Saqib Mukhtar

Saqib Mukhtar
University of Florida (UF) · UF/IFAS Extension

Agricultural Engineering

About

144
Publications
51,543
Reads
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1,608
Citations
Introduction
Associate Dean and State Program Leader of UF/IFAS Extension educational programs and initiatives in agriculture and natural resources.
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - April 2015
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1998 - April 2015
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Professor and Associate Department Head (2010-15)

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Cooperative Extension Service agents and United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) personnel used a dialogic model of communication in their interactions with cattle producers in the Southwest and Mountain West regarding the topic of climate change. Findi...
Article
Previous research on wet scrubbers has only studied highly acidic scrubbing solutions because of their high ammonia capture efficiencies; however, the high acidity created practical problems. Lower acidity solutions would reduce corrosion, maintenance, and cost; however, designers may need to use strategies for increasing scrubber effectiveness, su...
Article
Full-text available
Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen-TAN (NH 3 + NH 4 +) in wastewaters cause environmental degradation concerns due to their negative impacts on air, soil and water. Several technologies are available for TAN removal from the wastewaters. One emerging technology is the use of hydrophobic membrane as non-destructive NH 3 extraction. In this paper the authors...
Article
Excess ammonia (NH3) emitted from animal feeding operations (AFOs) are considered a source of odor and some environmental pollution. Gas-permeable membranes (GPMs) provide a new solution for reducing NH3 concentration in total ammoniacal nitrogen sources and recovering it in an acidic solution which results in decreasing NH3 emissions to the enviro...
Article
Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) are the source of a number of environmental issues. Wet spray scrubbers using non-acidic solutions might be a new approach for NH3 mitigation from AFOs. A lab-scale spray scrubber was built to clean 0.024 m3 s-1 of an NH3/air mixture with an average NH3 concentration of 20 ppmv. Three va...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations especially poultry houses are increasing and so intensifying environmental concerns. Evaluating a new method of NH3 abatement using a diluted acid wet spray scrubber with a lower environmental impact was the main objective of this research. A bench-scale wet scrubber was built to process 50 cfm...
Conference Paper
Field studies demonstrate increased ammonia abatement efficiencies (of up to 90%) of subsurface application and incorporation of animal manures compared to conventional surface application methods. However, a portion of the nitrogen conserved may come at the expense of increased nitrous oxide emissions produced during denitrification and nitrificat...
Article
The objective of this article is to provide a systematic review on practices and technologies for odor control in swine production facilities and to summarize available data on odor reduction effectiveness of promising technologies, as well as provide information on key parameters and associated costs. Odors from swine facilities comprise hundreds...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Animal producers and veterinarians have limited options for managing dead animals. For example, some states prohibit the burial of routine poultry mortality, and rendering services are becoming expensive and harder to access in the rural areas. Other mortality disposal methods such as incineration and chemical digestion may be expensive and complic...
Article
Full-text available
Tubular gas-permeable membranes (GPM) provide an alternative method for ammonia (NH3) mitigation from liquid dairy manure (LM). A setup consisting of a closed LM chamber, two sulfuric acid (H2SO 4) solution flasks, and two GPM systems was utilized in four experiments in order to evaluate the use of diluted acids for capturing NH 3 diffused from LM...
Article
Full-text available
Ammonia (NH3) gas from liquid manure (LM) can be diffused into a tubular gas-permeable membrane (GPM) and recovered by capturing it in an acidic recipient solution circulating in the GPM system. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of increased rate of recipient solution circulation (flow rate) on NH3 diffusion and recovery using a...
Article
Ammonia (NH3) gas from liquid manure (LM) can be diffused into a tubular gas-permeable membrane (GPM) and recovered by capturing it in an acidic recipient solution circulating in the GPM system. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of increased rate of recipient solution circulation Now rate) on NH3 diffusion and recovery using a GP...
Article
Full-text available
The continuing growth of poultry production, along with the increasing urbanization of rural areas, is leading to more odor-related complaints from neighboring communities and more scrutiny from policy makers. It is, therefore, in the best interest of poultry producers to look at control methods for abating odors. Previous studies have shown that s...
Article
A successful carcass composting enterprise relies on proper design, layout, management, cost analysis, environmental impacts, and quality of the finished product. A well-designed carcass composting process with adequate capacity and a practical layout facilitates an even flow of inputs and outputs. It will also prevent environmental insult (such as...
Conference Paper
Emissions of ammonia (NH3) from poultry houses are increasing and intensifying some environmental concerns. Evaluating a new method of NH3 mitigation using a non-acidic solution in a bench-scale scrubber was the main objective of this research. The laboratory scrubber was built to process 51 cfm (0.024 m3/s) of a simulated polluted air coming out f...
Conference Paper
Ammonia (NH3) gas from liquid manure (LM) can be diffused into a tubular gas-permeable membrane (GPM) and recovered by capturing it in an acidic recipient solution circulating in the GPM. The objective of this research was to enhance the concentration of recovered NH3 by increasing the flow rate of recipient solution and controlling its pH. Two lab...
Chapter
As the name implies, the gases that assist in capturing heat in the atmosphere are termed as greenhouse gases (GHGs). The continuously rising concentrations of these gasses are believed to work against nature’s natural process, trapping more heat than what is needed leading to an increase of earth’s climate temperature. Livestock production operati...
Conference Paper
This USDA AFRI-funded project is building capacity to influence climate change-related decisions made by livestock and poultry producers and consumers of animal products across the U.S. Project objectives are to: 1) Equip extension personnel and stakeholder representatives to assess stakeholder needs relative to climate change mitigation and adap...
Data
Full-text available
Bacteria are the major cause of surface water contamination in the United States. US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) uses the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process to regulate the E. coli loads from fecal sources in a watershed. Different point and non-point sources can contribute to the fecal contamination of a waterbody including munici...
Article
A research conducted by Saqib Mukhtar and team has shown that an acid-filled, gas-permeable membrane (GPM) system can remove NH3 gas from liquid manure. This process is called 'ammonia mitigation technology for sustainable environment stewardship'. The GPM system uses tubular membranes that can be submerged in liquid manure or suspended in air cont...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteria of fecal origin are the primary cause of surface water contamination in the US. E. coli is used as an indicator of fecal contamination and detection of E. coli in a water body above regulatory standards poses a potential health hazard. Various sources contribute to the bacterial contamination of a water body, and these sources need to be i...
Article
Although there are more than 200 odor-causing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenol and p-cresol are two prominent odor-causing VOCs found downwind from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The VOC emissions from cattle and dairy production are difficult to quantify accurately because of their low concentrations, spatial variability,...
Article
The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy catt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tubular gas-permeable membrane (GPM) provides an alternative solution for ammonia (NH3) mitigation and recovery from liquid animal manure. A set-up consisting of a closed dairy liquid manure (LM) chamber, two sulfuric acid (H2SO4) flasks and two GPM systems was fabricated in order to investigate NH3 extraction processes using diluted H2SO4 solution...
Article
Full-text available
A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas Chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 days in a week during daylight hours from 9:00 to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research...
Conference Paper
Pollution of air, soil and water caused by excessive ammonia (NH 3) emission and deposition from animal manure is as an environmental concern. Gas-permeable membranes (GPM) may provide a solution for controlling NH3 emission to the environment by extracting it from liquid manure and potentially using the recovered NH3 as fertilizer. For this purpos...
Article
Full-text available
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural production operations are recognized as an important air quality issue. A new technique following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method TO-14A was used to measure GHG emissions from ground-level area sources (GLAS) in a free-stall dairy operation in central Texas. The objective of this stud...
Article
Full-text available
A two-stage weeping wall solid-liquid separation system was evaluated to assess its solids and nutrient retaining/capturing capabilities at a cooperating dairy in east central Texas. The dairy had 3,500 lactating cows in six free-stall barns bedded with sand. Flow measurements and liquid samples were taken simultaneously at four locations; a channe...
Conference Paper
The continuing growth of poultry production, along with the increasing urbanization of rural areas, is leading to more odor-related complaints from neighboring communities and more scrutiny from policy makers. It is, therefore, in the best interest of poultry producers to look at control methods for abating odors. Previous studies have shown that s...
Conference Paper
A new protocol similar to EPA method TO-14A was used to quantify and report variations in greenhouse (GHG) emissions from different ground level area sources (GLAS) in a free-stall dairy in central Texas during summer and winter. A week-long sampling was performed during each season. Seventy five and 66 chromatograms of air samples were acquired fr...
Article
Excessive phosphorus (P) in runoff contributes to eutrophication of fresh water bodies. Studies have shown that manure and effluent from animal feeding operations (AFOs) applied to waste application fields (WAFs) have contributed to excess P in segments of the North Bosque River in north central Texas. There is a growing need for environmentally so...
Article
Odor from animal feeding operations (AFOs) is a leading public nuisance that livestock and poultry producers face frequently. The objective of this study was to evaluate a field-scale surface aeration system to minimize odor from an anaerobic poultry lagoon in Texas. The aeration module consisted of three aerators, each aerator contained two ventur...
Article
Full-text available
Geotube® residual solids (GRS) are a potential bioresource that could be used to improve soil physical and chemical properties on agricultural land. Yet, chemical properties of GRS could affect plant growth and repeated land application of GRS could elevate soil nutrient content and contribute transport and loss of nutrients in drainage water. The...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of 14 dairies in Texas and California was conducted to determine their total energy use on an annual basis. The goal of the survey was to evaluate the effect of production and management processes on energy consumption. The total energy used on facilities varied widely with the type of operation, e.g., pasture, open-lot, or hybrid (a combi...
Article
Phenol and p-cresol were the most abundant and persistent odor-causing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found downwind from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), while more than 200 VOCs contribute to odor. The VOC emissions from cattle and dairy production are difficult to quantify accurately because of their low concentrations, spatial...
Article
A new protocol similar to EPA method TO-14A was used to quantify and report variations in odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different ground level area sources (GLAS) namely feedlot, compost piles and lagoon in a beef feedyard in Texas Panhandle. The objective of this study was to measure gas concentrat...
Article
Full-text available
Studies show that agricultural and animal feeding operations (AFOs) contribute a considerable amount of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Agricultural NH3 emissions are recognized as an important air quality issue. Biological decomposition of manure from dairy operations results in emissions of NH3 and other gases. There is a need to determine NH3 e...
Article
Studies show that agricultural and animal feeding operations (AFOs) contribute a considerable amount of ammonia (NH 3) to the atmosphere. Agricultural NH 3 emissions are recognized as an important air quality issue. Biological decomposition of manure from dairy operations results in emissions of NH 3 and other gases. There is a need to determine NH...
Article
Full-text available
In 1998 two upper North Bosque River segments were designated as impaired due to point source and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution of phosphorus (P) in these segments of the watershed. As a result, two Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) were applied, which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentr...
Article
Full-text available
Polymer – Abbreviation for polyacrylamide is used in water purification to flocculate suspended organic matter. Although polyacrylamide is designated as a non-toxic additive by USDA, its building block, acrylamide, is a potential nerve toxin in humans and causes birth defects and cancer in animals. A concentration limit of 500 ppm acrylamide in pol...
Article
Full-text available
Two upper North Bosque River segments were designated as impaired in 1998 due to point source and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution of phosphorus (P) to these segments of the watershed. As a result, two Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) were applied which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentra...
Article
Full-text available
Two upper North Bosque River segments were designated as impaired in 1998 due to point source and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution of phosphorus (P) to these segments in the watershed. As a result, two Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) were applied which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentra...
Article
Full-text available
2 pp., 2 photos, 1 illustration Particulate matter is the dust and other small particles that are suspended in the air. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates particulate matter because it can cause health problems when inhaled. This publication explains the two types of particulate matter, as well as current and proposed EPA standards.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Presence E. coli is recognized as an important indicator of fecal contamination leading to impairment of a water body. Apart from point and non-point sources, in-situ re-growth is believed to be a considerable source of E. coli in many cases. There is a need to identify, characterize, and quantify E. coli loads from various sources in a watershed....
Article
Full-text available
The Demonstration and Transfer of Selected New Technologies for Animal Waste Pollution Control project was conducted by the Texas AgriLife Extension Service and Texas Water Resources Institute and was designed as a means for evaluating animal waste treatment methods and their ability to remove phosphorus (P) from dairy waste. A variety of factors p...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the WTS® microbial treatment system in reducing phosphorus and other substances from anaerobic dairy lagoon effluent to be applied to waste application fields and thus, reducing non-point source pollution.
Article
Potential water quality impacts associated with using bottom ash (BA) and composted dairy manure (CM) as a soil amendment were evaluated in this study. Two column studies were conducted to evaluate three blends of acidic BA and CM (BA:CM, v/v) namely, B1ac (95:5), B2ac (90:10), and B3ac (80:20) and three blends of alkaline BA and CM (BA:CM, v/v), n...
Article
Management strategies for using raw and composted dairy manures on perennial forages are not well defined. `Ihis study compared the effects of raw or composted dairy manure alone, or in combination with supplemental inorganic fertilizers (IFs), on 'Coastal'bermudagrass Icynodondactylon (L.) Pets.] yield. Composted manure was split applied with 14.5...
Article
Dairy manure compost mixed with wood chips (designated as erosion control compost, ECC) was examined as an erosion control material for stabilization of steep slopes on highway construction sites. Eight 0.9 x 1.8 x 0.2 m plots were prepared with a clay loam soil on a custom-made steel bed. Paired plots were randomly assigned one of two treatments:...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need for a robust and accurate technique to measure ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) to obtain emission inventories and to develop abatement strategies. Two consecutive seasonal studies were conducted to measure NH3 emissions from an open-lot dairy in central Texas in July and December of 2005. Data including...
Article
Full-text available
A typical feedlot includes multiple pens equipped with watering and feeding facilities. As a result, moisture content varies considerably throughout the pen surface, although the most moisture predominantly occurs on the pen surface near feed and water source locations. Feedlot pens contain a variable number of animals based on pen size. The cattle...
Book
Managing Contaminated Animal and Plant Materials: Field Guide on Best Practices presents the information required for the safe, effective, and economical disposal of contaminated animal and plant materials. Management of these materials on a large scale (300 tons of carcasses or more) presents major challenges for emergency personnel responding to...
Article
Full-text available
8 pp Biosecurity on poultry farms includes proper disposal of dead carcasses. In many cases, that means using an incinerator. Calculating the cost of an incinerator means considering long and short-term expenses and the cost of fuel. This publication explains how to select the right size incinerator and calculate all associated costs.
Conference Paper
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emitted from animal feeding operations (AFOs) such as dairies as a result of bacterial decomposition of organic compounds in manure under anaerobic conditions. Hydrogen sulfide is not a health-based criteria pollutant under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US Clean Air Act, but some states have use...
Conference Paper
A survey of 14 dairies in Texas and California was conducted to determine their total energy use on an annual basis. The goal of the survey was to evaluate the effect of production and management processes on energy consumption. The total energy used on facilities varied widely with the type of operation; e.g., pasture, open lot, or hybrid (a combi...
Conference Paper
Many dairies require manure and wastewater storage and treatment structures such as anaerobic lagoons to handle the large amounts of manure resulting from their feeding operations. When storage and treatment structures are not maintained properly, the possibility of nutrient leaching or movement in the runoff to nearby water sources amplifies. More...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents information on how to improve aeration efficiency without effecting additional capital and operating costs. Two different configurations of aerator modules were studied using water test. The aerator modules consisted of a number of venturi air injectors connected either in series or in parallel aimed at achieving better aerati...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication of surface waters due to the addition of excess nutrients via runoff is one of the most widespread water quality problems in the United States. One of the major contributors to this problem is phosphorus (P) in the runoff from lands receiving excessive P in animal manure or wastewater applied as organic fertilizer for plant growth. T...
Article
Increasing emphasis on maintaining environmental integrity by dairy operations warrants examination of management influence on waste characteristics. Complete profiles of anaerobic dairy lagoons for eleven operations in central Texas, distinguished by use of dry-lot and hybrid (i.e., facilities comprised of free stalls with smaller dry-lot areas) m...
Article
Growing rates of manure produced from large dairies and repeated application of manure on the same parcels of land have increased concerns for the environmental quality of nearby streams and watersheds. This paper deals with energy conversion analysis using a “black box” approach of supplying flushed dairy biomass (DB), combusting the DB solids, ex...
Article
Full-text available
A new protocol similar to EPA method TO-14A was used to determine ROG emissions from animal feeding operations. Fourteen (14) ROG were tentatively identified and quantified from the dairy and beef feedlot located at Central Texas and Texas Panhandle, respectively, during the summer of 2006. The compound groups found include ketones, aldehydes, alco...