Santiago Martín-Bravo

Santiago Martín-Bravo
Universidad Pablo de Olavide | UPO · Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Engineering

Evolutionary Biology, Ph.D

About

113
Publications
52,412
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Introduction
I am a researcher at Botany Area of the Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering at Pablo de Olavide University (Seville, Spain). My main research interests are on systematics and evolution of angiosperms, using multidisciplinar approaches ranging from classic taxonomy to molecular phylogenetics, estimation of divergence times, cytogenetic evolution, phylo- and biogeographic analyses. Website: https://sites.google.com/site/smarbra/home
Additional affiliations
December 2019 - April 2020
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research
Position
  • Researcher
July 2016 - October 2016
Washington State University
Position
  • Researcher
February 2016 - present
Universidad Pablo de Olavide
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Full-text available
Chromosome evolution has been demonstrated to have profound effects on diversification rates and speciation in angiosperms. While polyploidy has predated some major radiations in plants, it has also been related to decreased diversification rates. There has been comparatively little attention to the evolutionary role of gains and losses of single c...
Article
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Reseda sect. Glaucoreseda is a monophyletic group composed of five endemic tetraploid species with a disjunct distribution in the high mountains and plateaus of the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. It was previously suggested that range shifts induced by Quaternary glaciations played an important role in the speciation of the group. We studied the ev...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular DNA based data sets are the most important resource for phylogenetic reconstruction. Among the various marker systems, which were introduced and optimized within the last decade, coding sequences played an important role, especially when molecular clock approaches and multi-gene datasets were assembled. However, non-coding DNA sequences d...
Article
AimWe set out to explain the bipolar distribution of Carex maritima, clarifying the direction and timing of dispersal. We also tested mountain-hopping and direct long-distance dispersal hypotheses, as well as the relationship of C. maritima with biotic and abiotic factors that could explain the bipolar distribution.LocationArctic/boreal latitudes o...
Article
AimThe bipolar disjunction, a biogeographical pattern defined by taxa with a distribution at very high latitudes in both hemispheres (> 55° N; > 52° S), is only known to occur in about 30 vascular plant species. Our aim was to use the bipolar species Carex arctogena to test the four classic hypotheses proposed to explain this exceptional disjunctio...
Article
Anticipating the evolutionary responses of species to ongoing climate change is essential to propose effective management and conservation measures. The Western Mediterranean Basin constitutes one of the hotspots of biodiversity where the effects of climate change are expected to be more dramatic. Plant species with ecological relevance constitute...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we report the presence of Carex olbiensis (Cyperaceae) in the CW Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Gredos, Extremadura region), which represents an important disjunction in relation to the known range of the species and its westernmost new limit. We revised the distribution of this species, which resulted in the likely exclusion of the spe...
Article
Full-text available
Relevant chorological notes of genus Carex L. (Cyperaceae) for the flora of the Balkans are provided, with an emphasis on Albania and adjacent countries (North Macedonia and Montenegro). Our findings include new national species records and/or confirmations for Albania, Montenegro and North Macedonia (C. agastachys, C. atrata, C. curvula, C. demiss...
Article
Carex subg. Uncinia (Cyperaceae) constitutes one of six currently recognized Carex subgenera. This subgenus is mainly distributed on the American continent and in the Pacific region, and it is the only subgenus almost entirely absent from the Old World and primarily diversified in the Southern Hemisphere. It includes some of the few Carex species w...
Chapter
The terms anagenesis, cladogenesis and evolutionary stasis, are all associated with mechanisms and patterns of biological evolution. Anagenesis (also called phyletic evolution) is evolutionary change within single lineages through time, cladogenesis is the branching or diversification of lineages through time giving rise to clades, and evolutionary...
Article
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Con objeto de fomentar el interés por la botánica, surgió la idea de organizar el I Biomaratón de Flora Española: un evento de ciencia ciudadana en el que personas de todo el país salieron a fotografiar el mayor número posible de plantas. Se realizó utilizando la plataforma de ciencia ciudadana iNaturalist, y se vertebró por medio de coordinadores...
Article
Full-text available
Carex subgenus Psyllophorae is an engaging study group due to its early diversification compared to most Carex lineages, and its remarkable disjunct distribution in four continents corresponding to three independent sections: sect. Psyllophorae in Western Palearctic, sect. Schoenoxiphium in Afrotropical region, and sect. Junciformes in South Americ...
Article
Full-text available
Premise: Most of the Paleotropical flora widely distributed in the Western Palearctic became extinct during the Mio-Pliocene as a result of global geoclimatic changes. A few elements from this Cenozoic flora are believed to remain as relicts in Macaronesia, forming part of the laurel forests. Although the origins of the present species assembly ar...
Article
Populations of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae) from the Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores and Madeira) have traditionally been treated either as a variety of the widely distributed Western Palearctic C. pendula, or directly synonymized under it. However, recent phy-logenetic studies have shown that Azorean populations of C. pendula display a...
Article
Full-text available
Carex section Schoenoxiphium (Cariceae, Cyperaceae) is endemic to the Afrotropical biogeographic region and is mainly distributed in southern and eastern Africa, with its center of diversity in eastern South Africa. The taxon was formerly recognized as a distinct genus and has a long history of taxonomic controversy. It has also an important morpho...
Article
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Cyperaceae (sedges) are the third largest monocot family and are of considerable economic and ecological importance. Sedges represent an ideal model family to study evolutionary biology because of their species richness, global distribution, large discrepancies in lineage diversity, broad range of ecological preferences, and adaptations including m...
Article
Carex microcarpa (sect. Rhynchocystis) is a Central Mediterranean endemic known from Corsica, Sardinia and the Tuscan archipelago, that has been also reported from scattered localities in mainland Italy (Abruzzo, Lazio and Apulia). We tested by molecular means the identification of three specimens classified as C. microcarpa from continental Italy,...
Article
Full-text available
The species shows a reduced extent of occurrence (EOO) of 12 km2. It is only known from four occurrence sites that are close to each other and form part of the same wetland system and therefore may be considered to belong to a single subpopulation (and location). The area is subject to several serious anthropogenic threats to the conservation of th...
Article
We describe a new remarkable dwarf and apparently acaulescent species of Carex (Cyperaceae) from the Andes of northern Chile: Carex phylloscirpoides. Morphological and molecular data (two nuclear and three plastid DNA regions) were used to study the phylogenetic placement and systematic relationships of this species, which resulted in its assignmen...
Article
This is the first work of a series of thorough studies into the taxonomy and systematics of Carex in South America. Here, we present the systematic placement, biogeographic insights, taxonomic accounts, formal typifications and summarized distributions for the 24 species of Carex subgenus Vignea with androgynous spikes in the continent. We performe...
Article
Full-text available
Carex section Phacocystis (Cyperaceae) is one of the most diverse and taxonomically complex groups of sedges (between 116‐147 spp.) with a worldwide distribution in a wide array of biomes. It has a very complicated taxonomic history, with numerous disagreements among different treatments. We studied the biogeography and niche evolution in a phyloge...
Article
Changes in chromosome number as a result of fission and fusion in holocentric chromosomes have direct and immediate effects on genome structure and recombination rates. These in turn may influence ecology and evolutionary trajectories profoundly. Sedges of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae) comprise ca. 2000 species with holocentric chromosomes that evol...
Article
Aim: Madagascar is renowned for its unparalleled biodiversity and endemism. With many ecosystems under threat, research is urgently needed on its unique plant diversity. This applies both to Madagascar's forests and treeless vegetation types. Sedges (Cyperaceae) are among the top 10 species‐richest angiosperm families in Madagascar (310 native spec...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic studies of Carex L. (Cyperaceae) have consistently demonstrated that most subgenera and sections are para‐ or polyphyletic. Yet taxonomists continue to use subgenera and sections in Carex classification. Why? The Global Carex Group here takes the position that the historical and continued use of subgenera and sections serves to (1) org...
Article
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The species shows a restricted extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) of 8 km2. Nevertheless, no declines or fluctuations in either EOO or AOO, number of mature individuals or localities nor habitat quality have been reported. Thus, we cannot consider this species to be Endangered (EN) under criterion B. For these reasons, the speci...
Article
Full-text available
We present chorological additions and corrections for four species of Iberian sedges of interest.
Article
The field of systematics is experiencing a new molecular revolution driven by the increased availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies. As these techniques become more affordable, the increased genomic resources have increasingly far-reaching implications for our understanding of the Tree of Life. With c. 2000 species, Carex (Cyperacea...
Article
Carex acocksii is a sedge species known only from two populations in the Karoo of the Northern Cape in South Africa. It was described from a single locality (Hantam Mts., Calvinia) more than twenty years ago, and tentatively ascribed to section Petraea because of its unispicate inflorescence and utricles with membranaceous-papyraceous walls. Howeve...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Carex acocksii is known only from two locations in the Northern Cape of South Africa. Its area of occupancy (AOO) is only 12 km2 and the extent of occurrence (EOO) is 55 km2. The main threat is overgrazing pressure by livestock and possible impacts of climate change. The species is thus considered Critically Endangered (CR) under criterion B (B1ab(...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Carex (Cyperaceae) is a megadiverse genus which ranks among the five largest angiosperm genera, with about 2000 species. The authors investigated the main biogeographic and lineage diversification history in the genus using a global phylogenetic sampling comprising 66% of accepted species. The study suggests that there may not be just one answer to...
Article
Full-text available
The megadiverse genus Carex (c. 2000 species, Cyperaceae) has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, displaying an inverted latitudinal richness gradient with higher species diversity in cold‐temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Despite great expansion in our knowledge of the phylogenetic history of the genus and many molecular studies focusing...
Chapter
Holocentric chromosomes are characterised by the presence of kinetochoric activity along the chromosome length. This atypical chromosomal architecture has evolved independently in a wide array of lineages across the tree of life. Different mechanisms have been developed to overcome meiotic problems posed by holocentry, such as inverted meiosis and...
Article
Full-text available
La realización de estudios florísticos en la provincia de Sevilla ha dado lugar a algunas novedades corológicas de interés para la flora de Andalucía occidental, que detallamos a continuación. La mayor parte de ellas corresponden a novedades para la comarca natural de Los Alcores (11 taxones), aunque también para otras comarcas (Campiña Alta sevill...
Article
Full-text available
This is a highly restricted endemic species only known from two populations in the eastern Taurus range in southern Turkey. Its area of occupancy (AOO) is only 8 km2. One of the two only known populations has been recently largely destroyed by roadworks. There are probably fewer than 30 mature individuals remaining. Its main current threat is the d...
Article
Full-text available
This is the tenth of a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to both the Med-Checklist and the Euro+Med (or Sisyphus) projects are presented. This instalment deals with the families Amaranthaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Crassulaceae, Cruciferae, Cyper...
Article
Full-text available
This is the tenth of a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to both the Med-Checklist and the Euro+Med (or Sisyphus) projects are presented. This instalment deals with the families Amaranthaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Crassulaceae, Cruciferae, Cyper...
Article
Full-text available
This is the tenth of a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to both the Med-Checklist and the Euro+Med (or Sisyphus) projects are presented. This instalment deals with the families Amaranthaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Crassulaceae, Cruciferae, Cyper...
Article
Large-scale changes in chromosome number have been associated with diversification rate shifts in many lineages of plants. For instance, several ancient rounds of polyploidization events have been inferred to promote genomic differentiation and/or isolation and, consequently, angiosperm diversification. Dysploidy, although less studied, has been su...
Article
Full-text available
Here we report chromosome number counts from the sedge family (Cyperaceae), most of which correspond to genus Carex from the Nearctic and western Palearctic. In addition, counts are reported for some Neotropical and Afrotropical sedges. We provide the first known chromosome counts for the subfamily Mapanioideae, 5 genera (Lagenocarpus, Afroscirpoi...
Article
Full-text available
Recientes campañas de recolección en Sierra Morena y sur de Portugal han dado como resultado el hallazgo de nuevas poblaciones de grandes cárices riparias en el sur de la provincia de Badajoz y Portugal: Carex elata All. s.s. y Carex reuteriana Boiss. subsp. mauritanica (Boiss. & Reut.) Jim.Mejías & Luceño. Estas poblaciones constituyen novedades c...
Article
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RESUMEN: Se aportan datos sobre tres especies de la familia Labiatae no regis-tradas hasta la fecha para la flora vascular nativa de la provincia de Sevilla: Sideritis paulii, Sideritis tragoriganum y Thymus vulgaris subsp. vulgaris. ABSTRACT: Three new Labiatae for Seville province (Spain). We present data about three new species belonging to Labi...
Poster
Full-text available
Carex in South America Representative diversity. 201 taxa (about 10% of the whole genus), belonging to the four major clades and 33 sections. At least 2 introduced spp. (+ other 3 spp.?). Multiple origins. Carex has colonized South America several independent times and via different colonization routes. Ecology. Neotropical Carex grow in cold--...
Article
Full-text available
Species delimitation in Carex section Rhynchocystis has remained relatively constant through its taxonomic history. The section is currently composed of five species distributed in the Western Palaearctic (C. microcarpa and C. pendula) and subSaharan Africa (C. bequaertii, C. mossii and C. penduliformis). Recent phylogenetic studies revealed that t...
Article
Reseda balansae Müll. Arg. (Resedaceae) is a very restricted and endangered Turkish endemic species known only from Mersin province (South Turkey), in a hotspot of biodiversity. It was first collected in 1855, and subsequently described in 1857. Afterwards, it was only collected once again in 1896. In this study we report the rediscovery of these t...
Article
Full-text available
We present relevant data about the taxonomy, nomenclature, and chorology of nine species of the genus Carex from the Neotropics. We provide two new records for the South American continent, one of them an introduced species in Argentina and Uruguay (C. divisa), and the other an apparently naturally occurring species in Venezuela (C. buxbaumii), two...
Article
The Mediterranean Basin region, home to 25,000 species of plants, is included in the worldwide list of hotspots of biodiversity. Despite the indisputably important role of chromosome transitions in plant evolution and diversification, no reference study to date has dealt with the possible relationship between chromosome evolution and lineage divers...
Article
Full-text available
Plants growing in high-mountain environments may share common morphological features through convergent evolution resulting from an adaptative response to similar ecological conditions. The Carex flava species complex (sect. Ceratocystis, Cyperaceae) includes four dwarf morphotypes from Circum-Mediterranean mountains whose taxonomic status has rema...
Data
Point localities employed in the distribution modeling analysis. Each tab of the spreadsheet displays localities of a well-developed or dwarf morphotype of the studied species. Information for each locality includes country, location, longitude and latitude in decimal degrees, collector and herbarium where the voucher is deposited, or reference if...
Data
Relative contributions of the climatic variables to the principal components. Relative contributions of the climatic variables to the two axes of the PCAs. in Fig 6. (TIF)
Data
Details of distribution models. Details of distribution models of well-developed individuals and dwarf morphotypes in the central Alps (A, B) and the central Pyrenees (C, D). (TIF)
Data
Holotype of C. lepidocarpa subsp. ferraria Jim.-Mejías & Martín-Bravo. A. Herrero et al., AH3090, MA 746566. (TIF)
Data
Pairwise Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Pairwise Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the 19 WorldClim bioclimatic variables calculated for a random sample of 1000 points of the study area (Europe and the Mediterranean region). (DOC)
Data
Studied material. Letters or codes in brackets are indicated if samples were included in the macromorphological (M), micromorphological (m) or molecular study (ITS, 5’trnK and rps16 GenBank accession numbers); symbol * indicates new sequences obtained in this study; ×n indicates the number of samples included from the same population, if more than...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolar disjunct distributions are a fascinating biogeographic pattern exhibited by about 30 vascular plants, whose populations reach very high latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres. In this review, we first propose a new framework for the definition of bipolar disjunctions and then reformulate a list of guiding principles to consider...
Article
Full-text available
According to recent molecular and morphological studies, the apparently homogeneous Carex pendula has been shown to include two different species. One species is distributed across western Europe and the Mediterranean, whereas the other ranges from central and eastern Europe to the Caucasus and northern Iran. Three different names have been conside...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the significant increase of bryological studies in Spain during the last decades, some regions remain poorly studied. This is the case of Sierra de Gredos mountain range, in the Iberian Central System, which we visited in several collecting expeditions, with focus in the insufficiently explored high mountain areas. As a result, we highlight...
Article
Full-text available
Carex sylvatica subsp. paui is a poorly studied taxon considered endemic from a few places in the western Mediterranean. It has been frequently misidentified as C. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica. To date, it has been reported only from the NE Iberian Peninsula and the NW Africa. We use molecular —nuclear ribosomal and plastid sequences— and morphologic...
Article
Aim To evaluate how Cenozoic climate changes shaped the evolution and distribution of Carex section Rhynchocystis. Location Western Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions (Rand Flora pattern). Methods DNA regions ITS, ETS (nuclear), matK and rpl32-trnLUAG (plastid) were amplified for 86 samples of species from section Rhynchocystis. Phylogenetic a...
Article
Premise of the study: The sedge Carex macloviana d'Urv presents a bipolar distribution. To clarify the origin of its distribution, we consider the four main hypotheses: long-distance dispersal (either by mountain hopping or by direct dispersal), vicariance, parallel evolution, and human introduction. Methods: Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and d...
Article
Full-text available
Carex sect. Schoenoxiphium (18 spp.) is a monophyletic group that has its centre of diversity in eastern south Africa. We describe two new species from the Republic of South Africa and Lesotho on the basis of morphological characters. Both new species (C. badilloi and C. parvirufa) are closely related to C. ludwigii, C. kukkoneniana and C. pseudoru...
Article
About 30 plant species occur at high latitudes in both hemispheres, thus achieving a so-called bipolar distribution. Six of these species belong to Carex, of which just one, Carex canescens, occurs on two different landmasses in the Southern Hemisphere (South America and Oceania). The goals of this study are (1) to test the various hypotheses accou...
Article
Premise of research. The Schoenoxiphium clade (Carex, Cyperaceae) exhibits a high species diversity in South Africa and a complex taxonomy. Previous phylogenetic studies did not resolve the species relationships within the Schoenoxiphium clade due to the lack of informative characters in DNA markers used. Our aim is to resolve the species relations...
Chapter
Vicariance biogeography emerged in the late 1970s from distinct traditions in historical biogeography: the phylogenetic systematics and the panbiogeography. Vicariance biogeography, in the strict sense, is the study of repeated patterns of disjunct distributions within many members of a biota that may be explained by vicariance (or splitting of are...
Article
Full-text available
p>Notas taxonómicas y de distribución de Carex (Cyperaceae) en el Neotrópico. Presentamos datos relevantes acerca de la taxonomía y distribución de 20 especies del género Carex en el Neotrópico (de la region Caribe a la Patagonia). Aportamos un total de 19 registros nuevos, dos de ellos para especies hasta el momento no registradas para Sudamérica,...