Sanna Järvelä

Sanna Järvelä
University of Oulu · Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education

About

217
Publications
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Introduction
Sanna's research interests deal with SRL, CSCL and on-line learning processes. Järvelä and her research group is internationally well known from theoretical advancement of motivation as a contextual phenomena and of social aspects of self-regulated learning (socially shared regulation). Her research has strong contribution to the methodological development of process oriented research methods in the field of learning and collaboration and recently applying of multimodal methods in SRL research.

Publications

Publications (217)
Article
Full-text available
s In socially shared regulation of learning, adaptation is a key process for overcoming collaborative learning challenges. Monitoring the learning process allows learners to recognize the situations that require a need to change, revise, or optimize the current learning process. This can be done through adapting their strategies, task perception, g...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Group affective states for learning are constantly formed through socio-emotional interactions. However, it remains unclear how the affective states vary during collaboration and how they occur with regulation of learning. Appropriate methods are needed to track both group affective states and these interaction processes. Aims: The p...
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulated learning theory acknowledges the importance of an individual's metacognitive monitoring and group-level regulation for learning achievement in collaborative learning. However, very few studies have empirically investigated the interplay of these factors. This study aimed to investigate how groups' metacognitive interactions, group-le...
Article
The Moving Maths study was conducted to increase third grade pupils’ physical activity and support their learning in Finland. Altogether 397 children (mean age 9.3 years) and 22 teachers took part in an intervention with two types of physically active maths lessons for five months. One group carried out lessons in which PA was integrated into maths...
Article
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Being aware of the progress towards one’s goals is considered one of the main characteristics of the self-regulation process. This is also the case for collaborative problem solving, which invites group members to metacognitively monitor the progress with their goals and externalize it in social interactions while solving a problem. Monitoring chal...
Article
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This study provides an overview of research on teachers' use of artificial intelligence (AI) applications and machine learning methods to analyze teachers' data. Our analysis showed that AI offers teachers several opportunities for improved planning (e.g., by defining students' needs and familiarizing teachers with such needs), implementation (e.g....
Article
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The current study uses a within-person temporal and sequential analysis to understand individual learning processes as part of collaborative learning. Contemporary perspectives of self-regulated learning acknowledge monitoring as a crucial mechanism for each phase of the regulated learning cycle, but little is known about the function of the monito...
Article
Full-text available
Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is widely recognized as a prominent 21st-century skill to be mastered. Until recently, research on CPS has often focused on problem solution by the individual; the interest in investigating how the theorized problem-solving constructs function as broader social units, such as pairs or small groups, is relatively...
Article
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Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is a cyclical process in which team members go back and forth between various cognitive and affective phases as they interact with the problem state and each other. An increasing amount of research has been conducted to explore how sequential relationships between the CPS phases affect team performance outcomes....
Article
The aim of this study is to explore how students experience and describe socio-cognitive and socio-emotional challenges in collaborative learning. The participants (N = 20) were teacher education students whose collaborative learning was supported with a designed regulation macro script during a six-week mathematics course. The purpose of the scrip...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports a design science research methodology (DSRM) study that develops, demonstrates, and evaluates a deep learning model utilizing multimodal data to automatically detect types of interactions for regulation in collaborative learning (RegCL) by using features extracted from electrodermal activity (EDA), video, and audio data involving...
Poster
Full-text available
Effective collaborative learning (CL) requires group-level regulation (Kwon et al., 2014) in terms of co-regulated learning (CoRL) and socially shared regulation of learning (SSRL), which invites learners to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning beyond individual level (Järvelä et al., 2018). Group-level regulation actualizes in social interac...
Poster
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This study explores how different types of regulated learning (CoRL and SSRL) interplay with phases of knowledge construction in a CSCL task. Secondary school pupils (N=34) were videotaped while working in groups on a poster about the topic “Center of gravity”. Based on micro-level interaction video analysis (Gunawardena et al.'s (1997) Interacti...
Article
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Using hidden Markov models (HMM), the current study looked at how learners' metacognitive monitoring is related to their physiological reactivity in the context of collaborative learning. The participants (N = 12, age 16–17 years, three females and nine males) in the study were high school students enrolled in an advanced physics course. The result...
Article
Full-text available
Technologies for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) are playing an increasingly prominent role in educational contexts, especially as teachers and students strive to deal with pandemic-related constraints. However, the technologies being used for collaboration on a daily basis are not sufficiently equipped to promote collaborative lea...
Article
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This study explores pre-service and in-service teachers’ experiences in working as a learning community. Pre-service teachers (N = 60) and teacher educators (N = 9) from a Finnish university and in-service teachers (N = 27) from four local comprehensive schools worked together over six months. The teachers-as-learners continuous learning model was...
Article
This study summarises existing instruments for measuring and supporting self-regulated learning (SRL) in schools using articles from the SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. We analyse how the instruments address cognition, motivation or emotions as a target for regulation and whether they acknowledge the phase of SRL (forethought, performance or r...
Article
This study investigated pupil experiences and perceptions of two kinds of classroom-based physically active math lessons during the Moving Maths programme in a Finnish primary school context. Qualitative data were gathered in focus group interviews with 16 nine-year-old pupils. Pupils in the group with physically active breaks during math lessons e...
Article
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Research-based discussions about 21st-century skills are currently needed; 21st-century skills refer to skills that today's students are expected to possess for successful future careers. The ways students perceive these skills or what kind of dispositions they have in this regard are significant. This paper provides an overview of the development...
Article
Metacognition is a core process in human learning. The problem is that learners are not often aware of their metacognition. The purpose of this study is to examine learners’ metacognitive awareness in terms of their situation-specific perceptions in collaborative learning tasks. Upper elementary school students (N = 92) filled in a Metacognitive Aw...
Article
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This systematic review on data modalities synthesises the research findings in terms of how to optimally use and combine such modalities when investigating cognitive, motivational, and emotional learning processes. ERIC, WoS, and ScienceDirect databases were searched with specific keywords and inclusion criteria for research on data modalities, res...
Article
Full-text available
In collaborative learning situations, monitoring is needed to maintain common progress toward shared goals. The present study aimed to analyze group-level monitoring events, as well as groups’ reactions to these events, to identify instances of adaptive regulation and maladaptive behavior. Three dimensions of monitoring events were qualitatively co...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to introduce our current research design to study socially shared regulation processes in a science classroom where a collaborative learning design is implemented. The design is based on a self-regulated learning framework that provides opportunities and support for self-initiated regulation among individual learners and co...
Article
There is a growing body of research on physiological synchrony (PS) in Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS). However, the current literature presents inconclusive findings about the way in which PS is reflected in cognitive and affective group processes and performance. In light of this, this study investigates the relationship between PS and metaco...
Article
Metacognitive experiences are the feelings and judgments that emerge in relation to an ongoing learning task. Much of the work on metacognitive experiences has studied these constructs piecemeal and mostly in individual learning settings. Thus, little is known about how metacognitive experiences co-occur in social learning settings. In light of thi...
Article
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This study investigated the interplay of temporal changes in self-regulated learning processes (i.e., behavioral, cognitive, motivational and emotional) and their relationship with academic achievement in computer-supported collaborative learning. The study employed electrodermal activity and self-report data to capture the dynamicity of self-regul...
Conference Paper
While prominent empirical research exploring the possibilities to utilize different data channels in the research of regulation in collaborative learning is emerging, we are still in the process of discovering the relevant combinations of different data sources and proper ways to combine data from different channels. This is the case particularly w...
Article
Full-text available
Collaborative learning (CL) can be a powerful method for sharing understanding between learners. To this end, strategic regulation of processes, such as cognition and affect (including metacognition, emotion and motivation) is key. Decades of research on self‐regulated learning has advanced our understanding about the need for and complexity of tho...
Article
To support the development of pupils’ 21st-century skills, teachers themselves must also be competent in these skills and learn them during pre-service teacher education. The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of profiles emerge among Finnish first-year pre-service teachers’ (N = 872) in terms of perceptions of their strategic learning s...
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulation is critical for successful learning, and socially shared regulation contributes to productive collaborative learning. The problem is that the psychological processes at the foundation of regulation are invisible and, thus, very challenging to understand, support, and influence. The aim of this paper is to review the progress in soci...
Article
Full-text available
The coordination of cognitive and non-cognitive interactive processes contributes to successful collaboration in groups, but it is hard to evidence in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Monitoring is a metacognitive process that can be an indicator of a student’s ability to recognize success or failure in collaboration. This study fo...
Article
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Technological innovations, such as social networking systems, games for learning, and digital fabrication, are extending learning and interaction opportunities of people in educational and professional contexts. These technological transformations have the ability to deepen, enrich, and adaptively guide learning and interaction, but they also hold...
Presentation
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In this presentation, we report the results on our longitudinal study where students were followed for three years during bachelor level teacher education studies. The aim was to find out on how the students’ 21st century skills are developing, such as strategical learning, collaboration dispositions as well as use of ICT in education and attitudes...
Poster
Successful students are skillful in self-regulating their learning, which helps them to overcome cognitive, motivational and emotional learning challenges. These skills also further contribute to students’ wellbeing and learning results. However, regulating one’s own learning is not always easy, and students could benefit from support targeted to t...
Article
This qualitative study explores the convergences of small groups’ joint, positive interactions and regulation in social interaction during collaborative learning. We analyzed the video-recorded social interactions of five groups of student teachers during environmental science tasks. We examined the frequency and functions of the situations in whic...
Article
p>Technology-enhanced learning environments provide ample opportunities for learners to self-regulate their learning processes and activities for achieving the intended learning outcomes in various disciplines from soft to hard sciences and from humanities to the natural and social sciences. This special issue discusses the emerging technological a...
Article
Collaborative learning involves fluctuations in how students participate in social interaction and how they engage in interactions that are cognitive (e.g., sharing knowledge, monitoring learning) and more socio-emotional (e.g., encouragement, positive appraisal) in nature. Few studies have investigated how participation in social interaction fluct...
Article
This study explores teacher education students' knowledge co-construction activities, task-related monitoring and script use in collaborative learning situations. The specific aims are to investigate how students engage in knowledge co-construction activities and to compare task-related monitoring and script use in groups with active and passive kn...
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between shared monitoring of collaborative learning processes and physiological synchrony between the collaborating group members. Shared monitoring fuels collaborative learning in groups. Video and electrodermal activity data were collected from a group of high school students (two male, one...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the differences in teachers' monitoring of children during socio-emotional challenges children face in day care. Furthermore, the study investigated the association between teachers' monitoring activities and children's strategy use targeted at regulating emotions and behavior in these challenging situations. The data consist of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes our research approach in which we have focused on situational and contextual variations in motivation and emotion regulation to better understand its role, appearance and function in collaborative learning situations. We have used research designs that employ process-oriented measures combined with subjective interpretations to...
Article
This study explores fluctuation in students’ emotional state and motivational goals during a learning project that requires self-regulation. The research asks the following questions: (1) How do students’ emotional state and motivational goal fluctuate between the gStudy learning sessions during a two-month project? (2) How do students with differe...
Article
The increased interest in multimodal data collection in the learning sciences demands for new and powerful methodological and analytical techniques and technologies. It is especially challenging for learning scientists to handle, analyse, and interpret complex and often invisible multimodal data when investigating regulation of learning in collabor...
Article
This study gives voice to individual students' reflective interpretations of the challenges that they face during collaborative learning. It shows how students describe their strategic activities to overcome these challenges and illustrates how the described challenges are actualized in practice. Forty-three second-year teacher education students w...
Article
This article explores the dynamics of collaborative learning in the classroom from the perspective of the commonalities and interdependence in the degree of physiological activation from the sympathetic nervous system (i.e., sympathetic arousal) of group members. Using Empatica E4 wristbands, electrodermal activity—to derive arousal—was measured in...
Article
Although research on collaborative learning suggests that monitoring plays an important role in successful regulation of the collaborative learning process, little is known about how students attend to it together. This study explores monitoring in collaborative learning. Specifically, it studies how students in a group monitor their cognitive, aff...
Article
Progress in the development of technology has provided data-capturing devices that make it possible to identify detailed processes in collaborative learning. This study utilized multichannel data, namely physiological data, video observations, and facial recognition data, to explore what they can reveal about types of interaction and regulation of...
Article
Low arousal states (especially boredom) have been shown to be more deleterious to learning than high arousal states, though the latter have received much more attention (e.g., test anxiety, confusion, and frustration). Aiming at profiling arousal in the classroom (how active students are) and examining how activation levels relate to achievement, w...
Article
Technological advancements have generated a strong interest in exploring learner behavior data through learning analytics to provide both learner and instructor with process-oriented feedback in the form of dashboards. However, little is known about the typology of dashboard feedback relevant for different learning goals, learners and teachers. Whi...
Article
This study investigates when and how students activate co- and socially shared emotion and motivation regulation in collaborative learning and whether the S-REG mobile application tool can support this regulation. In a mathematics course, 44 higher education students worked with a collaborative assignment. The S-REG tool traced groups' emotional an...
Article
Productive interaction in collaborative learning requires a balance of engaging in high-level cognitive processes while sustaining socio-emotional processes that are favorable to this, but researchers often neglect to study both these aspects, with the relations between the two. This study focused on cognitive processes—namely, knowledge-based argu...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on Finnish pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their twenty-first century skills, especially their learning strategies, collaboration and teamwork, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to ICT in education. The target group consist of 263 first-year pre-service teachers from three universities. The results outline how pre-s...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating the temporal order of regulatory processes can explain in more detail the mechanisms behind success or lack of success during collaborative learning. The aim of this study is to explore the differences between high- and low-challenge collaborative learning sessions. This is achieved through examining how the three phases of self-regul...
Article
This study examines student teachers’ collaborative learning by focusing on socio-cognitive and socio-emotional monitoring processes during more and less active script discussions as well as the near transfer of monitoring activities in the subsequent task work. The participants of this study were teacher education students whose collaborative lear...
Article
This study investigated the ways in which children conduct and adapt their emotion and behaviour regulation activities in socio-emotionally challenging situations in day-care settings. The data consists of 75 video events of different challenging situations in two- to five-year-old children’s (N = 30) day-care activities. Unique strategies, sequent...
Conference Paper
In this poster, we describe the aim and current activities of the EARLI-Centre for Innovative Research (E-CIR) "Measuring and Supporting Student's Self-Regulated Learning in Adaptive Educational Technologies" which is funded by the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) from 2015 to 2019. The aim is to develop our und...
Article
Full-text available
First-year higher education (HE) students experience different challenges during their studies. These challenging learning situations can trigger self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, which students use to handle these situations. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate (a) first-year HE students’ cognitive, motivational and emotional challen...
Article
This study investigated how socially shared regulation of learning (SSRL) emerged during the fluctuation of participation in interaction in collaborative learning. Twenty-four student teachers in six small groups were video-recorded during collaborative tasks in mathematics. Manifestations of SSRL and students’ participation were micro-analytically...
Chapter
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Research about social modes of regulation has burgeoned resulting in a proliferation of terms. This chapter revisits and updates earlier conceptualizations of social modes of regulation in collaboration with the aim of: (a) summarizing relevant theoretical ideas, (b) grounding constructs in educational psychology, (c) highlighting contemporary rese...
Conference Paper
During the process of collaborative learning, students’ engagement in cognitive and socio-emotional processes can vary in time and similarly, their participation in interaction can fluctuate. However, it is unclear if and how students’ engagement in cognitive and socio-emotional processes is connected to the fluctuation of participation in interact...
Poster
Full-text available
Identifying challenging episodes in solo and collaborative learning is central for examining regulation of learning. This has led to search for new methodological tools to deepen the understanding between cognitive, motivational and emotional aspects of self-regulated learning (SRL). Despite its long history electrodermal activity (EDA) as a measur...
Poster
Full-text available
This study illustrates how groups strike a balance between favorable socio-emotional processes and argumentative interaction in face-to-face collaborative learning. Our study is based on the analysis of self-report data and videos (N = 20, M = 1 h 9 min.) of teacher education students’ (N= 19, 5 groups) collaborative interaction. Our findings revea...
Article
The field of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is progressing instrumentally and theoretically. Nevertheless, few studies examine the effectiveness and efficiency of CSCL with respect to cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social issues, despite the fact that the role of regulatory processes is critical for the quality of student...
Article
Full-text available
With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the twenty-first-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the twenty-first-century learning practices in teac...
Conference Paper
Collaborative learning is considered a critical 21st century skill. Much is known about its contribution to learning, but still investigating a process of collaboration remains a challenge. This paper approaches the investigation on collaborative learning from a psychophysiological perspective. An experiment was set up to explore whether biosensors...