Sara Goidanich

Sara Goidanich
Politecnico di Milano | Polimi · Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta"

Chemist; PhD in materials engineering

About

86
Publications
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Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
p>The monitoring of environmental corrosivity around works of cultural heritage is a key task in the field of both active and preventive conservation. In the case of metallic artworks, this task can be performed by means of coupons or sensors realised with the same materials as the artworks to be conserved. In this work, a measurement system for th...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this preliminary study is to understand and simulate the hydric behaviour of a porous material in the presence of protective treatments. In particular, here the limestone Lumaquela deAjarte is considered before and after the application of the silane-based product ANC. A recently developed mathematical model was applied in order to descr...
Article
Full-text available
Electrochemical techniques have been successfully applied in the past as non-destructive techniques to the cultural heritage field. In particular, linear polarisation resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been employed for the onsite monitoring of corrosion on metallic works of art, providing valuable results. Such...
Article
Full-text available
During the last ten years, photocatalytic nanocomposites combining titania nanoparticles with silicon-based matrices have received increasing attention in the stone conservation research field, because they offer an effective multifunctional approach to the issue of stone protection. However, much work still has to be done in studying the behaviour...
Article
The voltammetry of immobilized particles methodology (VIMP) is used to characterize the composition of artificial patinas on copper. The voltammetric response of carbonate-, nitrate-, chloride-, sulfate-, and sulfide-based patinas is described using sub-microsamples attached to graphite electrodes in contact with different aqueous acetate buffer. P...
Article
Full-text available
The cleaning of metallic artworks is a crucial step for their preservation. Cleaning operations generally aim at removing deposits and corrosion layers, and all the non-stable and potentially reactive phases formed as a consequence of the interaction of the metal with the environment. Thus, all secondary-formed compounds and layers that can undermi...
Article
This study aims at validating an easily implementable and effective methodology to simulate the capillary imbibition rate of porous building materials, with special attention to stones employed in historical architecture. Two models selected from the literature are discussed from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint and their effectiveness in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this preliminary study is to understand and simulate the hydric behaviour of a porous material in the presence of protective treatments. In particular, here the limestone Lumaquela deAjarte is considered before and after the application of the silane-based product ANC. A recently developed mathematical model was applied in order to descr...
Article
Full-text available
The role of Sn on the atmospheric corrosion performance of binary Cu-Sn bronze alloys (4–6 wt.% Sn) compared with Cu metal used in outdoor architecture is elucidated in terms of microstructure, native surface oxide composition, patina evolution, corrosion rates, appearance and metal release. Results are presented for non-exposed surfaces and surfac...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the results of the field exposure activity conducted between 2014 and 2017 on the façade of the Milano cathedral (Italy) are reported. The main research aim was to characterize environmental deposition in real exposure conditions and for this purpose, both stone substrates (Candoglia marble) and surrogate substrates (quartz fibre fil...
Article
Full-text available
The development of nanocomposites combining photocatalytic, antifouling and protective features has provided interesting and promising results in the last years. However, few data about the behaviour of the nanomaterials applied on stone surfaces are available in the literature. In the framework of the EU-Horizon 2020 project "Nano-Cathedral", nano...
Article
The application of photocatalytic and self-cleaning nanomaterials in the field of architectural heritage is an encouraging strategy for stone conservation and particularly for marble elements. In the present research, self‐cleaning nanocomposites were set-up by mixing water dispersions of TiO2 nanoparticles in commercial protective treatments based...
Article
Layered treatments of natural stones based on dispersions of experimental nano-TiO2 and commercial TEOS, showing photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties have been set-up and tested. To enhance nano-TiO2 efficacy, a surface pre-treatment with tetraethyl orthosilicate has been proposed to avoid the penetration of NPs into the crystalline porous s...
Article
Full-text available
For a proper preservation of plastics objects, it is essential to study the degradation processes involved in both exposed and hidden areas of the polymeric materials. In fact, surface properties can differ significantly from the bulk and can have a strong effect on the artistic perception and the correct conservation strategy. In this work, a mult...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of stone protection, the introduction of inorganic nanoparticles, such as TiO2, ZnO, and Ag in polymeric blends can enhance the protective action of pristine treatments, as well as confer additional properties (photocatalytic, antifouling, and antibacterial). In the framework of the “Nano-Cathedral” European project, nanostructured pho...
Article
This work proposes a non-destructive multi-analytical approach, based on Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy to characterize the constituent materials and stratigraphy of a multi-layer sample from a 19th century sculpture by Pompeo Marchesi. The study exploits a macro-Raman device, capable of mapping heterogeneities on a scale from sub mm2 to...
Article
A comparative evaluation of traditional and innovative coatings for outdoor bronze surfaces was carried out, including blending or pre-treatment with non-toxic corrosion inhibitors on bare and patinated bronze surfaces to simulate both as cast and aged surfaces. Coatings recently applied in bronze conservation practice, commercially available coati...
Article
The use of dark metamorphic stones in architecture is rather common through the centuries. Such materials were traditionally employed mainly for decorative purposes, both indoor and outdoor, and for architectural cladding. Unfortunately, after prolonged outdoor exposure their characteristic surface colour tends to fade. In the framework of the pilo...
Article
The cleaning of metallic artworks is a crucial step for their preservation, thus it is necessary to choose carefully the most appropriate cleaning procedure, in order to remove potentially harmful compounds and to guarantee the aesthetic conservation of the artefacts. A short-term activation of the metallic substrate can result from the cleaning pr...
Article
Full-text available
"Mi Fuma il Cervello" ("steaming brain") is the iconic self-portrait of Alighiero Boetti, in which the artist is represented standing up while a copper hose lets water flow on his head. A hidden electric resistance heats the sculpture's head so that the splashing water forms a dense vapour mist as it comes in contact with the hot metal surface. Suc...
Article
Full-text available
Innovative nanostructured treatments for stone conservation, based on dispersions of photoactive TiO2 nanoparticles, recently studied in our research group, provided interesting results after laboratory testing. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to accurately reproduce in the lab the complexity of field exposure conditions. It is then of cruci...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study presents the set-up of photocatalytic hydrophobic TiO2-nanocomposites and the assessment of their application in stone heritage conservation. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized according to the non-aqueous route obtaining pure anatase phase nanoparticles with an opportune surface capping, which makes titania dispersible in aqueous syste...
Article
The present study reports on the preparation and characterization of innovative "self-cleaning" nano-TiO2 treatments to be used in cultural heritage, based on dispersion of solar-light activated TiO2 nanocrystals. The semiconductor has been prepared by an easy and low-cost non-aqueous procedure, providing anatase (NA_TiO2) nanoparticles photo-activ...
Article
The evaluation of the salt decay susceptibility of commercial NHL-based binders and pre-mixed mortars is reported. These products were chosen due to their increasing use not only in the field of restoration of built heritage. Mortar cubic specimens and simplified masonry systems were tested against sodium sulphate crystallization. Results were elab...
Article
Full-text available
A nanocomposite coating based on TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) is used as consolidant of matte painted surfaces (temperas, watercolors, modern paintings). The aim of this work is to provide advances in the conservation of these works of art, while preserving their optical appearance, in terms of colour and gloss. Fiber Optic Refl...
Article
Wooden artefacts, wood painted panels and historic furniture represent a significant part of our cultural heritage. Their preservation over time is a challenging task, and insect infestation still represents a primary cause of loss of cultural heritage artefacts. Anoxic conditions have proved to be effective in pest control and have been extensivel...
Article
In this work, portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used for the contactless, non-invasive, and in situ analysis of historic plastics. For the first time, this paper presents the complete database of polymer spectra of a set of reference materials widely used in the cultural heritage community. Over 100 samples fro...
Article
Full-text available
La corrosione delle armature è la principale causa di degrado delle strutture in calcestruzzo armato. La sua prevenzione si attua in primo luogo in fase di progettazione mediante l’utilizzo di calcestruzzo di adeguata qualità e spessore di copriferro opportuno. In presenza di ambienti particolarmente aggressivi o per strutture che richiedano una vi...
Article
Full-text available
Corrosion of carbon steel reinforcement is the most important cause of premature failure on reinforced concrete structures. Prevention of corrosion is primarily achieved in the design phase by using high quality concrete and adequate cover. Additional prevention methods are adopted when severe environmental conditions occur or on structures requiri...
Article
Full-text available
Predictions of the diffuse dispersion of metals from outdoor constructions such as roofs and facades are necessary for environmental risk assessment and management. An existing predictive model has been compared with measured data of copper runoff from copper sheets exposed at four different inclinations facing four orientations at two different ur...
Article
Full-text available
Corrosion of carbon steel reinforcement is the most important cause of premature failure on reinforced concrete structures. Prevention of corrosion is primarily achieved in the design phase by using high quality concrete and adequate cover. Additional prevention methods are adopted when severe environmental conditions occur or on structures requiri...
Article
The study reports the results of a new treatment based on water and ethylene glycol nano-TiO 2 dispersions showing photocatalytic properties that was tested on both Noto stone (calcarenite) and Carrara marble. To verify that the proposed treatments did not affect the intrinsic properties of the stone materials, colour measurement , static contact a...
Article
The study reports the results of a new treatment based on water and ethylene glycol nano-TiO 2 dispersions showing photocatalytic properties that was tested on both Noto stone (calcarenite) and Carrara marble. To verify that the proposed treatments did not affect the intrinsic properties of the stone materials, colour measurement, static contact an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La ricerca di metodi di pulitura sempre più rispettosi delle opere e, al tempo stesso, non nocivi nei confronti degli operatori e dell’ambiente, ha trovato nell’applicazione dei gel di agar un’importante direzione di sviluppo per una progettazione sostenibile dell’intervento di restauro. Tale sostenibilità si declina, in primo luogo, nel ricorso a...
Conference Paper
Protective coatings for cultural heritage applications should not alter the visual ap-pearance of the surfaces and should be removable, as may be required by conserva-tion issues. In addition, research has been recently focused particularly on the devel-opment of eco-friendly treatments. In this study, six different protective coating (Soter; Incr...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional electrochemical techniques, such as linear polarization resistance (Rp), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cannot be applied to gilded bronzes, as it may not be possible to interpret the results obtained due to the bimetallic nature of the studied material. The measurement of the macrocouple current generated by the gold...
Conference Paper
Anoxic treatment is a long-established and widely diffused methodology for the conservation of wood artefacts of the cultural heritage against biological agents (i.e. insects). Despite its common employment and its recognised efficacy, the evaluation of the harmfulness of the method with respect to different wood species and to different superficia...
Article
This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electr...
Article
Full-text available
Cleaning is a fundamental phase of the conservation and maintenance activity of the cultural heritage. It is required to be highly effective in the removal of undesired deposits, controllable at every stage and gradable, selective, and completely respectful of the substrate. Moreover, cleaning procedures which can also assure to be harmless to the...
Article
Full-text available
Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4S...
Article
This paper presents the characterisation of a selection of NHL-based commercial products for the conservation of historic masonries. Two binders and four ready-mixed mortars have been analysed; both the anhydrous raw materials and the hardened mortars have been studied, focusing on those parameters which can be used as selection criteria. The influ...
Conference Paper
The damage induced by salt crystallization is recognized as a primary cause of degradation of the built heritage. Outdoor environments provide a wide range of possible sources for soluble salts, including atmospheric pollutants, de-icing compounds, fertilizers, rising damp from salt-loaded soils, etc. Salts may as well be formed as a result of chem...
Article
This work investigates the decayed decoration of the ‘Vergine del Carmelo’ chapel, with a particular interest in the residual gildings. Samples of the finishing layers were examined by VIS-UV optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with EDX spectrometry, in order to evaluate the unusual degradation phenomena. Mineralogical compo...
Article
This research illustrates a spatially distributed cellular automaton aimed at simulating the pitting corrosion process in stainless steels. The cellular automaton model is based on the metal surface discretization into square cells; in any instant, each cell is found to be in one of the following states: (i) passivity (the passive film on the cell...
Article
Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincific...
Article
Full-text available
Cathodic protection (CP) monitoring in the presence of simultaneous AC and DC interference could lead to erroneous measurements, since IR drop contribution due to both DC and AC could heavily affect potential readings. Therefore, to know the true potential (or true polarisation level), the ohmic drop contribution has to be eliminated. In literature...
Article
Full-text available
Nine black powders found in Pompeii houses in three different types of bronze vessels (cylindrical theca atramentaria, unguentaries, and aryballoi) were characterized in order to assess a correspondence between the composition and the type of vessel and, possibly, to verify if these powders were inks or not. For the compositional characterization,...
Article
Full-text available
Natural organic materials used to prepare pharmaceutical mixtures including ointments and balsams have been characterized by a combined non-destructive spectroscopic analytical approach. Three classes of materials which include vegetable oils (olive, almond and palm tree), gums (Arabic and Tragacanth) and beeswax are considered in this study accord...
Article
Full-text available
To prevent and control rebar corrosion in concrete, corrosion inhibitors may be used both as a preventative technique if added to fresh concrete and as a repair system if applied to hardened concrete. In the past six years, an experimental research was performed on both mixed and migrating inhibitors. Effectiveness of mixed inhibitors has been inve...
Article
Plasters have been used since ancient times in architectural applications to cover the masonry or to support paintings and decorations. Actually, plasters are subjected to several degradation phenomena which can lead to the loss of material cohesion mostly caused by the binder degradation. To recover the internal cohesion of the material is a very...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ‘Porta del Paradiso’ by Lorenzo Ghiberti, also known as the ‘Gates of Paradise’, will soon be unveiled to the public after undergoing lengthy conservation. This project is at the stage where it is necessary to define environmental criteria for the long-term display of the doors. In this paper, three possible methodologies for display of the do...
Article
The protection against graffiti has become a serious problem in most cities. Unfortunately such form of vandalism does not save the cultural heritage. The use of anti-graffiti coatings is a common treatment that can also temporary protect the surface from degradation due to interactions with the environment. Aspects that have not yet been sufficien...
Article
Pipelines and AC power transmission lines frequently share corridors leading to AC interference corrosion problems, as documented by pipeline failures that have occurred in the USA, Canada and Europe, even when cathodic protection is applied. In order to investigate these phenomena, weight loss tests on carbon steel samples were performed in soil-s...
Article
AC-induced corrosion is a controversial subject and many aspects of it need to be clarified, first and foremost, the mechanism and relationship between AC density and corrosion rate. This paper (Part 1) presents and discusses the effects of AC interference on kinetics parameters; the effects on corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism will be discuss...
Article
Chloride-induced corrosion of carbon steel reinforcement is the most important cause of premature failure on reinforced concrete structures. Among available methods, corrosion inhibitors offer a simple and cost effective prevention technique, primarily to prevent and stop chloride-induced corrosion. Nevertheless, performance of commercial inhibitor...
Article
Despite numerous studies on atmospheric corrosion of copper and copper based alloys, the corrosion induced release processes of individual alloy constituents suffer from significant knowledge gaps. This investigation comprises metal release rate measurements of copper, zinc and tin from some copper based alloys including brass (20 wt-%Zn) and bronz...