Sara Campo

Sara Campo
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid | UAM · Departamento de Financiación e Investigación Comercial: UDI de Marketing

Doctor en Economía y Empresas por la UAM

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65
Publications
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Publications

Publications (65)
Article
The emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to reframe interactions among tourists, destinations, and service providers in multiple ways. Yet, there is scant empirical evidence on how individuals develop their relationships with IoT devices and how this technology can serve tourists in planning and deciding on particular destina...
Article
Full-text available
La disrupción generada por la economía inteligente y por la economía colaborativa en el entorno exige la capacidad de reinventarse a los destinos turísticos y partes interesadas. Se detecta la necesidad de un nuevo modelo de destino turístico inteligente que integre las 3’s (Smart, Share y Sustainability). Mediante el estudio de caso de Madrid, se...
Article
Purpose The study aims to investigate the concept of animosity that is based on traditional enmity and that which originates from other grounds. The study examines whether animosity that is based on these different causes has differing effects on perceptions and purchase decisions of the tourist destination product. Design/methodology/approach The...
Article
The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak represents the first time that an international health crisis of this level has been experienced in the digital age. This research aims to determine the causal configurations of different types of content that led to a high rate of dissemination. Firstly, we identify possible explanatory variables of informa...
Article
Wars, conflicts and other incidents between countries may give rise to feelings of animosity towards a given country that affect consumption choices. These negative feelings may also have roots on more general concerns regarding ideological differences, government policies or human rights violations, and they may be supported by the broadcast of ne...
Article
Even though concepts such as brand experience and online brand credibility are critical in destination marketing strategies, there have been no previous studies that have analyzed their relationships and influence on tourists' behavioral intentions. This paper develops a multimethod approach using a projective technique, an online experiment, and a...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the topic of perceived terrorism risk and animosity as interrelated within the context of countries suffering from armed struggles and terror. The research investigates how these constructs influence the visitation decisions of millennials. Design/methodology/approach The investigation focuses on three countries...
Article
Tourists' intensive use of information and communication technologies when planning travel has forced destination marketing organizations to design online simulacra of destinations in multiple formats. We focus our study on official online destination platforms to analyze preliminary experiences with destination brands and the online perception of...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Omnichannel sense of coherence (OSC) is conceptualized as the unified sense that consumers perceive in an encounter with communications and marketing channels of a particular brand. The authors, based on a multidisciplinary focus that includes research on psychology, sociology, and multichannel experience management, propose a measurement scale...
Article
As the use of online platforms to search for information about tourist destinations grows, so does the need for destination marketing organizations (DMOs) to offer positive online destination brand (ODB) experiences. Two studies were conducted online to explore the central elements of a positive ODB experience with four official destination platfor...
Article
The study aims to test a scale of consumer animosity that includes more general causes than those currently covered in the literature and examines the effects of animosity on country destination evaluations and on the intention to visit the place. The research examines the animosity construct, delving into its causes. The results confirm that consu...
Article
The study explores the concept of consumer animosity within the context of destinations as tourism products. The research attempts to expand on the prevalent conceptualization of animosity as being derived from bilateral conflicts or events. Therefore, a scale of consumer animosity that incorporates varied dimensions is created and tested. In addit...
Article
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Online experiences preceding actual visits to tourist destinations have emerged as a relevant source of travel motivation. This study analyzes the online destination brand experiences resulting from user interactions with official websites on two competing destinations. The results support the expected mediator role for the online destination brand...
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Understanding brand identification is critical when developing successful relationships between tourists and the destinations they visit. Nevertheless, there is an absence of academic work that measures tourist destination brand identification. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to measure brand identification within the context of tou...
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Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el poder de los comentarios on-line en las plataformas de reservas hoteleras sobre las decisiones empresariales. Para ello se analizan las evaluaciones online de los turistas que visitaron los hoteles de la ciudad de León de Nicaragua con respecto a distintas dimensiones de la calidad de servicio, y se comp...
Article
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(Purpose): An official destination website (ODW) is a key component for tourist’s decision-making processes. ODW acts as a direct channel where users may share experiences and opinions about previous or future travels. At the same time, it drives user participation in destination branding activities. In this context, it is crucial to identify how...
Article
This study analyzes the brand equity of the artist's name when collectors assess a work of art. A 2 x 2 experiment was carried out with consumers using the paintings of two artists, Jose Manuel Broto, a mid-career artist, and Nico Munuera, a young and less-renowned artist. Each work was identified/not identified with the name of the artist. All oth...
Chapter
Studies have established in different contexts the effect of consumer animosity on buying intentions of the products originating from the country towards which this hostility is directed. Despite the increasing number of investigations dealing with this topic within the international marketing literature, there is a lack of research concerning the...
Article
Full-text available
In order to understand a destination brand, it is essential to define what its identity actually is and the dimensions that it is made up of. Kapferer’s brand-identity prism (Kapferer, J. N. (1992). Strategic brand management: New approaches to creating and evaluating brand equity. New York, NY: The Free Press) is used to respond to these questions...
Book
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Este libro contiene un programa de política industrial que persigue incre-mentar el peso de las manufacturas en el PIB español y su capacidad de ge-nerar empleo, en consonancia con los objetivos de la agenda de la Comisión Europea para el año 2020. El libro resume una extensa investigación finan-ciada por el Consejo Económico Social, a través de un...
Article
The concept of tourist destination image has been frequently studied, with numerous articles appearing in the literature. In most of these studies, destination image is a defining variable for a tourist's intention to visit a given destination. However, once the concept of hostility or animosity towards a country was introduced into marketing, the...
Article
This paper examines tourists' knowledge sharing behavior in social media. Based on social capital theory, we aim to examine the effects of three dimensions of social capital—structural (social interaction ties), cognitive (shared vision) and relational (trust)—for two different types of social media: Facebook and TripAdvisor. We propose a structura...
Article
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Se realiza un estudio exploratorio cualitativo y cuantitativo, desde el punto de vista del marketing experiencial, de la visita a los stands de dos destinos similares en cuanto a su oferta turística principal (las Islas Canarias y las Islas Baleares) en la Feria de Turismo Internacional (FITUR). Los resultados confirman que el marketing experiencia...
Article
Notions related to brand attachment have recently received significant attention in academic research under a variety of paradigms. This study gathers different concepts from a literature review and constructs a three-phase process that consists of likeability, love and engagement. Based on information derived from four focus groups, the results ob...
Article
Full-text available
Notions related to brand attachment have recently received significant attention in academic research under a variety of paradigms. This study gathers different concepts from a literature review and constructs a three-phase process that consists of likeability, love and engagement. Based on information derived from four focus groups, the results ob...
Article
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This study examines how gender affects online gossip on social networking sites. Based on gender theories and agency-communion theory, it is posited that achievement value, friendship value, and normative pressure differ according to gender (female vs. male), the level of propensity to gossip (high vs. low), and the interaction between the two. An...
Article
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This study examines the effects of online gossip propensity in social networking sites (SNSs). We posit that online gossip propensity affects SNS identification, which in turn determines normative pressure and SNS engagement. The ultimate outcome is electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) intention. We also explore the impact of two types of SNS communicat...
Article
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A study of 476 Spanish travelers found mixed interest and use for the many travel-related mobile internet services that are involved in planning and executing a trip. The findings indicate that these Spanish respondents can be classified into four segments based on the timing of using mobile apps for over a dozen activities involved in travel plann...
Article
This paper analyzes the image of Israel, a country subject to continuous conflicts, and the effect of a political event on its image. A measurement model is examined before and after a specific international incident, the Mavi Marmara conflict between Turkey and Israel, in order to understand how this event influences the image that the Turks have...
Article
According to recent research, countries may have a positive image from a tourism perspective, but they may be seen as lacking from an economic or political viewpoint. As governments and destination management organisations spend large sums of money in promoting tourist attractions, the question of whether these activities also influence other aspec...
Article
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La actividad del cotilleo es universal, sin embargo no ha sido tratada desde el área de mar- keting ni en el contexto de las redes sociales (RS). En esta investigación se analiza cómo la propensión al cotilleo contribuye a promocionar las marcas en las RS. Para ello se realiza una encuesta a usuarios de RS en la que se plantea un escenario de promo...
Article
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Gossiping is a universal activity; however it has not been studied in marketing or in the context of social networking sites (SNS) up to now. This research analyzes how gossip proneness contributes to promote brands in the SNS. We conducted a survey to users of SNS with a scenario method where we propose the promotion of three products (beer, sport...
Article
This study examines the effectiveness of Quick Response (QR) code loyalty campaigns in two phases. In Study 1, qualitative perceptions of QR code are examined through key informant focus groups. Participants express their positive as well as negative opinions about the use of QR code. In Study 2, we examine the effectiveness of QR code loyalty camp...
Article
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Abstract Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure...
Article
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This study proposes a conceptual framework for research on social networking sites by extending Algesheimer et al's. (2005) social influence model on brand community. The extension includes antecedents of users’ identification with the site (i.e. degree of network-person connectivity, entertainment, social recognition, and perceived utility) as wel...
Chapter
Consumer participation in loyalty programs continues to flourish and has become more frequent in service companies (Bolton et al., 2000). A loyalty program is a marketing program that is designed to build more involving relationships with customers by providing attractive incentives (Yi and Jeon, 2003). The logic behind this program is that loyal c...
Article
The study aims to determine the effect of controllable and uncontrollable sources of information on the country and destination image as two separate constructs. The research is carried out in the context of Turkey as a developing country through the use of a pre- and post-experimental design with a control group. The study establishes the greater...
Article
Full-text available
El sistema de clasificación hotelera a través de las estrellas debería actuar como una señal externa que proporciona información a los clientes sobre los niveles esperados, de servicios y de precio, de los hoteles. Sin embargo las estrellas no se revisan y es habitual que se conviertan en señales confusas para los clientes sobre los niveles de cali...
Chapter
The objective of this chapter is to identify a market maven segment among advergamers on a mobile-based social networking site (SNS). A real online campaign with a multiplayer game is designed for Procter & Gamble's Pringles, after which online surveys are conducted via mobile device. Finite mixture models are employed to identify clusters. The est...
Article
This paper is an analysis of the likelihood for repeat visits to a sun and sand destination by tourists. For this purpose, an empirical study was conducted using tourists who had visited the destination. The analysis took into account the travelling group composition. The results showed that, for the total tourist sample, overall satisfaction had t...
Article
In contrast to the country of origin studies in international marketing, the tourism literature fails to differentiate between the image of the country and that of the destination as a tourism product. The distinction is important for developing countries suffering from negative country perceptions, as opposed to more positive views regarding the t...
Article
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Purpose: This article proposes a theoretical model to investigate (a) a positive direct relationship between the specific use of ITs (applied to management) and the firm's performance as perceived by retailers and (b) a positive indirect relationship through information quality and information sharing.Design/Methodology/Approach: The theoretical mo...
Article
An analysis of tourist satisfaction and how to improve satisfaction levels is crucial for tourism destinations, especially for resorts that have reached their mature stage and must therefore ensure customer retention to remain competitive. This paper analyses and measures tourist satisfaction with one of the most popular and mature resorts of the M...
Article
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Purpose-This paper aims to analyze the influence of innovation-based orientation on hotel performance, how the management's perception of market turbulence moderates this relationship and the effect of an atmosphere of crisis. Design/methodology/approach-The research carried out used an on-line survey among four-star hotel managers in 52 Spanish ci...
Article
Purpose – The effect of the antecedents of satisfaction on consumer satisfaction is an issue still under debate in the academic literature. Thus, the primary goal of this article is to analyze the relationship between two of the most important antecedents of consumer satisfaction – namely perceived quality and price. Design/methodology/approach – T...
Article
This study analyses the influence of price on the formation of tourists' satisfaction with the purchase of a package tour. The academic literature affirms that the relationship between the two variables is negative. However, when the authors attempt to estimate by using linear models, the relationship turns out to be non-significant. This is due to...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the formation of the tourist loyalty to tour operator and the effects of price promotions and the consumer's search for price promotions in the scheme of perceived price perceived quality satisfaction loyalty to tour operator. The main results indicate that perceived quality is the primary antecedent of tourist loyalty to tour...
Article
Full-text available
Academic literature and empirical studies have demonstrated that consumer satisfaction is a good indicator of the financial results of businesses and tourist destinations. An analysis of tourist satisfaction and how to improve satisfaction levels is therefore crucial, not just for business profits but also for a destination's economic development,...
Article
Given that distribution agents who wish to maximize long-term business profits should not only attract new consumers but also keep them loyal, this study analyses the variables that determine the consumer's loyalty to distribution agents for tourism. Although retailers in the service industry employ price discounts on products to motivate short-ter...
Article
The main goal of this paper is to analyse how purchase at discount price affects the consumer's perception of price as a function of his/her personal characteristics. To achieve this, we develop a theoretical model based on the academic literature that incorporates the effect of using price discounts on the process by which perceived price is forme...
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to incorporate the study of the effect of price promotions into the traditional scheme of perceived price. Design/methodology/approach – The model is validated with an empirical analysis and applied to the study of the purchase behavior of a tour package. Findings – The results point out that price promotions directly and...
Article
Full-text available
En el mercado turístico es frecuente el uso de promociones en precios con el fin de incrementar las ventas de un producto. Sin embargo el uso de estas herramientas promocionales de forma indiscriminada puede afectar a la evaluación del consumidor de la compra y a los resultados empresariales a largo plazo. Este trabajo analiza el efecto de las prom...
Article
The price of the product is a commercial variable that it can be classified as an operative variable, so the commercial managers can easily be it modified from a period to another, and even within the same commercial period. The decisions about the price modification exert a clear influence on the sales in the short term. Nevertheless, the price st...
Article
This work sets forth two main objectives: First, to analyze the effect that promotions have on tourist loyalty to tour operators, and second, to analyze this effect according to the purchasing pattern of tourists. Therefore, an empirical study is performed, and the promotional effect is analyzed by applying structural equation models.The results in...
Article
Las promociones en precios son usadas en el mercado turístico con el fin de aumentar las ventas de los viajes días previos a su comercialización. Sin embargo, en muchos casos los agentes desarrollan las políticas promocionales bajo estrategias de marketing masivas, sin tener en cuenta las diferencias en el comportamiento de compra del consumidor, y...
Article
Tesis doctoral inédita. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Departamento de Financiación e Investigación Comercial. Fecha de lectura : 22-10-04 Bibliogr.: p.339-373.- Anexos

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Em pleno século XXI, as tecnologias de informação e comunicação têm vindo a desempenhar um papel capital no desenvolvimento das indústrias culturais e de lazer, ao mesmo tempo que as têm sobredimensionado até convertê-las em agentes potenciadores não só da economia dos países ibéricos (Portugal e Espanha), mas também da identidade social dos seus cidadãos. Nesse sentido pretende-se, com a realização das I Jornadas Ibéricas sobre Cultura, Património e Turismo na Sociedade Digital, aprofundar a reflexão académica, teórica e metodológica, sobre as interações que se dão entre estes três importantes fenómenos através dos media e das TIC; interações essas que tendem a fomentar uma sinergia positiva entre as citadas esferas, ainda que, por vezes, também possam gerar riscos como a “McDonalização” ou a “Cocacolonização” da cultura, a deterioração e o descuido de certos elementos patrimoniais, por serem menos conceituados e turisticamente menos relevantes do que outros, ou ainda interações inexistentes e/ou insatisfatórias entre a população local (recetora) e a visitante. Estas e outras questões serão abordadas no contexto de umas jornadas que pretendem, também, ser o início de um intercâmbio frutífero e duradouro entre os investigadores de Portugal e Espanha que se dedicam a esta área de estudos.