Santiago Espinosa

Santiago Espinosa
Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí | UASLP · Facultad de Ciencias

PhD

About

83
Publications
37,342
Reads
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683
Citations
Education
August 2004 - August 2012
University of Florida
Field of study
  • Wildlife Ecology & Conservation
August 2002 - August 2004
University of Florida
Field of study
  • Wildlife Ecology & Conservation

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend...
Article
Full-text available
Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecologica...
Article
Full-text available
Carnivores have long been used as model organisms to examine mechanisms that allow coexistence among ecologically similar species. Interactions between carnivores, including competition and predation, comprise important processes regulating local community structure and diversity. We use data from an intensive camera-trapping monitoring program acr...
Article
Full-text available
Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world’s species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest pro...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental education is a widespread, yet relatively unexamined strategy to reduce human-wildlife conflicts. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions toward bear conservation after five years of environmental education in a Quichua community. Conflicts with livestock predation created mixed attitudes and behaviors toward bear...
Article
Full-text available
The Amazon forest has the highest biodiversity on Earth. However, information on Amazonian vertebrate diversity is still deficient and scattered across the published, peer-reviewed, and gray literature and in unpublished raw data. Camera traps are an effective non-invasive method of surveying vertebrates, applicable to different scales of time and...
Article
Full-text available
The structure of forest mammal communities appears surprisingly consistent across the continental tropics, presumably due to convergent evolution in similar environments. Whether such consistency extends to mammal occupancy, despite variation in species characteristics and context, remains unclear. Here we ask whether we can predict occupancy patte...
Article
Full-text available
Nocturnal Curassows (Nothocrax urumutum) are enigmatic birds from South American rainforests. Their elusive habits and nocturnal vocal behavior have led to the generalized assumption that they are primarily nocturnal. Here, we compiled camera trap da ta from long-term projects in the Amazon rainforest and the Andes foothills to describe the tempora...
Article
Full-text available
The Amazon forest has the highest biodiversity on earth. However, information on Amazonian vertebrate diversity is still deficient and scattered across the published, peer‐reviewed and grey literature and in unpublished raw data. Camera traps are an effective non‐invasive method of surveying vertebrates, applicable to different scales of time and s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most animals follow distinct daily activity patterns reflecting their adaptations1, requirements, and interactions2-4. Specific communities provide specific opportunities and constraints to their members that further shape these patterns3,4. Here, we ask whether community-level diel activity patterns among long-separated biogeographic regions diffe...
Article
Full-text available
The establishment of protected areas (PAs) is a central strategy for global biodi- versity conservation. While the role of PAs in protecting habitat has been high- lighted, their effectiveness at protecting mammal communities remains unclear. We analyzed a global dataset from over 8671 camera traps in 23 countries on four continents that detected 3...
Chapter
The jaguar, an important symbol across the Americas, is one of the three largest cats in the world. Despite the ecological and cultural importance of this species, its populations are decreasing due to numerous threats such as habitat loss and degradation, poaching, prey depletion, among others. Prior to 1900s, the jaguar lived from southern United...
Article
Recent reports of drastic declines in insect populations have raised global concerns about their conservation. Light pollution is a near inseparable feature of human-altered landscapes and is a potential contributing factor to insect declines. However, despite the wide recognition of the deleterious effects of lights on insects, whether these effec...
Article
Human activities are changing ecosystems and their trophic structures across the globe and tropical forests are one of the main affected. Large carnivores can have a key role in the maintenance of biodiversity through direct and indirect effects at lower trophic levels, which are the result of predation and competition. In this sense, it is expecte...
Article
In a scenario where escalating human activities lead to several environmental changes and, consequently, affect mammal abundance and distribution, β-diversity may increase due to differences among sites. Using the ecological uniqueness approach, we analyzed β-diversity patterns of ground-dwelling mammal communities recorded through comprehensive ca...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the effect of roads in animal mortality within the Biodiversity Hotspot with the highest number of endemic species of vertebrates on Earth, the Tropical Andes. Our objectives were to know which species are killed on roads in this particularly biodiversity‐rich area and how landscape composition and configuration influences roadkills. We...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of factors can affect the biodiversity of tropical mammal communities, but their relative importance and directionality remain uncertain. Previous global investigations of mammal functional diversity have relied on range maps instead of observational data to determine community composition. We test the effects of species pools, habitat he...
Article
Full-text available
Species’ activity patterns are driven by the need to meet basic requirements of food, social interactions, movement, and rest, but often are influenced by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors. We used camera-trap data to describe and compare the activity patterns of the relatively poorly studied tayra (Eira barbara) across 10 populations distrib...
Article
Full-text available
Mammalian carnivores are considered a key group in maintaining ecological health and can indicate potential ecological integrity in landscapes where they occur. Carnivores also hold high conservation value and their habitat requirements can guide management and conservation plans. The order Carnivora has 84 species from 8 families in the Neotropica...
Article
Full-text available
Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well‐established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number...
Article
Full-text available
Activity range ‐ the amount of time spent active per day ‐ is a fundamental aspect contributing to the optimization process by which animals achieve energetic balance. Based on their size and the nature of their diet, theoretical expectations are that larger carnivores need more time active to fulfil their energetic needs than do smaller ones and a...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding of global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse sc...
Article
Full-text available
Research and conservation of palm species relies on training new generations of palm biologists, especially in tropical countries. Such trainings pave the way to answer new questions related to palm biology, sustainable management, the cultural and economic links between humans and palms, and build conservation strategies through education and civi...
Data
Model selection analysis for occupancy (Ψ) and detection probability (p) used to evaluate the effect of time (sampling period) and study site on the habitat use of three sympatric felids, the jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Neotropical forests. (DOCX)
Data
Prey species list and relative abundance index (images/100 ctdays) of small (< 15 Kg) and large prey (> 15Kg) of carnivores in our eight Neotropical study sites. (DOCX)
Data
Spearman’s rank correlation to test for collinearity among continuous covariates (ρ> 0.70). (DOCX)
Data
Coefficient of overlap (Δ1) with confidence intervals (CI lower/CI upper) and Watson’s two-sample test (two-sample U2) performed on pairwise comparisons between study sites. (DOCX)
Data
Single-species detection models used to evaluate the effects of covariates on the detection probability (p) of three sympatric felids, the jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Neotropical forests. Detection probability was modelled as a function of elevation, NDVI, study site (site), large prey availabilit...
Data
Single-species occupancy models used to evaluate the effects of elevation (Elev.), distance to nearest water source (water), NDVI (ndvi), small prey’s availability (small) and large prey’s availability (large) on the habitat use of jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Neotropical forests. (DOCX)
Data
Coefficient of overlap (Δ) with confidence intervals (CI lower/CI upper) and Watson’s two-sample test (two-sample U2) performed on pairwise comparisons between cat species per site. (DOCX)
Data
Single-species occupancy models used to evaluate best habitat factors and species interactions. Occupancy probability was modelled as a function of elevation (Elev.), distance to water (water), NDVI (ndvi), small prey’s availability (small), large prey’s availability (large) and occupancy estimates of each cat species (jaguar, puma and ocelot). (DO...
Data
Differences in the daily activity level (i. e., proportion of hours per day that an animal is active), standard errors (SE), Wald test (W) of Neotropical cats across the eight study sites (*Significant difference <0.05). (DOCX)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los patrones de actividad son indicadores espacio-temporales de las dinámicas inter e intraespecíficas en un ecosistema. Los estudios de grandes mamíferos en las estribaciones andinas del Ecuador son numerosos, sin embargo, la información asociada a patrones y niveles de actividad de fauna silvestre es escasa. En esta investigación presentamos los...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los patrones y niveles de actividad de grandes mamíferos silvestres pueden ser considerados como indicadores temporales de gasto energético, esfuerzo en la búsqueda de alimento y exposición a riesgos. En este estudio estimamos los patrones de actividad del oso andino en tres localidades de los Andes centro orientales de Ecuador; e identificamos dif...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los patrones de actividad son indicadores espacio-temporales relacionados con el gasto energético, esfuerzo en el forrajeo y exposición a riesgos. En esta investigación presentamos los resultados preliminares de las estimaciones de patrones de actividad del oso de anteojos y tapir andino en distintas localidades de las estribaciones centro-oriental...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Large tropical trees form the interface between ground and airborne observations, offering a unique opportunity to capture forest properties remotely and to investigate their variations on broad scales. However, despite rapid development of metrics to characterize the forest canopy from remotely sensed data, a gap remains between aerial and fie...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Large tropical trees form the interface between ground and airborne observations, offering a unique opportunity to capture forest properties remotely and to investigate their variations on broad scales. However, despite rapid development of metrics to characterize the forest canopy from remotely sensed data, a gap remains between aerial and fi...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Large tropical trees form the interface between ground and airborne observations, offering a unique opportunity to capture forest properties remotely and to investigate their variations on broad scales. However, despite rapid development of metrics to characterize the forest canopy from remotely sensed data, a gap remains between aerial and fi...
Data
Capture history of 30 jaguars used for abundance estimation in the four areas in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. (PDF)
Data
Results of the Geweke diagnostic. (PDF)
Data
Jaguar density estimation with non-spatial and spatially-explicit models. (PDF)
Data
Datasets for site occupancy estimation of jaguar prey species in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. (XLSX)
Data
Selection (AIC) of occupancy models to explore occurrence of 8 prey species as a function of landscape access by hunters in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. (PDF)
Data
Datasets for density estimation of jaguar in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. (XLSX)
Data
Survey effort with camera trap stations at four study sites in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. (PDF)
Data
Settings for running SECR models with SPACECAP. (PDF)
Data
Biomass estimates (kg/100 trap-days) of potential prey species in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. (PDF)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La fragmentación y destrucción del hábitat generan importantes efectos en los procesos ecológicos y las relaciones entre las especies y el ecosistema. La configuración de la cobertura vegetal del paisaje (esto es, la conectividad estructural) y la percepción de disponibilidad de recursos (esto es, la conectividad funcional) de cada especie influyen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los patrones de actividad de la fauna silvestre pueden reflejar indicadores temporales de gasto energético, esfuerzo en el forrajeo y exposición a riesgos (por ejemplo, relación presa- predador). Las investigaciones orientadas al conocimiento de los patrones de actividad del oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus) en el Ecuador son limitadas, por lo que en...
Article
Full-text available
Ungulates are one of the most important groups in terrestrial ecosystems across the tropics. Also, ungulates are an important source of protein for people who inhabit tropical forests, and numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of hunting on the size of ungulate populations. However, little is known about other potential effect...
Article
Full-text available
Ocelots were historically hunted for their skins but habitat loss is now their most serious threat, causing rapid declines in populations throughout their range. Ocelot abundance has been estimated for various locations across the Neotropics, but we still lack this information from some countries, including Ecuador. Knowing whether ocelot abundance...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nuestro trabajo combina modelos de conectividad de circuitos y modelos de ocupación de sitio para evaluar la conectividad entre las zonas de amortiguamiento de tres áreas protegidas: Reserva Ecológica Antisana, Parque Nacional Cayambe Coca y Parque Nacional Sumaco-Napo Galeras, enfocado en especies con amplios requerimientos territoriales (Tremarct...
Data
Population occupancy status. By class (a), IUCN category (b), body mass (c), guild (d), landscape type (e), and hunting status (f). Bar height illustrates the relative frequencies of each occupancy status, and bar width illustrates the sample size. Asterisks indicate a significantly different occupancy status. See S2 Table for numerical data. (TIF)
Data
Occupancy status by TEAM site and guild. The proportion of populations with decreasing (orange), increasing (purple), unknown (gray), or stable (white) occupancy for each guild at each site; n = 511 populations. See S1 Table for site information corresponding to the three-letter site codes. Bar length illustrates the proportion of each occupancy st...
Data
Pairwise relationships between continuous site-level variables. Upper triangular portion of the matrix contains Pearson correlation coefficients, with the font size proportional to the correlation coefficient. Lower triangular portions of the matrix contain pairwise scatter plots to illustrate associations. “PAsize” is the log of the size of the pr...
Data
Summary information for TEAM sites. Including the full site name, site code, country, number of years of camera trap data, number of populations monitored by TEAM, percent of populations for each occupancy status, percent of monitored populations that were reported as hunted or not hunted, landscape connectivity, camera trap sampling area, protecte...
Data
Population occupancy status and monitoring duration. Frequency histogram of population trends based on the number of years of camera trap data (3–4 y [n = 8 sites, 270 populations], 5 y [n = 4 sites, 141 populations], or 6 y or more [n = 3 sites, 100 populations]). While the variance in occupancy trends decreased with additional years of data, the...
Data
Population occupancy over time. Each line depicts the trend of a particular species population monitored by TEAM. Color depicts significantly decreasing (orange), significantly increasing (purple), unknown (gray), or stable (black) occupancy trends. See S2 Table for numerical data. (TIF)
Data
Forest cover and landscape classification. (a) Green represents forest cover and brown represents non-forested cover for the ZOI of each protected area (Materials and Methods). Bold text is the code for each TEAM site. x- and y-axis labels are degrees latitude and longitude, respectively. (b) The UPGMA cluster analysis was based on two measures of...
Data
AIC comparison of univariate logistic regression models. For (a) the proportion of decreasing occupancy status populations per site and (b) the proportion of increasing occupancy status populations per site. For both decreasing and increasing occupancy status proportions, the null models with no covariates performed better (delta AIC > 2) than all...
Data
Monitored populations and associated attribute data. The following attributes are listed for each population: Class, Order, Family, Species, IUCN Red List Status (TH = Threatened, NT = Near Threatened, VU = Vulnerable, LC = Least Concern, DD = Data Deficient), Body Mass, Guild (Omnivore, Carnivore, Herbivore, Insectivore), Occupancy Coefficient Slo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La mortalidad de fauna de vertebrados debido a la colisión con vehículos es un impacto humano poco estudiado en áreas de alta biodiversidad. El presente estudio tuvo lugar en las estribaciones nororientales de los Andes ecuatorianos, una región que corresponde a uno de los hotspots más biodiversos a nivel mundial, los Andes Tropicales. Se contabili...
Research
Full-text available
The present work reports density and activity patterns of ocelots in two areas with different levels of human activity in Yasuni Nationl Park, Ecuador.