Sara Linse

Sara Linse
Lund University | LU · Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology

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382
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Publications

Publications (382)
Preprint
Fibrillar protein aggregates are a hallmark of the pathology of a range of human disorders, from prion diseases to dementias. Yet, the same aggregated structures that are formed in disease are also encountered in several functional contexts. The fundamental properties that determine whether these protein assembly processes are functional or, by con...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Alzheimer’s disease affects a growing number of people, but a cure is lacking. The disease is connected to the formation of plaques in the brain, the first of which appear years before the first symptoms. Current approaches fail to stop or revert the propagation of these plaques, which are also a source of neurotoxic species in the for...
Preprint
The aggregation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is one of the major molecular hallmarks of Alzheimer′s disease. Although Aβ deposits have been mostly observed extracellularly, various studies have reported the presence of also intracellular Aβ assemblies. Because these intracellular Aβ aggregates might play a role in the onset and progression of Alzh...
Article
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The pathology of Alzheimer's disease is connected to the aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which in vivo exists as a number of length-variants. Truncations and extensions are found at both the N- and C-termini, relative to the most commonly studied 40- and 42-residue alloforms. Here, we investigate the aggregation of two physiologically abunda...
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Fluorescence-based single molecule techniques provide important tools towards understanding the molecular mechanism of complex neurodegenerative diseases. This requires efficient covalent attachment of fluorophores. Here we create a series of cysteine mutants (S8C, Y10C, S26C, V40C, and A42C) of Aβ42, involved in Alzheimer’s disease, based on expos...
Article
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The chaperone DNAJB6b delays amyloid formation by suppressing the nucleation of amyloid fibrils and increases the solubility of amyloid-prone proteins. These dual effects on kinetics and equilibrium are related to the unusually high chemical potential of DNAJB6b in solution. As a consequence, the chaperone alone forms highly polydisperse oligomers,...
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Several publications describing high-resolution structures of amyloid-β (Aβ) and other fibrils have demonstrated that magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is an ideal tool for studying amyloids at atomic resolution. Nonetheless, MAS NMR suffers from low sensitivity, requiring relatively large amounts of samples and extensive signal acquisiti...
Preprint
The presence of amyloid fibrils of alpha-synuclein is closely associated with Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies. It is still very challenging, however, to systematically discover small molecules that prevent the formation of these aberrant aggregates. Here, we describe a structure-based approach to identify small molecules that spec...
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Full-text available
Amyloid fibrils are associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including fibrils of amyloid β42 peptide (Aβ42) in Alzheimer’s disease. These fibrils are a source of toxicity to neuronal cells through surface-catalyzed generation of toxic oligomers. Detailed knowledge of the fibril structure may thus facilitate therapeutic development....
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The self-assembly of the protein tau into neurofibrillary tangles is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease and related tauopathies. Still, the molecular mechanism of tau aggregation is largely unknown. This problem may be addressed by systematically obtaining reproducible in vitro kinetics measurements under quiescent conditions in the absenc...
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Full-text available
The aggregation of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is associated with diabetes type II. A quantitative understanding of this connection at the molecular level requires that the aggregation mechanism of IAPP is resolved in terms of the underlying microscopic steps. Here we have systematically studied recombinant IAPP, with amidated C-term...
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Full-text available
Aggregated α-synuclein (α-syn) is the main constituent of Lewy bodies, which are a pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Environmental factors are thought to be potential triggers capable of initiating the aggregation of the otherwise monomeric α-syn. Braak’s seminal work redirected attention to the intestine and recent reports of dysb...
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Full-text available
The dense accumulation of α-Synuclein fibrils in neurons is considered to be strongly associated with Parkinson’s disease. These intracellular inclusions, called Lewy bodies, also contain significant amounts of lipids. To better understand such accumulations, it should be important to study α-Synuclein fibril formation under conditions where the fi...
Article
Several devastating human diseases are linked to peptide self-assembly, but our understanding their onset and progression is not settled. This is a sign of the complexity of the aggregation process, which is prevented, catalyzed, or retarded by numerous factors in body fluids and cells, varying in time and space. Biophysical studies of pure peptide...
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Full-text available
In this work we measured, by using a direct approach, the equilibrium solubility of recombinant Aβ40 peptide to be S = 0.36 ± 0.15 μM in aqueous solution of 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Microfluidic diffusional sizing (MDS) and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) with isotope standard were used to quantify the concentration of soluble Aβ4...
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Thermodynamics of co-aggregation and disaggregation. ( a ) Free energy diagram for a closed system of an amyloid peptide (blue) and chaperone (red). At the highest level i, all species are monomeric. At level ii, the peptide is monomeric and the chaperone a mixture of monomers and oligomers. At level iii, there are amyloid fibrils, chaperone oligom...
Article
Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein constituent of high-density lipoprotein particles, and as such is involved in cholesterol transport and activation of LCAT (the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase). It may also form amyloidal deposits in the body, showing the multifaceted interactions of ApoA-I. In order to facilitate the study of...
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Full-text available
Cooperative binding is a key feature of metabolic pathways, signaling, and transport processes. It provides tight regulation over a narrow concentration interval of a ligand, thus enabling switching to be triggered by small concentration variations. The data presented in this work reveal strong positive cooperativity of α-synuclein binding to phosp...
Article
Peptides and proteins have evolved to self-assemble into supramolecular entities through a set of non-covalent interactions. Such structures and materials provide the functional basis of life. Crucially, biomolecular assembly processes can be highly sensitive to and modulated by environmental conditions, including temperature, light, ionic strength...
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Full-text available
Electrostatic interactions play crucial roles in protein function. Measuring pKa value perturbations upon complex formation or self-assembly of e.g. amyloid fibrils gives valuable information about the effect of electrostatic interactions in those processes. Site-specific pKa value determination by solution NMR spectroscopy is challenged by the hig...
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Full-text available
Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca²⁺ sensing protein that binds to and modulates numerous target proteins and enzymes during cellular signaling processes. A large number of CaM-target complexes have been identified and structurally characterized, revealing a wide diversity of CaM-binding modes. A newly identified target is creatine kinase (CK), a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The self-assembly of the protein tau into neurofibrillary tangles is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease and related tauopathies. Still, the molecular mechanism of tau aggregation is largely unknown. This problem may be addressed by systematically obtaining reproducible in vitro kinetic measurements under quiescent conditions in the absence...
Preprint
Aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is the main constituent of Lewy bodies, the main pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Environmental factors are thought to be potential triggers capable of initiating the aggregation of the otherwise monomeric α-syn. Braak's seminal work redirected attention to the intestine and recent reports of dys...
Article
Full-text available
α-Synuclein is a membrane-interacting protein involved in Parkinson’s disease. Here we have investigated the co-association of α-synuclein and lipids from ganglioside-containing model membranes. Our study relies on the reported importance of ganglioside lipids, which are found in high amounts in neurons and exosomes, on cell-to-cell prion-like tran...
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01680-7
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Aberrant soluble oligomers formed by the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) are major pathogenic agents in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. A variety of biomolecules can influence the formation of these oligomers in the brain, although their mechanisms of action are still largely unknown. Here, we studied the effects on Aβ aggregation of DOPAL...
Article
Full-text available
The aggregation of α-synuclein is a central event in Parkinsons’s disease and related synucleinopathies. Since pharmacologically targeting this process, however, has not yet resulted in approved disease-modifying treatments, there is an unmet need of developing novel methods of drug discovery. In this context, the use of chemical kinetics has recen...
Article
Full-text available
The amyloid cascade hypothesis, according to which the self-assembly of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a causative process in Alzheimer’s disease, has driven many therapeutic efforts for the past 20 years. Failures of clinical trials investigating Aβ-targeted therapies have been interpreted as evidence against this hypothesis, irrespective of the charac...
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Protein folding is governed by non-covalent interactions under the benefits and constraints of the covalent linkage of the backbone chain. In the current work we investigate the influence of loop length variation on the free energies of folding and ligand binding in a small globular single-domain protein containing two EF-hand subdomains—calbindin...
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Self-assembling peptide-based hydrogels are a class of tunable soft materials that have been shown to be highly useful for a number of biomedical applications. The dynamic formation of the supramolecular fibrils that compose these materials has heretofore remained poorly characterized. A better understanding of this process would provide important...
Article
Malfunction and amyloid formation of the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP) are factors contributing to Type 2 diabetes. Unravelling the mechanism of IAPP aggregate formation may forward our understanding of this process and its effect on pancreatic β-islet cell. Such mechanistic studies require access to sequence homogeneous and highly pure IAPP. He...
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Full-text available
Crystals, nanoparticles, and fibrils catalyze the generation of new aggregates on their surface from the same type of monomeric building blocks as the parent assemblies. This secondary nucleation process can be many orders of magnitude faster than primary nucleation. In the case of amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease, this process l...
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The formation of amyloid deposits in human tissues is a defining feature of more than 50 medical disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. Strong genetic and histological evidence links these conditions to the process of protein aggregation, yet it has remained challenging to identify a definitive connection between aggregation and pathogenicity. U...
Article
Understanding the mechanism of action of compounds capable of inhibiting amyloid-fibril formation is critical to the development of potential therapeutics against protein-misfolding diseases. A fundamental challenge for progress is the range of possible target species and the disparate timescales involved, since the aggregating proteins are simulta...
Article
Full-text available
α-Synuclein (α-syn) is an intrinsically disordered protein with a highly asymmetric charge distribution, whose aggregation is linked to Parkinson’s disease. The effect of ionic strength was investigated at mildly acidic pH (5.5) in the presence of catalytic surfaces in the form of α-syn seeds or anionic lipid vesicles using thioflavin T fluorescenc...
Article
Membrane proteins perform a vast range of vital biological functions and are the gatekeepers for exchange of information and matter between the intracellular and extracellular environment. However, membrane protein interactions can be challenging to characterise in a quantitative manner due to the low solubility and large size of the membrane prote...
Chapter
High purity and sequence homogeneity of intrinsically disordered proteins are prerequisites for reproducible studies of the kinetics and equilibrium of their self-assembly reactions. Starting from the pure state enables quantitative studies of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the process to understand its molecular determinants. Here we outline d...
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Full-text available
The misfolding and aberrant aggregation of proteins into fibrillar structures is a key factor in some of the most prevalent human diseases, including diabetes and dementia. Low molecular weight oligomers are thought to be a central factor in the pathology of these diseases, as well as critical intermediates in the fibril formation process, and as s...
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Full-text available
The nucleation of Alzheimer-associated Aβ peptide monomers can be catalyzed by preexisting Aβ fibrils. This leads to autocatalytic amplification of aggregate mass and underlies self-replication and generation of toxic oligomers associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. However, the nature of the interactions between the monomeric species...
Article
The spontaneous assembly of proteins into amyloid fibrils is a phenomenon central to many increasingly common and currently incurable human disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Oligomeric species form transiently during this process and not only act as essential intermediates in the assembly of new filaments but also represent...
Article
Full-text available
Oligomeric species populated during the aggregation of the Aβ42 peptide have been identified as potent cytotoxins linked to Alzheimer’s disease, but the fundamental molecular pathways that control their dynamics have yet to be elucidated. By developing a general approach that combines theory, experiment and simulation, we reveal, in molecular detai...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Preprint
Understanding the mechanism of action of compounds capable of inhibiting protein aggregation is critical to the development of potential therapeutics against protein misfolding diseases. A fundamental challenge for progress is the range of possible target species and the disparate timescales involved, since the aggregating proteins are simultaneous...
Article
Amyloid fibrils of α-synuclein (α-syn) are a component of Lewy bodies, the characteristic hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. Amyloid fibrils arise through primary nucleation from monomers, which in the case of α-syn is often heterogeneous, followed by the growth of the nuclei by monomer addition. Secondary nucleation corresponds to the formation of n...
Article
The formation of amyloid fibrils from soluble peptide is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Characterization of the microscopic reaction processes that underlie these phenomena have yielded insights into the progression of such diseases and may inform rational approaches for the design of dru...
Preprint
Oligomeric aggregates populated during the aggregation of the Aβ42 peptide have been identified as potent cytotoxins linked to Alzheimer's disease, but the fundamental molecular pathways that control their dynamics have yet to be elucidated. By developing a general approach combining theory, experiment, and simulation, we reveal in molecular detail...
Chapter
Purification of proteins for the biophysical analysis of protein interactions occurring in human cells can benefit from methods that facilitate the capture of small amounts of natively processed protein obtained using transient mammalian expression systems. We have used a novel calcium-dependent fragment complementation-based affinity method to eff...
Article
Full-text available
The deposition of co-assemblies made of the small pre-synaptic protein, α-synuclein, and lipids in the brains of patients is the hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we used natural abundance 13C and 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy together with cryo-electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimet...
Article
Full-text available
Amyloid fibril formation is a hallmark of neuro-degenerative disease caused by protein aggregation. Oligomeric protein states that arise during the pro-cess of fibril formation often coexist with mature fibrils and are known to cause cell death in disease model systems. Progress in this field depends criti-cally on development of analytical methods...
Preprint
Alzheimer's disease affects nearly 50 million people worldwide with an overall cost of over 1% of the global economy. The amyloid cascade hypothesis, according to which the misfolding and aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) triggers a series of pathological processes that eventually result in massive brain tissue loss, has driven many therape...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease is linked to amyloid β (Aβ) peptide aggregation in the brain, and a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of Aβ aggregation may lead to improved diagnostics and therapeutics. While previous studies have been performed in pure buffer, we approach the mechanism in vivo using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We investigated t...
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Full-text available
Streptococcus pyogenes infects over 700 million people worldwide annually. Immune evasion strategies employed by the bacteria include binding of the complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and Factor H in a human-specific manner. We recently showed that human IgG increased C4BP binding to the bacterial surface, which promoted streptococca...
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Full-text available
The aggregates of the Aβ peptide associated with Alzheimer’s disease are able to both grow in size as well as generate, through secondary nucleation, new small oligomeric species, that are major cytotoxins associated with neuronal death. Despite the importance of these amyloid fibril-dependent processes, their structural and molecular underpinnings...
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Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria may lead to their aggregation and deposition in inclusion bodies. Since the conformational properties of proteins in inclusion bodies exhibit many of the characteristics typical of amyloid fibrils. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the rate at which proteins form amyloid fibrils may be p...
Article
Full-text available
The deposition of α-synuclein fibrils is one hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigate how ganglioside lipids, present in high amounts in neurons and exosomes, influence the aggregation kinetics of α-synuclein. Gangliosides, as well as, other anionic lipid species with small or large headgroups were found to induce conformational change...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) aggregation is an important goal due to the connection of this process with Alzheimer’s disease. Traditionally, inhibitors were developed with an aim to retard the overall macroscopic aggregation. However, recent advances imply that approaches based on mechanistic insights may be more powerful. In such approache...
Article
Aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into plaques is believed to play a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaques consist of fibrils of full length Aβ peptides as well as N-terminally truncated species. β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) cleaves amyloid precursor protein in the first step in Aβ peptide producti...