behavior. Her current ResearchGate project is 'Global Patterns of Primate Conservation.'

Publications

Publications (57)
Article
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Pitheciids are known for their frugivorous diets, but there has been no broad-scale comparison of fruit genera used by these primates that range across five geographic regions in South America. We compiled 31 fruit lists from data collected from 18 species (three Cacajao, six Callicebus, five Chiropotes, and four Pithecia) at 26 study sites in six...
Article
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Pitheciids (Cacajao, Callicebus, Chiropotes, and Pithecia) have experienced habitat loss and fragmentation across their geographic range in South America. Some populations living in habitat fragments live in smaller groups, travel shorter distances, and consume items that are not regularly found in the diets of populations living in continuous habi...
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Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult t...
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Habitat loss and fragmentation are global conservation concerns, but animal species do not respond to these threats in the same manner. At the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located 80 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, the distribution and persistence of six native primate species differ among fragments that were isola...
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Accurate estimates of a primate's home range are important, yet methods vary greatly. This paper examines the accuracy of minimum convex polygon (MCP), adaptive kernel (AK) and fixed kernel (FK) estimators by comparing home range estimates of northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) living in forest fragments and continuous for...
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Fruit pulp is an easily handled energy source for many frugivorous species but generally has little protein. Accordingly, ripe-fruit specialist primate species with diets dominated by fruit pulp risk protein deficiency. While some species use leaf and flower buds, young leaves, and arthropods as an alternative protein supplement, highly frugivorous...
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Context The Dry Chaco spans more than 87 million hectares across Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. This unique forest system has experienced extensive loss and fragmentation due to land-use change, with different land-use histories in the three countries. This forest loss has altered landscape connectivity for the Dry Chaco’s associated biota. Obj...
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The Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraguay has experienced extensive recent deforestation. Less than one-third of the region is forested, and the remaining forest largely consists of isolated remnants with potentially disrupted connectivity for forest fauna. We used a graph theory approach to identify those forest remnants that are important in mainta...
Article
Despite the evident socioecological importance, knowledge of olfactory communication in Neotropical primates is in its infancy. Thus, to aid our understanding, we report on and describe olfactory communication behavior in Endangered Coimbra-Filho’s titi monkey (Callicebus coimbrai) in two Atlantic Forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. We discuss...
Article
Objectives Although fermented food use is ubiquitous in humans, the ecological and evolutionary factors contributing to its emergence are unclear. Here we investigated the ecological contexts surrounding the consumption of fruits in the late stages of fermentation by wild primates to provide insight into its adaptive function. We hypothesized that...
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Objectives Although fermented food use is ubiquitous in humans, the ecological and evolutionary factors contributing to its emergence are unclear. Here we investigated the ecological contexts surrounding the consumption of fruits in the late stages of fermentation by wild primates to provide insight into its adaptive function. We hypothesized that...
Article
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Species that live in degraded habitats often show signs of physiological stress. Glucocorticoid hormones (e.g., corticosterone and cortisol) are often assessed as a proxy of the extent of physiological stress an animal has experienced. Our goal was to quantify glucocorticoids in free-ranging small mammals in fragments of Interior Atlantic Forest. W...
Article
There is wide variability in primate behavior and ecology. Understanding how frugivorous primates behave under different habitat fragmentation levels is key for effective conservation and management of species and their habitats. We evaluated the seasonality in activity budget, diet, and ranging behavior of two groups of Endangered Coimbra‐Filho's...
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Research Highlights: Our study establishes the biennial nature of flowering intensity as a life-time energy-conserving strategy; we show unexpectedly high flower:fruit ratios despite extensive predation of buds and flowers by insect larvae; ‘selective’ bud abortion may be a key annual energy-saving strategy. Background and Objectives: We aim to exp...
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The impact that humans have on zoo animals can vary based on the species of animal, exhibit design, and individual differences in behavioral responses. We independently analyzed data from 10 never-published studies that examined the impact of zoo visitors on zoo animal behavior. Of the 16 species studied, 90.9% of the mammal species and 60.0% of th...
Article
Various species of animals maximise energy gained through foraging by minimising excessive energy spent on nonessential activities. Avoiding predation is key for maximising an individual's lifespan, as well as that of its kin; however, anti-predation behaviours can be energetically costly. We investigated the relationship between the potential thre...
Article
Predation risk is important in influencing animal behaviour. We investigated how the choice of nocturnal sleeping and diurnal resting sites by two species of primates was influenced by the most likely forms of attack (diurnal raptors and nocturnal felids). We recorded vertical and horizontal patterns of occupancy for 47 sleeping and 31 resting site...
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Loss of habitat, specifically deforestation, is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Species-area relationship (SAR) models traditionally have been used for estimating species richness, species loss as a function of habitat loss, and extrapolation of richness for given areas. Sampling species relationships (SSRs) are interrelated yet separate drive...
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Deforestation is a global issue, and is prevalent throughout the geographic range of many primate species. Although deforestation has occurred for tens of thousands of years, deforestation in the twentieth and twenty‐first centuries was primarily driven by agricultural crop expansion, cattle farming, fire, logging, mining for gas, oil, or minerals,...
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Predation on primates is considered to have far-reaching effects on the foraging and social ecology of a species. Primate species display a variety of responses to predator proximity and attack, ranging from active physical defense and mobbing, to flight and concealment. Warning calls are often given, and potentially threatening animals may be trac...
Chapter
Full-text available
Deforestation is a global issue and is prevalent throughout the geographic range of many primate species. Although deforestation has occurred for tens of thousands of years, deforestation in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries was primarily driven by agricultural crop expansion, cattle farming, fire, logging, mining for gas, oil, or minerals,...
Article
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Although primate predation is rarely observed, a series of primate anti-predation strategies have been described. Energetic costs of such strategies can vary from high-cost mobbing, via less costly alarm calling, to low-cost furtive concealment. Here we report the anti-predation strategies of red-nosed cuxiú, Chiropotes albinasus, based on direct o...
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Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem he...
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For a long time, members of the Pitheciidae were among the least studied of all Neotropical primates. But times have changed. Here, we trace the trajectory of this change and show how the articles in this special edition illustrate new knowledge and developments in our understanding of pitheciid ecology, behavior, and conservation. We propose new d...
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Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-ab...
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Tooth morphology is an important determinant of primate diet, setting potential limits on processable item size and material properties. Plunger-based commercial fruit firmness testers (penetrometers) have been used to estimate primate diet item hardness and, by proxy, bite force required for penetration. However, geometric forms and surface areas...
Article
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Polyspecific or mixed-species associations, where two or more species come together to forage and travel as a unit, have been reported in many primate species. These associations appear to offer a number of benefits to the species involved including increased foraging efficiency and decreased risk of predation. While several researchers have sugges...
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Although plant-inhabiting ants are known to act as effective deterrents to a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores, this has been reported only once before for primates, a group better known for their predation of ants. In the present study, we investigated the effects that colonies of Pseudomyrmex viduus ants living in individual Macro...
Chapter
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The Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located approximately 80 km north of Manaus, Brazil, is the longest-running study of forest fragmentation in the world. The BDFFP was created in 1979 and the first primate census occurred in 1980. Six primate species inhabit the study area: red howler (Alouatta macconnelli), black spider...
Article
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Previous studies have used home range size to predict a species’ vulnerability to forest fragmentation. Northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) are medium-bodied frugivores with large home ranges, but sometimes they reside in forest fragments that are smaller than the species’ characteristic home range size. Here we examine ho...
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The Neotropics house two guilds of large arboreal vertebrate seed predators: parrots and the pitheciin primates. Both have diets dominated by immature fruits. The possibility of members of the Pitheciinae (genera Cacajao, Chiropotes and Pithecia) acting as occasional seed dispersers has been mooted, but not experimentally shown. We combined primate...
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The common English name for the genus Chiropotes is currently bearded saki. We propose the use of "cuxiú" as the common name for Chiropotes species, arguing that this term not only has deeper cultural and historical roots, but would mesh with the common name currently in use over the vast majority of the genus range. Cuxiú (pronounced "coosh-e- oo"...
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Urban-associated changes can have immediate or long-term consequences on animal populations. Such changes may be assessed through parasite prevalence and abundance in wildlife hosts, as urbanization can influence parasitism and disease transmission in wildlife. Snakes are widespread and diverse vertebrates that often persist in urban environments;...
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Neotropical monkeys of the genera Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia (Pitheciidae) are considered to be highly arboreal, spending most of their time feeding and traveling in the upper canopy. Until now, the use of terrestrial substrates has not been analyzed in detail in this group. Here, we review the frequency of terrestrial use among pitheciin ta...
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Forest fragmentation demonstrably alters plant species composition, distribution, and diversity, and, in turn, may affect the availability of food resources for primary consumers. We investigated to what extent fragmentation affected the diets of 6 groups of bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes chiropotes) living in two 10-ha fragments, two 100-ha ''fr...
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We synthesize findings to date from the world’s largest and longest-running experimental study of habitat fragmentation, located in central Amazonia. Over the past 32 years, Amazonian forest fragments ranging from 1 to 100 ha have experienced a wide array of ecological changes. Edge effects have been a dominant driver of fragment dynamics, strongly...
Article
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We investigated behavioral differences among seven groups of northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) living in five forest fragments and two areas of continuous forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project study area, located approximately 80km north of Manaus, Brazil. We collected data in six research cycles...
Article
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Deforestation in the Amazon is a serious environmental, economic, and social concern. This article examines how a colonization plan to bring 180 families to an area north of Manaus, Brazil, would negatively impact the conservation of the six primate species residing in the area. The colonization sites would be located within the Biological Dynamics...

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Projects (2)