Sara Shafiee

Sara Shafiee
Technical University of Denmark | DTU · Department of Mechanical Engineering

Ph.D., M.Sc.

About

75
Publications
18,544
Reads
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497
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2021 - present
Technical University of Denmark
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
May 2017 - June 2021
Technical University of Denmark
Position
  • PostDoc Position
February 2017 - October 2018
Haldor Topsøe
Position
  • Consultant

Publications

Publications (75)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When implementing a product configuration system in a company making complex and highly engineered products, many decisions need to be made in the early phases of the project. This article presents a framework for supporting the initial scoping process and discusses experiences from applying the frame-work in an engineering company. The framework c...
Conference Paper
This study focuses on reintegration in the context of intraorganizational temporary organizations, which refers to the extent to which an employee who works away from the permanent functional organization in a temporary project returns and re-adjusts. The study employs a qualitative research method to identify the unique challenges and issues in th...
Article
Due to the complexity of financial products, consumers with low financial literacy are left behind. However, few practical studies investigated the impact of digital advisory systems to improve customer experience. Configuration systems, as the most popular expert systems, have never been applied as a financial tool. In this study, we explore the a...
Article
Configurators have the potential to revolutionize the business processes of Engineering-to-order (ETO) companies. Despite their positive impacts on ETO companies' operations and strategies, there is a paucity of empirical investigations examining the development processes and practices of configurators, in particular integrated configurators. We, t...
Chapter
During the last decade, more healthcare organizations have been turning to Lean and data driven principles to improve the efficiency and generate a positive impact on throughout, patient satisfaction and quality care. Given the high competition in private healthcare market, the need for achieving higher quality medical care to attract new patients...
Chapter
The engineer-to-order (ETO) industry’s business environment constantly changes, which results in challenges related to project management, on-time delivery, quality, and market competition. Companies face pressure to optimize production while demand for personalized products, and accordingly the complexity level increases. To address these challeng...
Article
Full-text available
Caused by the growing complexity in production, more and more companies started implementing reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs) to quickly reconfigure production capacities and functionalities. Similarly, product, process, and service configuration systems (CSs) are promising tools to help companies achieve improved business performance. H...
Article
Full-text available
Robot-centric automation solutions (RAS) promise greater efficiency and consistent quality in production, relieving workers of physically demanding and dangerous tasks, especially in the times of COVID-19. Nevertheless, due to their relatively high complexity and implementation costs, RAS are only used to a limited extent by small and medium-sized...
Article
Increasingly competitive and multifaceted business landscapes and the accelerating pace of innovation require organizations to build in-house capability to evaluate the effectiveness of their design and redesign their organizational structure to drive agile product development. The purpose of this research is to examine how the ability of an organi...
Article
Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools are popular software programs to support the members of the development team (including analysts, designers, coders, database administrators, and project managers) in building new software systems. Up-to-date and consistent knowledge representation and documentation is crucial for companies developin...
Article
Some consumers have various product demands that are associated with each other. Although there are methods for discovering the associations among co-purchased products, they have limitations, including redundancy of the extracted association rules, the potential to miss novel and interesting associations among co-demanded products hidden in shoppi...
Article
Product configuration systems (PCSs) have been successful applications of artificial intelligence principles in engineer-to-order (ETO) companies in recent decades. Such applications mainly focus on quotation or production processes rather than multiple business processes. However, in some cases, there could be a benefit of applying multistage PCSs...
Article
Full-text available
The high complexity of today’s automation solutions often raises integration costs to an uneconomic level, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises. Analyzing the total costs of automation solutions, engineering efforts account for the largest share. However, potentials for time and cost savings as well as quality improvements by reusing...
Article
Product configuration systems (PCSs) are software applications that enable companies to customise configurable products by facilitating the automation of sales and engineering. Widely used in various industries, PCSs can bring substantial benefits and constitute a fundamental tool for mass customisation. However, serious challenges in PCS developme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the increased popularity of Product Configuration Systems (PCS), researchers reported both the success and failure stories of PCS. However, most of the literature does not reveal the real cost and befits from PCS due to the lack of access to real case companies datum. Therefore, there is little detailed quantification of the benefits, costs,...
Article
Purpose Product configurators are expert systems that support product customization by defining how predefined entities and their properties may be combined. Developers of configuration systems act as designers, although they do not often recognize that they are performing as such. Moreover, exploring solution spaces is typically not integral to co...
Article
Full-text available
Configurators are well-established strong researched expert systems due to the high popularity and gained benefits. Nevertheless, the aspects of user-centered design are rarely researched and applied during the development of configurator front-ends. However, when addressing a mass consumer market or non-experts end-users, the front-end represents...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Industrial gained and potential benefits of configurators are explored and researched to great extent in the literature. Moreover, configurators generate most of the needed documents automatically, which can be an effective solution to reduce the number of manual tasks. The generated documents include variety of customized knowledge such as BOM (bi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product configuring systems (PCS) enable companies to develop product alternatives to facilitate sales and production processes. Hence, PCS projects are kind of complex IT projects and have driven significant amount of research and development lately. This qualitative case study research aims to evaluate the Scrum training for PCS projects. This st...
Article
Many industries have benefited from modularisation; while in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, the concept of modularisation is associated with dimensional coordination. This has added to an already extensive list of challenges due to market size and the concept of economies of scale in AEC industry, to name but a few....
Article
Full-text available
To benefit from users’ co-creation knowledge in online communities, enterprises need effective methods to discover and manage co-creation users and knowledge as suggested in existing research. However, the existing methods still have their own limitations when analysing different relationships and networks. Therefore, first, this paper proposes a c...
Article
In recent years, the challenges of mass customisation (MC) have been increasing sales conversion rate and effectively matching supply with demand. Additionally, online customer communities (OCCs) have become increasingly popular and have proven to provide substantial value to both customers and enterprises. Therefore, the focus of this paper is to...
Chapter
Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are software applications supporting the design of products tailored to the individual desiderata of customers. PCS development does not follow the same procedure as traditional software: indeed, due to its nature, specific knowledge needs to be collected, a set of custom engineering stages have thus been built-u...
Chapter
Full-text available
Configurators are expert systems that support product customization by defining how predefined entities and their properties can be combined. Configurators support decision-making processes in the sales and engineering phases of a product and bring substantial benefits, such as shorter lead times, fewer errors, increased ability to meet customers’...
Chapter
Full-text available
The current business environment presents challenges for companies, including increased pressure on time to market, customer expectations, cost and increased competition. To overcome the challenges in the new business environment, the companies introduce common products components and variants in order to reduce complexity and improve the performan...
Conference Paper
Firms operate in increasingly competitive and multifaceted business landscapes, commonly referred to as VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous) world. This environment and the accelerating pace of innovation require organizations to develop dynamic capabilities of an agile organization-sensing and assessing new opportunities of the local...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product configuration systems are among the most popular expert systems for automating sales and manufacturing processes. Therefore, there are numerous studies on the qualitative benefits and quantitative profitability of configurators considering the required investments. This paper uses real case company data to demonstrate the most cost efficien...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product Configuration Systems (PCSs) are automatic solutions to support and facilitate sales and engineering processes. PCSs are among the most successful applications of expert system technology and one of the drivers in the digitalization era. Therefore, there are several studies on the benefits of PCS. Such studies are, however, often relatively...
Article
Literature on BIM reports case studies and challenges observed when applying BIM in the construction industry. Literature on mass customisation elaborates on methods and experiences of applying modularisation and product configuration including examples from the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. However, only limited litera...
Article
Several studies reporting benefits from the use of product configurators in engineering-oriented companies can be found in the literature. On the other hand, some literature also claims that companies abandon configurator projects in many cases. Such claims are, however, supported only by references to the experience of the authors and do not invol...
Article
In recent decades, many engineering-oriented companies have gained significant benefits from the use of product configurators, including higher product specification quality, fewer specification errors, faster quote creation and higher quote accuracy. On the other hand, many companies also experience great difficulties in realising such benefits wi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maintenance of the configuration projects, their ongoing development, evaluation of system quality and communication with domain experts requires up-to-date product knowledge modelling, documentation, and validation. In configuration projects, the main tools used for documentation and communication are product models. Furthermore, the CASE tools co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) are critical to the quality of life in many communities not only due to the valuable services and social impact they create, but also because of the positive economic impact within local communities. However, NPOs, just as for-profits, need to innovate in response to changing customer demands and lifestyles and to cap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are increasingly used by companies to automate the performance of the sales and engineering processes. Since the benefits from such projects have huge variations, it is crucial to make the right decisions when scoping and developing PCSs. The development of PCS is influenced by both business interests and technic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Companies’ reports indicate a mixture of success and failure in Product Configuration Systems (PCS) projects. Moreover, the attention paid to PCS across different industries is increasing. Therefore, more studies are needed to analyze risks, costs, and benefits of PCS. This paper uses real case projects to demonstrate the cost-benefit analysis of P...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Companies are increasingly investing in product configurators in order to automate sales and production processes. The investment in product configurators can also be quite high mainly because of the need for an expert team and software. Companies develop configurators to support the specification of both commercial (sales) and technical parts of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Across all industries companies benefit from product standardization and product modularization in order to automate sales and production processes, and construction industry is no exception. Product modularization is normally the pre-requirement to the automation in both sales and production. The literature is lacking guidelines and examples to di...
Conference Paper
Developers of product configuration systems (PCS) act as designers, albeit often not recognizing they are performing in a design process. These developers face challenges in developing and implementing PCS as the main enabler of mass customization. Main difficulties occur in knowledge management (KM) stage for domain experts and the configuration t...
Conference Paper
Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are considered types of IT systems that enable companies to develop product alternatives to facilitate the sales and production processes automation. Based on literature, there are various challenges reported on managing different phases of PCS projects. Different tools and solutions have been suggested and appli...
Conference Paper
All industries benefit from product standardization and modularization in order to automate the sales and production processes. The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is lagging behind due to the challenges it is faces with compared to other industries. The literature discusses how to apply modularization in construction indu...
Article
Companies providing customized products increasingly apply configurators in supporting sales and design activities, thus improving lead-times, quality, cost, benefits perceived by customers, and customer satisfaction. While configurator advantages have been substantially investigated, the challenges of implementing and utilizing configurators have...
Article
Product configuration systems (PCS) are increasingly being used in industrial companies to enable the efficient design of customized products. The literature describes substantial benefits that companies have achieved from the use of PCS, such as reduced resource consumption, reduced lead-time, improved quality, and increased sales, which should le...
Article
Purpose – This study explores the use of the knowledge management (KM) perspective for configuration projects. Configuration projects implement configurators as IT systems that help companies manage the specification process of customised products. An effective method of retrieving and formalising knowledge for configurators is essential, because i...
Article
This paper aims to increase understanding of the impact of using product-modelling techniques to structure and formalise knowledge in configurator projects. Companies that provide customised products increasingly apply configurators in support of sales and design activities, reaping benefits that include shorter lead times, improved quality of spec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are automatic solutions that can support and facilitate the sales and engineering processes. PCSs have recently attracted increased attention both from the researches and practitioners. There are variety of challenges reported in the literature as consequences of using PCS, which reduces the usage frequency of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
1 Configurators are applied widely to automate the specification processes at companies. The literature describes industrial application of configurators supporting both sales and engineering processes, where configurators supporting the the engineering processes are described more challenging. Moreover, configurators are commonly integrated to var...
Article
Full-text available
Product configuration systems (PCS) play an essential role when providing customised and engineered products efficiently. Literature in the field describes numerous strategies to develop PCS but neglects to identify different application areas. This topic is particularly important for engineer-to-order (ETO) companies that support gradual implement...
Article
Full-text available
Engineer-To-Order (ETO) companies making complex products face the challenge of delivering highly customised products with high quality, low price and a short delivery time. To respond to these challenges, ETO companies strive to increase the commonality between different projects and to reuse product-related information. Therfore, ETO companies ne...
Thesis
Full-text available
Individual customization of goods and processes in different industries leads to complexity due to a growing mix of products both regarding characteristics of products and support services. In order to eliminate complexity and challenges in product/process customizing, smart IT systems called Product Configuration Systems (PCS), have been proposed...
Article
When designing and maintaining a product configuration system (PCS), complete and up-to-date documentation of the system is needed in the form of a product model that outlines the structures, attributes, and constraints of the PCS. Furthermore, up-to-date documentation for the PCS is crucial for maintenance, further development, system quality and...
Chapter
This chapter suggests a systematic framework for identifying potential areas, where Engineer-To-Order (ETO) companies may increase their profitability by implementing a Product Configuration Systems (PCSs). In order to do so, a three-step framework is proposed based on literature. The starting point is to conduct a profitability analysis to determi...
Chapter
This article proposes a systematic framework for data collection when executing Product Configuration System (PCS) projects. Since the data collection in PCS is one of the most time-consuming tasks, a systematic framework to handle and manage the large amount of complex data in the early stages of the PCS project is needed. The framework was develo...
Conference Paper
This paper will address how to develop a strategy when developing and implementing product configuration systems (PCSs) in engineer-to-order (ETO) companies. PCSs are often gradually implemented especially where there are complex products and processes in order to break down the overall project and reduce risk. This highlights the importance of hav...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of a seven-step procedure proposed by Hvam et al. (2001) for developing, implementing and maintaining product configuration systems (PCSs), known as the Center Product Modelling (CPM) procedure. The procedure consists of seven phases which aim to provide a structural approach for PCS projects. The...
Conference Paper
Manufacturing companies are increasingly seeking to gain the benefits from mass customization strategies as a response to increased customers’ demand for customized products. To automate the process of generating products’ specifications and guide the sales process, configurators are commonly used to support companies applying mass customization st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the recent years, product configuration systems (PCSs) have received greater attention from industries providing customized products as a response to increased demand to fulfil diverse customers’ needs for customized products. Before developing a PCS, a well-established business case has to be made in order to secure the success and delivery of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article aims at analyzing the long-term benefits and the cost from developing, implementing and maintaining product configuration systems (PCSs). The results presented indicate that over 5 years period the case company has achieved significant savings as a result to reduced workload of generating the products’ specifications. In addition the l...
Conference Paper
Companies providing customized products are increasingly applying configurators in order to support the sales and design activities. Yet, especially for engineer-to-order (ETO) companies such activities are often divided across different organizations, where throughout the configuration process product specification has to be retrieved across the s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Adequate documentation is critical for successful implementation, maintenance and further developments of product configuration system (PCS) specially in companies making complex and highly engineered products. This article is based on experience of modelling and utilizing a PCS from an Engineer-To-Order (ETO), where the main focus is on the challe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Engineering-To-Order (ETO) companies have to respond to increasing demands to provide highly customized and complex products with high quality at competitive prices. In order to respond to those challenges ETO companies have started to implement product configuration systems (PCS) to increase efficiency of the specification processes. As a result t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article suggests a systematic framework for identifying potential areas, where Engineering-To-Order (ETO) companies may increase their profitability by implementing a Product Configuration System (PCS). In order to do so a three-step framework is proposed based on literature. The starting point is to conduct a profitability analysis to determi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article proposes a systematic framework for data collection when executing Product Configuration System (PCS) projects. Since the data collection in PCS is one of the most time consuming tasks, a systematic framework to handle and manage the large amount of complex data in the early stages of the PCS project is needed. The framework was develo...
Article
Full-text available
Disinfection and elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from liquid can be achieved by filtration process using antibacterial filter media. The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the introduction of membranes consisting of nano-fiber in filtration operations. The melt electro-spun fibers due to their extremely small diameters are used in th...