Sara Rimm-Kaufman

Sara Rimm-Kaufman
University of Virginia | UVa · Curry School of Education

Ph.D.

About

105
Publications
126,152
Reads
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7,593
Citations

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
This study provides empirical benchmarks that quantify typical changes in students' reports of social and emotional skills in a large, diverse sample. Data come from six cohorts of students (N = 361,815; 6% Asian, 8% Black, 68% White, 75% Latinx, 50% Female) who responded to the CORE survey from 2015 to 2018 and help quantify typical gains/declines...
Article
This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of an elementary school service-learning program, Connect Science (CS), on classroom practices and students' science achievement, civic engagement, and social skills. Fourth grade teachers were enrolled into intervention versus control conditions resulting in 41 classrooms (20 intervention) wit...
Article
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Student agency is a critical feature of impactful service-learning programs. In this article, we describe lessons learned from a study of Connect Science, an environmental service-learning curriculum and teacher professional development program. We present five ways to amplify student voices in service-learning. Examples from teachers that we work...
Article
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Little is known about the integration of social-emotional learning (SEL) with science instruction. We used a se- quential mixed-methods design to examine (1) how fourth graders use argumentation practices and social gestures in science class and (2) how argumentation practices and social gestures differ between intervention and compari- son classro...
Article
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Supporters of whole child learning can mobilize improvement in educational practice by considering a few questions. What does the latest research on the brain and learning really say—or not say? What do we know today that we did not know 25 years ago? The research can be summarized into four key findings. 1. The brain is malleable. 2. There are sen...
Article
The goals of the current study were twofold. The first goal was to describe levels of mathematics and science self-efficacy and achievement among a sample of students with varying levels of English language proficiency. The second goal was to examine the extent to which students' self-efficacy explains the relation between their English proficiency...
Article
Across the country, states are adopting and implementing either Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) or new state standards inspired by NGSS. Educators and researchers play a key role in the reform process as we design professional development (PD) and curriculum to support teachers in transitioning to NGSS. In this time of transition, close an...
Article
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The development of energy literacy for all citizens is critical as we face climate change and rapid depletion of existing energy resources. This study explores energy literacy development in fourth grade classrooms. Our team developed a curriculum on energy resources aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards. We then trained teachers how t...
Article
With so many education policies and practices made at the local level, community-based foundations are in a unique position to support their local school districts in taking a comprehensive, systematic approach to improving the lives of young people. This article describes a research-practice partnership designed to produce school improvement in a...
Article
The present study examines the extent to which participation in a 14-week professional development course designed to improve teacher–child interactions in the classroom moderated the relation between teacher-reported job stress and gains in observed teacher–child interaction quality from the beginning to the end of the intervention. Participants w...
Article
Research from the past two decades positions relational trust as a key factor in school reform efforts. Trust between teachers and their principal (teacher-principal trust) and teachers and their colleagues (teacher-teacher trust) are particularly important. Leading Together (LT) is a new professional development and coaching model of the Center fo...
Article
This article presents a study that investigated potential misconceptions presented in third grade mathematics classrooms and the association of these potential misconceptions with Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) and standards-based teaching practices (as measured by the Mathematics Scan). A sequential explanatory mixed methods model was u...
Article
Teachers need more clarity about effective teaching practices as they strive to help their low-achieving students understand mathematics. Our study describes the instructional practices used by two teachers who, by value-added metrics, would be considered “highly effective teachers” in classrooms with a majority of students who were English learner...
Article
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In this mixed-methods study, we designed and implemented an environmental service-learning program at a public charter school to develop eighth-grade students' environmental literacy. Data sources included the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey (MSELS), interviews, and students' written work. We extend prior work by analyzing qualitative e...
Article
School-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are presented to educators with little understanding of the program components that have the greatest leverage for improving targeted outcomes. Conducted in the context of a randomized controlled trial, the present study used variation in treatment teachers’ (N = 143) implementation of four...
Article
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Theory suggests that African American students benefit from warm and demanding teachers. This study examines the relation between students' perceptions of 634 teachers' warm demander characteristics and achievement growth in fourth and fifth grades (Mstudent age = 9–11.5 years). Analyses explored whether relations were moderated by the proportion o...
Article
Teaching is comprised of interconnected practices. Some practices are domain-neutral (DN) or independent of a content area. Examples of DN practices include emotional and instructional support and classroom organization. Others are domain-specific (DS), or content-dependent. Within a mathematics context, examples of DS practices include mathematica...
Article
Teachers of elementary mathematics face multiple, convergent demands. These demands include supporting the growing population of English language learners (ELLs) and facilitating mathematical discussions across relevant curricular contexts. The authors used a comparative case study to examine how two teachers attempt to facilitate discussions while...
Article
Eliminate obstacles to effective classroom communication with these research-tested suggestions.
Article
Student behavioral concerns are a top priority for school psychologists. This project took an ecological systems perspective by examining the contribution of students’ initial externalizing and internalizing behaviors and the quality of their classroom environments to their behavioral outcomes across one school year. Participants included 322 eleme...
Article
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This study looks at how use of a Social and Emotional Learning Program, the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, alters the relations between mathematics teaching practices and student mathematics achievement. The study found that teachers trained in RC who used more RC practices provided stronger mathematics instruction, which in turn, contributed...
Article
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Multiple perspectives of measuring engagement (i.e., student-, teacher-, and observer-report) were used to describe the contributions of engagement during mathematics instruction on fifth graders' (N = 387) social skills and achievement. Students completed questionnaires on their mathematics engagement. Teachers completed questionnaires on students...
Article
This commentary reviews and synthesizes the work of this special issue on psychological safety. At its core, psychological safety stems from a combination of individual attributes and contextual conditions that combine to produce moments in which individuals perceive their own agency and show willingness to take risks, grow, and change. This commen...
Article
This study examined (a) the contribution of math self-efficacy to students' perception of their emotional and social engagement in fifth grade math classes, and (b) the extent to which high quality teacher-student interactions compensated for students' low math self-efficacy in contributing to engagement. Teachers (n= 73) were observed three times...
Article
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This study investigates the effectiveness of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, a social and emotional learning intervention, on changing the relations between mathematics teacher and classroom inputs (mathematical knowledge for teaching [MKT] and standards-based mathematics teaching practices) and student mathematics achievement. Work was con...
Article
Trusting relationships between teachers and their principals (teacher–principal trust) form the basis for effective and sustained school reform. However, the process of building trust within a hierarchical relationship where one person is the supervisor of the other (e.g., the principal–teacher relationship) is complex and requires detailed investi...
Article
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This study examines concurrent teacher-student interaction quality and 5th graders' (n = 387) engagement in mathematics classrooms (n = 63) and considers how teacher-student interaction quality relates to engagement differently for boys and girls. Three approaches were used to measure student engagement in mathematics: Research assistants observed...
Article
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Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention—intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change—is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to identify...
Article
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Fidelity of implementation of classroom interventions varies greatly, a reality that is concerning because higher fidelity of implementation relates to greater effectiveness of the intervention. We analyzed 126 fourth and fifth grade teachers from the treatment group of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach. Prior...
Article
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Of key value to teachers, administrators, and program developers is the ability to detect which components of an intervention constitute critical, or active, ingredients. Knowledge of active ingredients can be used to identify specific SEL practices that promote desired change, optimize existing SEL interventions, and create highly effective integr...
Article
Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social–emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social–emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal skil...
Article
Full-text available
This randomized controlled field trial examined the efficacy of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach on student achievement. Schools (n = 24) were randomized into intervention and control conditions; 2,904 children were studied from end of second to fifth grade. Students at schools assigned to the RC condition did not outperform students at schoo...
Conference Paper
Introduction: The positive effects of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs hinge on high fidelity of implementation (FOI; Durlak et al., 2011). However, there is much less clarity about the coaching, context, and teacher capacity needed to attain high FOI. The present study was conducted in the context of a partnership among program develop...
Conference Paper
PRESENTATION TYPE: Individual Paper CATEGORY/THEME: Dissemination and Implementation Science TITLE: Attuning Intervention Coaching to Social Networks Among Teachers ABSTRACT BODY Introduction: Children’s social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior and academic performance improve significantly when they participate in social and emot...
Article
The Responsive Classroom (RC) approach is an instructional delivery and social-emotional learning intervention designed to provide teachers with skills needed to create caring, well-managed classroom environments that are conducive to learning. This study examines the extent to which RC training predicts close student-teacher relationships, as well...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to introduce a measure of standards-based mathematics teaching practices, the Mathematics Scan (M-Scan), and to examine its validity and score reliability. First, we define standards-based mathematics teaching practices based on eight dimensions that have emerged in recent conceptualizations by researchers and in the co...
Chapter
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The Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) defines Social and Emotional Learning as “a process for helping children and even adults develop the fundamental skills for life effectiveness” (CASEL, 2013a). SEL skills consist of “recognizing and managing our emotions, developing caring and concern for others, establishing pos...
Article
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Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific intervention components promoting desired change—the active ingredients—yet such applications are rare. In the context of a social-emotional learning intervention, we illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to identify program active ingredients. We applied one customary and tw...
Article
Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that...
Article
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This study examined the direct and indirect effects between training in the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, teachers' uptake of RC practices, and teacher-student interaction quality, using a structural equation modeling framework. A total of 24 schools were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Third- and fourth-grade teache...
Article
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Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as school...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Understanding implementation drivers is needed to improve all steps of translation research from initial field trials to efforts to scale-up. Researchers have suggested individualized coaching as one way that implementation of interventions may be improved. Individualizing coaching, however, can only be utilized after coaches can know...
Conference Paper
PRESENTATION TYPE: Individual Paper CATEGORY/THEME: Dissemination and Implementation Science TITLE: Individualizing Intervention Coaching to Increase Fidelity of Implementation ABSTRACT BODY Introduction: A recent meta-analysis of social-emotional learning (SEL) programs, revealed significant improvements in SEL skills, attitudes, behavior...
Article
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Abstract This study highlights the connections between two facets of teachers' skills—those supporting teachers' mathematical instructional interactions and those underlying social interactions within the classroom. The impact of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach and use of RC practices on the use of standards-based mathematics teaching practi...
Article
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Research Findings: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999, were used to examine the relation between parenting, sociodemographic characteristics, and school readiness among (N = 1,136) African American boys in kindergarten. Parenting was defined as parenting style (i.e., warmth and control), home learning...
Article
We used mixed methods to examine the association between setting-level factors and observed implementation of a social and emotional learning intervention (Responsive Classroom® approach; RC). In study 1 (N = 33 3rd grade teachers after the first year of RC implementation), we identified relevant setting-level factors and uncovered the mechanisms t...
Article
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The present observational study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of children's social and self-regulatory outcomes in first-grade classrooms. Specifically, goals were the following: (1) to explore relations between emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions and children's social behaviors (aggression with peers, exclus...
Article
This observational study examined kindergarteners’ (n=170) exposure to literacy instruction in their classrooms (n=36), child-by-instruction interactions, and behavioral engagement in relation to literacy skills. Time spent in four instructional contexts was coded according to who managed children's attention (teacher-managed, TM or child-managed,...
Article
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This article describes a social and emotional learning intervention, the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, which is designed to produce classroom environments conducive to learning. It summarizes a new body of research describing the efficacy of the RC approach. One component of the RC approach is the Morning Meeting. This article describes a se...
Article
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Theory, methods, and knowledge gained from years of study in psychological science and human development apply to the understanding and improvement of teacher quality and, ultimately, student achievement and social and emotional outcomes. With these applications, educational research has stronger potential to make more effective and systematic cont...
Article
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Evaluate the quality of your instruction by using the eight dimensions of M-Scan, an observation tool that links math standards with day-to-day practice.
Article
Children's social skills are an important class of learned behaviors that facilitate success in the classroom; the primary method used in the assessment of social skills involves having parents or teachers complete standardized checklists using judgments of frequency or intensity. Children's (N = 1,102) social skills were modeled as time-varying pr...
Article
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Research Findings: This paper examines the extent to which children's effortful control and early family experiences predict difficulty in kindergarten adjustment. One hundred and eighty-two children from 31 kindergarten classrooms in rural elementary schools in the Southeast participated. Teachers reported on children's difficulty with kindergarte...
Article
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In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of m...
Article
Executive functioning (EF) refers to higher order thought processes considered foundational for problem-solving. EF has both ‘cool’ cognitive and ‘hot’ emotional components. This study asks: (a) what are the relative contributions of ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ EF to children's academic achievement? (b) What are the relative contributions of ‘hot’ and ‘cool’...
Article
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Young children's relationships with teachers predict social and academic success. This study examines contributions of child temperament (shyness, effortful control) and gender to teacher–child relationship quality both directly and indirectly through the frequency of teacher–child interactions in the classroom. Using an NICHD SECCYD sample of 819...
Article
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This study examined the extent to which kindergarteners' classroom behavioral engagement mediated the relation between global classroom quality and children's reading achievement. A structural equation framework was used to analyze data collected in a primarily low-income rural sample (N = 171). Children's reading achievement was measured in the fa...
Article
We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured comp...
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The purpose of this study is to examine how children's starting level and development of social competence (i.e., task orientation and peer sociability) during kindergarten and first grade predict gifted program enrollment by third grade, even after considering children's cognitive ability. A second purpose is to examine the extent to which the rel...
Article
Research Findings: The teacher–child relationship can provide an important support to young children who exhibit developmental risk. This research studied the contribution of children's language skills, temperamentally based attributes (shyness, anger), and gender to closeness and conflict in the teacher–child relationship for 133 preschoolers atte...
Article
This study examines the contribution of the Responsive Classroom (RC) Approach, a set of teaching practices that integrate social and academic learning, to children's perceptions of their classroom, and children's academic and social performance over time. Three questions emerge: (a) What is the concurrent and cumulative relation between children's...
Article
Research Findings: Challenging the development of high-quality preschool education is the instability of the preschool teacher workforce, blamed in part on workplace conditions including isolationism, perceived lack of career reward, and lack of preparation. Little attention has been given to whether a preschool's organizational climate can mitigat...
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We propose that social psychological findings on the intuitive bases of moral judgment have broad implications for moral education. The "five foundations theory of intuitive ethics" is applied to explain a longstanding rift in moral education as an ideological disagreement about which moral intuitions should be endorsed and cultivated. The Kohlberg...
Article
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This longitudinal study followed students (n = 265) from kindergarten through seventh grade and examined early social and academic predictors of school performance at two normative school transitions. Questions addressed include: (a) are there changes in students' school performance over time, especially at school transition points; (b) are changes...
Article
This longitudinal study followed 142 children to determine whether the quality of mother-child interactions, as measured in kindergarten, predicted high school academic achievement and attainment. Findings showed that, regardless of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, and IQ, positive mother-child interactions in kindergarten were associa...
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The primary objective of this investigation was to examine the way in which two facets of the classroom environment (classroom quality and instruc- tional contexts) and children's risk for school problems combine to predict children's behavioral engagement in third-grade classrooms. As part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Develo...