Santosh Nepal

Santosh Nepal
International Water Management Institute | IWMI

PhD, MSc, MA
https://santoshnepal.webs.com/blogs

About

92
Publications
87,462
Reads
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2,463
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Introduction
I have been working with the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Nepal since March 2022. I am responsible for leading and managing cutting-edge applied research on water resources, and water- energy- food-environment (WEFE) nexus and climate change in the Himalayan region, including Nepal, Southeast and South Asia. I also undertake research for development initiatives on hydrology, water security, and water resources to deliver science, innovation and local capacity development.
Additional affiliations
December 2012 - present
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
Position
  • Group Leader
July 2012 - November 2012
Friedrich Schiller University Jena
Position
  • Researcher
May 2009 - July 2012
Friedrich Schiller University Jena
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
May 2009 - July 2012
Friedrich Schiller University Jena
Field of study
  • hydrological modelling of the alpine catchment in the himalayan region

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Full-text available
The potential impact of glacier recession on river discharge from the Hunza river basin was estimated as an indicator for downstream changes in the Indus river system. The J2000 model was used to analyze the water balance in the basin and simulate the contribution of snow and ice melt to total discharge at present and under three scenarios of glaci...
Article
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Cascading hazards are becoming more prevalent in the central Himalayas. Primary hazards (e.g., earthquakes, avalanches, and landslides) often trigger secondary hazards (e.g., landslide dam, debris flow, and flooding), compounding the risks to human settlements, infrastructures, and ecosystems. Risk management strategies are commonly tailored to a s...
Article
Full-text available
Irrigated agriculture in South Asia depends on meltwater, monsoon rains and groundwater. Climate change alters the hydrology and causes shifts in the timing, composition and magnitude of these sources of water supply. Simultaneously, socio-economic growth increases water demand. Here we use a high-resolution cryosphere–hydrology–crop model forced w...
Article
Global warming-induced melting and thawing of the cryosphere are severely altering the volume and timing of water supplied from High Mountain Asia, adversely affecting downstream food and energy systems that are relied on by billions of people. The construction of more reservoirs designed to regulate streamflow and produce hydropower is a critical...
Article
Third Pole natural cascade alpine lakes (NCALs) are exceptionally sensitive to climate change, yet the underlying cryosphere-hydrological processes and associated societal impacts are largely unknown. Here, with a state-of-the-art cryosphere-hydrology-lake-dam model, we quantified the notable high-mountain Hoh-Xil NCALs basin (including Lakes Zonag...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Koshi River is one of the major tributaries of the Ganges. Its basin drains the sparsely-populated Tibetan Plateau and the high mountains in northeastern Nepal. The river then flows through the mid-hills and the Terai plains into the Indo-Gangetic Plain in northern Bihar, India, where it meets the Ganges River. The basin’s diverse topography ha...
Article
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Many communities in South Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to weather and climate hazards, and climate services play an important role in managing present and future climate risks. Here we take stock of ongoing climate service activities under the Asia Regional Resilience to a Changing Climate (ARRCC) Met Office Partnership programme. ARRCC a...
Chapter
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The glacier- and snow-fed river basins of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) mountains provide water to 1.9 billion people in Asia. The signs of climate change in the HKH mountains are clear, with increased warming and accelerated melting of snow and glaciers. This threatens the water, food, energy and livelihood security for many in Asia. The links bet...
Article
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Recent tragedies in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region show that cascading disasters – where one incident sets off another – present new and complex risk scenarios, and need to be planned for. At the beginning of the monsoon season this year, floods caused havoc in Nepal and India along the Mahakali and Koshi rivers. In the western catchment of the K...
Article
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Snow is a crucial component of the hydrological cycle in the Western Himalaya. Water from snowmelt is used in various sectors in downstream regions, thus playing a critical role in securing the livelihoods of millions of people. In this study, we investigated the future evolution of snow cover and snowmelt in the Panjshir catchment of Afghanistan,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasing temperature and variability in precipitation are affecting different sectors in the Himalayan region. This study aims to quantify the future scenario and related extreme indices in the Kabul River Basin of the western Himalaya using high-resolution climate data sets. We selected the representative global climate model simulations for RCP...
Article
Understanding the response of Himalayan-Karakoram (HK) rivers to climate change is crucial for ~1 billion people who partly depend on these water resources. Policymakers tasked with the sustainable water resources management for agriculture, hydropower, drinking, sanitation, and hazards require an assessment of rivers’ current status and potential...
Article
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Observed weather and projected climate change suggest increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. In this study, we systematically explore the literature for empiric associations between the climate variables and specific mosquito-borne diseases and their vectors in the Himalaya Hindukush...
Article
Snowmelt is an important source of water in upstream part of the Ganges river basin (GRB), which provides water for different purposes to its 655 million inhabitants. However, studies assessing relationship between snow cover dynamics and changes in hydro-climatic variables are limited within this region, motivating the current research. In this st...
Article
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Soil water is a major requirement for biomass production and, therefore, one of the most important factors for agriculture productivity. As agricultural droughts are related to declining soil moisture, this paper examines soil moisture drought in the transboundary Koshi River basin (KRB) in the central Himalayan region. By applying the J2000 hydrol...
Article
Full-text available
Siloed-approaches may fuel the misguided development of hydropower and subsequent target-setting under the sustainable development goals (SDGs). While hydropower development in the Indus basin is vital to ensure energy security (SDG7), it needs to be balanced with water use for fulfilling food (SDG2) and water (SDG6) security. Existing methods to e...
Article
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Free access to the full-text between 17 Feb. and 3 Mar. 2021, Thanks NREE for this promotion. A read-only version for those without a subscription: https://rdcu.be/ceDKY _______ Glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram mountain ranges harbour approximately half of the ice volume in High- mountain Asia and modulate the flow of freshwater to almost 869 mi...
Research
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Newspaper Oped article: Why springs are drying ?
Article
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This study assesses climate change impacts on the hydrological regime of a river basin and its implications for future irrigation water availability in the Koshi River basin using RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 over short-term (2016-2045), mid-century (2036-2065) and end-of-century (2071-2100) periods. Average flow in the Koshi River is projected to increase. Pr...
Article
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To manage the transboundary water resources of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin, it is important to identify and understand the complex upstream-downstream linkages in the basin. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of social, economic and cultural processes of the GBM Basin and examines existing mechanisms for governing the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soil water is a major requirement for biomass production and therefore one of the most important factors for agriculture productivity. As agricultural droughts are related to declining soil moisture, this paper examines soil moisture drought in the transboundary Koshi River basin in the Central Himalayan region. By applying the J2000 hydrological m...
Book
Full-text available
The people and mountain environments of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) have not been isolated from the impacts of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The social, economic and environmental impacts have been harsh and have exacerbated old risks and vulnerabilities and highlighted new ones. The long-term consequences will be profound unless w...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This tutorial manual has been prepared with an aim to assist the implementation of the J2000 hydrological model in catchments of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. It has been prepared in such a way that the J2000 hydrological model can be applied independently to other basins. The manual is divided into two parts, each with a key objective.
Article
Full-text available
Nepal exports agricultural commodities worth USD 200 million each year, and imports produce worth about five times as much. While nearly 70 percent of Nepal’s total imports of agricultural commodities—cereals, vegetables, and fruits—come from India, this has not always been the case. Until the 1980s, Nepal was a net exporter of agricultural commodi...
Article
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Mountains are the water towers of the world, supplying a substantial part of both natural and anthropogenic water demands1,2. They are highly sensitive and prone to climate change3,4, yet their importance and vulnerability have not been quantified at the global scale. Here, we present a global Water Tower Index, which ranks all water towers in term...
Article
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This article investigates water security in Nepal from the perspective of the water-energy-agriculture (food) nexus, focusing on pathways to water security that originate in actions and policies related to other sectors. It identifies promoting development of Nepal’s hydropower potential to provide energy for pumping as way to improve water securit...
Article
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The selection of General Circulation Models (GCMs) with high capability to represent the past and likely future climate for a specific geographical location is a crucial step to assess impacts of climate change on different sectors. This study included pool of 105 and 78 GCMs for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 respectively...
Article
River processes in a drainage basin are strongly governed by the spatio-temporal variability in stream power. Recently, various approaches have been developed to derive the spatial variability of stream power in a river basin; however, the temporal variability in stream power due to hydrological changes remains poorly understood. An assessment of t...
Book
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Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) IWRM brings together decision-makers and stakeholders across the various sectors related to water and other related resources to make collective decisions for sustainable water resources management. IRBM adapts the principles of IWRM to a river system or a lake basin, thus considering the river (or lake) ba...
Chapter
Full-text available
This module highlights the overall principles and approach of IWRM in a river basin context (i.e. IRBM, see below). There are a number of components at river basin level – biophysical and socio-economic – which affect the quality and timing of water resources. The interactions among these components can alter resource patterns and availability. Bet...
Chapter
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The cryosphere (including, snow, glaciers, permafrost, lake and river ice) is an integral element of high mountain regions, which are home to roughly 10% of the global population. Widespread cryosphere changes affect physical, biological and human systems in the mountains and surrounding lowlands, with impacts evident even in the ocean. Building on...
Research
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Without the efficient management of sediment, many problems in the Koshi river will remain unsolved. An op-ed article published in Kantipur Daily, Nepal (Date :18 August 2019)
Research
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The problems caused by the river will remain unresolved without urgent and efficient sediment management. An op-ed article published in the Kathmandu Post (Date: 18 August 2019)
Article
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Densely populated floodplains downstream of Asia’s mountain ranges depend heavily on mountain water resources, in particular for irrigation. An intensive and complex multi-cropping irrigated agricultural system has developed here to optimize the use of these mountain water resources in conjunction with monsoonal rainfall. Snow and glacier melt ther...
Article
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Sediment connectivity, defined as the degree of linkage between the sediment sources to downstream areas, is one of the most important properties that control landscape evolution in river basins. The degree of linkages amongst different parts of a catchment depends mainly on the hinterland characteristics (e.g. catchment morphology, slope, shape, r...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrological and sediment transport characteristics for the Kosi basin, which covers parts of Nepal and India, were analysed to understand the spatiotemporal variability of the hydrology and sediment dynamics of the Kosi basin and its implications for flood hazard and sediment dynamics. The study revealed that ∼56% of the discharge at Chatara (wher...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The publications in this series record the work and thinking of IWMI researchers, and knowledge that the Institute's scientific management feels is worthy of documenting. This series will ensure that scientific data and other information gathered or prepared as a part of the research work of the Institute are recorded and referenced. Working Papers...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Government of Nepal has recognized climate change adaptation as fundamental to safeguarding vulnerable communities, ecosystems, and relevant climate-sensitive sectors from the impacts of climate change. The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process was initiated in Nepal in September 2015, as mandated by the Conference of the Parties to the United...
Article
This paper compares the hydrological responses at the local scale of two models using different degrees of refinement to represent physical processes in sparsely instrumented mountainous Himalayan catchments. This work presents the novelty of applying, at a small spatio-temporal scale and under the same forcing conditions, a fully distributed surfa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The activities and processes led by natural and anthropogenic factors not only change environmental variables upstream (such as land use and land cover, snowmelt, and erosion, among others), they also affect the downstream environment in terms of water availability, floods, and sedimentation. Upstream–downstream linkages (UDL) of land and water man...
Article
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The plains of north Bihar, drained by numerous rivers originating in the Himalayas also experience a reasonably high rainfall of ~1200 mm per year. Still, more than 80% of the irrigation demand in this region is met by groundwater resources. Also, the increasing population and industrialization are likely to lead to overexploitation of groundwater...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper develops a conceptual and generic framework design for the study of upstream-downstream linkages (UDL) in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region. The framework application will define changing upstream-downstream linkages (UDL) and likely impacts on downstream regions. The results of such applications will be useful for policy makers, plan...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Highly vulnerable to excessive erosion and sedimentation, the Koshi River Basin needs collaborative efforts at the regional level to address this challenge.
Research
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In recent years, the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) has seen the wrath of nature numerous times. The 2010 Indus River flood in Pakistan, the 2013 Kedarnath flood in India, and the 2014 Bhote Koshi flood in Nepal left massive death and destruction in their wakes. The 2017 floods that hit Nepal, India, and Bangladesh also caused massive losses—hundreds of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
based in Kathmandu, Nepal. Globalisation and climate change have an increasing influence on the stability of fragile mountain ecosystems and the livelihoods of mountain people. ICIMOD aims to assist mountain people to understand these changes, adapt to them, and make the most of new opportunities, while addressing upstream-downstream issues. We sup...
Article
Full-text available
Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate...
Article
Full-text available
The high-resolution climate model Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) was used to project the changes in future extreme precipitation and temperature over the Koshi River Basin for use in impact assessments. Three outputs of the Quantifying Uncertainties in Model Prediction (QUMP) simulations using the Hadley Centre Couple Mode...