Sanjeev Sockalingam

Sanjeev Sockalingam
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Psychiatry

MD, FRCPC

About

313
Publications
81,812
Reads
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4,106
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2009 - present
Toronto Western Hospital
Position
  • Director, Bariatric Surgery Psychosocial Program
July 2008 - present
University Health Network
July 2008 - present
University of Toronto

Publications

Publications (313)
Article
Background: Body-contouring surgery can be a solution to excess skin folds following bariatric surgery. Many patients desire body-contouring surgery, but the cost of the procedure may be a limiting factor. This study aims to examine barriers to access and to compare socioeconomic variables and psychological variables between bariatric surgery pati...
Article
Full-text available
Women and gender-diverse individuals have faced disproportionate socioeconomic burden during COVID-19. There have been reports of greater negative mental health changes compared to men based on cross-sectional research that has not accounted for pre-COVID-19 differences. We compared mental health changes from pre-COVID-19 to during COVID-19 by sex...
Article
Full-text available
Background The success of continuing professional development (CPD) programs that foster skills in lifelong learning (LLL) has been well established. However, healthcare professionals often report barriers such as access to CPD and cost which limit uptake. Further research is required to assess how accessible CPD programs, such as those delivered v...
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Full-text available
Background Patients undergoing bariatric surgery have high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, which may increase their vulnerability to COVID-19-related mental health distress. Exacerbation of mental health distress and disordered eating could have significant negative effects on long-term weight management and quality of life for these patients if...
Article
Introduction: Despite the support for and benefits of data-driven learning, physician engagement is variable. This study explores systemic influences of physician use of data for performance improvement in continuing professional development (CPD) by analyzing and interpreting data sources from organizational and institutional documents. Methods:...
Article
Introduction: The use of data to inform lifelong learning has become increasingly important in continuing professional development (CPD) practice. Despite the potential benefits of data-driven learning, our understanding of how physicians engage in data-informed learning activities, particularly for CPD, remains unclear and warrants further study....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Recovery colleges (RCs) are mental health centres aimed at equipping people with skills to live a meaningful life despite the presence of mental distress. Unique to them is the aspect of cocreation; RCs are designed collaboratively with people of lived experiences of mental health and addictions and care providers. Despite establishe...
Chapter
Food addiction (FA) is an increasingly popular concept that certain highly processed foods are implicated in addictive-like eating, which may contribute to obesity. The prevalence of FA is estimated to be around 10–15% among adults and children, with elevated rates among those with underweight or obesity and/or binge eating problems. In this chapte...
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Background Project ECHO is a virtual education model aimed at building capacity among healthcare providers to support optimal management for a range of health conditions. The expansion of the ECHO model, further amplified by the pandemic, has demonstrated an increased need to evaluate implementation success to ensure that interventions are implemen...
Article
Internationally, transitions from prison to the community are often precarious experiences for people who are living with substance use and mental health concerns. In Canada, a continuing opioid overdose crisis and overlapping challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic have generated urgency for scaling up community-based services that can meet th...
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Purpose of Review We review evidence for assessing and monitoring psychotropic medications in metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) patients. We describe weight gain side effects, potential perioperative risks, pharmacokinetic changes that occur after MBS, and conclude with clinical recommendations. Recent Findings Research on psychiatric medicati...
Article
Objective Bariatric surgery is associated with reduced atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure hospitalization in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and those with prior CVD. Most patients undergoing bariatric surgery do not have T2D or CVD. Many otherwise eligible patients do not have surgery because of self-exclusion. Clinic...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Timely and comprehensive treatment in the form of early psychosis intervention (EPI) has become the standard of care for youth with psychosis. While EPI services were designed to be delivered in person, the COVID-19 pandemic required many EPI programs to rapidly transition to virtual delivery, with little evidence to guide intervention a...
Article
Background: Timely and comprehensive treatment in the form of early psychosis intervention (EPI) has become the standard of care for youth with psychosis. While EPI services were designed to be delivered in person, the COVID-19 pandemic required many EPI programs to rapidly transition to virtual delivery, with little evidence to guide intervention...
Article
Introduction: Project Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO®) is a global-guided practice initiative aimed at building primary care capacity and improving health care quality for underserved populations. This tele-education model brings together primary care providers and subject-matter specialists in online communities of pract...
Article
Objective The use of virtual learning in psychiatric education has been required to address COVID-19-related challenges. Research regarding the implementation of virtual teaching environments and standardized patients for simulation remains limited. Here, educators’ outcomes were evaluated following a transition from in-person teaching with “real”...
Article
Absenteeism rates among nurses have increased across Canada over the last several years, with work environment challenges and staffing shortages being possible contributors. With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses have worked under increasingly stressful conditions. Unsurprisingly, many nurses are facing mental health challenges. Digital to...
Article
Although most bariatric patients achieve significant weight loss and improvements in both physical and mental health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) in the short‐term, there is wide variability in weight and long‐term HRQoL outcomes. The role of bariatric patients' self‐management style in explaining variability in long‐term outcomes is unclear. Th...
Article
Introduction: With the proliferation of virtual learning programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is increased need to understand learner experiences and impact on developing expertise. Project Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO®) is an established hub-and-spoke tele-education model aimed at building capacity and experti...
Preprint
BACKGROUND People with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at increased health related risks due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Virtual training programs that support providers in caring for the physical and mental health needs of this population, as well provide psychological support to the providers themselves are favourable during the pan...
Article
Background People with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at increased health-related risk due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Virtual training programs that support providers in caring for the physical and mental health needs of this population, as well provide psychological support to the providers themselves, are needed during the pandemi...
Article
Full-text available
The body of research examining the validity of food addiction and eating addiction far exceeds the research examining their clinical utility [...]
Article
Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had far reaching consequences on the health and well-being of the general public. Evidence from previous pandemics suggest that bariatric patients may experience increased emotional distress and difficulty adhering to healthy lifestyle changes post-surgery. Objective We aimed to exami...
Article
Obesity is a chronic multisystem disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of obesity makes it a major healthcare challenge across both developed and developing countries. Traditional measures such as body mass index do not always identify individuals at increased risk of comorbidities, yet continue to be...
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In 2019, the American Psychiatric Association Council on Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry convened a Work Group to develop a Resource Document on Proactive Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. A draft of this document was reviewed by the Council in July 2020, and a revised version was approved by this Council in September 2020. The accepted version was...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physicians are in a position of great influence to advocate for health equity. As such, it is important for physicians-in-training to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to fulfil this role. Although various undergraduate medical programs have implemented health advocacy training, they often lack experiential learning and physic...
Article
Objective Despite the increasing number of people with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disabilities (ID), and developmental disabilities (DDs), individuals with these conditions continue to have high levels of unmet physical and mental health needs. Robust training of health professionals can help bridge this gap. A systematic review w...
Article
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Disturbed eating behaviours have been widely reported in psychotic disorders since the early 19th century. There is also evidence that antipsychotic (AP) treatment may induce binge eating or other related compulsive eating behaviours. It is therefore possible that abnormal eating patterns may contribute to the significant weight gain and other meta...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a number of negative health related consequences, including impacts on mental health. More than 22% of Canadians reported that they had felt depressed in the last week, in response to a December, 2020 national survey. Given the need to physically distance during the pandemic, and the increase in dema...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a number of negative health related consequences, including impacts on mental health. More than 22% of Canadians reported that they had felt depressed in the last week, in response to a December 2020 national survey. Given the need to physically distance during the pandemic, and the increase in deman...
Article
Background COVID-19 causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the high prevalence of delirium and delirium-related symptoms in COVID-19 patients, data and evidence-based recommendations on the pathophysiology and management of delirium are limited. Objective We conducted a rapid review of COVID-19-related delirium literature to provide a...
Article
The increased recognition of patients' mental health needs after bariatric surgery has resulted in the emergence of accessible psychosocial interventions; however, there is a dearth of literature on patient experience and satisfaction with these interventions. We explored patients' perceptions and experiences of telephone-based cognitive behavioura...
Article
Presurgical psychosocial evaluations are an important component of bariatric care; yet, bariatric programs vary widely in their assessment and interpretation of psychosocial risk. There is a need for validated clinical tools that help to standardize and streamline the assessment of variables relevant to surgical outcomes. The present study contribu...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined clinical correlates of food addiction among post-operative bariatric surgery patients, compared the clinical characteristics of patients with versus without food addiction, and examined whether a brief telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy (Tele-CBT) intervention improves food addiction symptomatology among those...
Article
The rapid rise of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to the implementation of public health measures on an unprecedented scale. These measures have significantly affected the training environment and the mental health of health care providers and learners. Design thinking offers creative and innovative solutions to emergent comple...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Physicians are in a position of great influence to advocate for health equity. As such, it is important for physicians-in-training to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to fulfil this role. Although various undergraduate medical programs have implemented health advocacy training, they often lack experiential learning and physicia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Physicians are in a position of great influence to advocate for health equity. As such, it is important for physicians-in-training to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to fulfil this role. Although various undergraduate medical programs have implemented health advocacy training, they often lack experiential learning and physici...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Physicians are in a position of great influence to advocate for health equity. As such, it is important for physicians-in-training to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to fulfil this role. Although various undergraduate medical programs have implemented health advocacy training, they often lack experiential learning and physicia...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is a prevalent, complex, progressive and relapsing chronic disease, characterized by abnormal or excessive body fat (adiposity), that impairs health. People living with obesity face substantial bias and stigma, which contribute to increased morbidity and mortality independent of weight or body mass index. This guideline update reflects su...
Article
Full-text available
KEY POINTS • Obesity is a prevalent, complex, progressive and relapsing chronic disease, characterized by abnormal or excessive body fat (adiposity), that impairs health. • People living with obesity face substantial bias and stigma, which contribute to increased morbidity and mortality independent of weight or body mass index. • This guideline upd...
Article
Full-text available
Background Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a global reminder of the need to attend to the mental health of patients and health professionals who are suddenly facing this public health crisis. In the last two decades, a number of medical pandemics have yielded insights on the mental health impact of these events. Based on these experiences...
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Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic can cause significant mental health distress amongst health care professionals (HCPs). We describe the psychological needs of HCPs during COVID-19 and the implementation of Project ECHO Coping with COVID (ECHO-CWC) to help HCPs' manage COVID-19 distress. Methods: We used an established rapid implementation approa...
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Full-text available
Objective The aim of this study is to examine patients’ experiences in integrated care (IC) settings. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Settings Two IC sites in Toronto, Canada: (1) a community-based primary healthcare centre, supporting patients with hepatitis C and comorbid mental health and substance use issues; and (2)...
Article
Background While bariatric surgery has proven to be effective to achieve significant weight loss and short-term improvements in both physical and mental (HRQoL), little is known about the factors associated with long-term decline in mental HRQoL after bariatric surgery. Objective To examine differences in physical and mental HRQoL trajectories in...
Article
In response to a letter to the editor written by Plaeke et al. entitled: “Importance of heterogeneity in bariatric surgery candidates – Comment on: Psychiatric Medication Use and Weight Outcomes One Year After Bariatric Surgery”, we address comments on the conflicting results between our study and theirs entitled “Postoperative continuation of anti...
Article
The global outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) has had a tremendous psychological impact on individuals around the world. Individuals with obesity are susceptible to distress and psychological sequalae secondary to this pandemic, which can have detrimental effects on obesity management. In particular, individuals undergoing bariatric s...
Article
Background Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe obesity; however, high rates of psychiatric comorbidity complicate bariatric surgery care. As a result, importance has been placed on the need for ongoing psychiatric support in bariatric surgery patients. Given the lack of conclusive pre-surgery psychosocial predictors of post-opera...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Compassion is a vital component to the achievement of positive health outcomes, particularly in mental health care. The rise of digital technologies may influence the delivery of compassionate care, and thus this relationship between compassion and digital health care needs to be better understood. Objective: This scoping review aime...
Article
Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus affects approximately 8.5% of the world's population with the majority of cases diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Impaired awareness or denial of T2DM is a common yet understudied construct that negatively contributes to clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop the Diabetes Awareness and I...
Article
Purpose: Understanding the quality of evidence of delirium education studies will assist in designing future education interventions that seek to improve the well-known deficits in delirium prevention, detection and care. The aim of this study is to systematically review the methodological strengths and limitations, as well as the impact of deliri...
Article
Introduction: Clozapine remains the most effective antipsychotic for treatment refractory schizophrenia. However, ~40% of patients respond insufficiently to clozapine. Clozapine’s effects, both beneficial and adverse, have been proposed to be partially attributable to its main metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC). However, the relation of the cl...
Article
Background: Given the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity in bariatric surgery patients, pharmacotherapy is common and could potentially influence weight loss outcomes. Objective: We aimed to identify the impact of psychotropic medication use on percent total weight loss (%TWL) 1 year after bariatric surgery. Methods: In this prospective coh...
Article
Bariatric surgery results in sustained weight loss and improvement in many obesity-related comorbidities. However, the effects of bariatric surgery on long-term mental health are less clear. A recent longitudinal cohort study shows that patients undergoing bariatric surgery seek mental health services at higher rates after surgery than before surge...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Adult extreme obesity (EO) is a growing health concern. The prevalence of known obesity associated co-morbidities namely cardio-metabolic and neuro-psychiatric disease in EO is not fully established. The contribution of pathogenic genetic variants, previously implicated in early childhood onset obesity, to adult EO is also not established...
Article
Introduction: Practice data can inform the selection of educational strategies; however, it is not widely used, even when available. This study's purpose was to determine factors that influence physician engagement with practice data to advance competence and drive practice change. Methods: A practice-based, pan-Canadian survey was administered...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Compassion is a vital component to the achievement of positive health outcomes, particularly in mental health care. The rise and influence of digital technologies in mental health care may influence the delivery of compassionate care, and thus this relationship between compassion and digital health care needs to be better understood. OB...
Article
Extreme obesity (EO, BMI>50) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric disease (NPD). As both EO and NPD are heritable central nervous system disorders, we assessed the prevalence of protein truncating (PTV) and copy number variants (CNV) in genes/regions previously implicated in NPD, in adults with EO (n=149) referred for weight loss/bariatri...
Article
Phenomenon: Despite the emergence of the integrated care (IC) model, IC is variably taught and is challenged by current siloed competency domains. This study aimed to define IC competencies spanning multiple competency domains. Approach: Iterative facilitated discussions were conducted at a half-day education retreat with 25 key informants includin...
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Full-text available
Objectives Bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment for severe obesity. In addition to sustained weight loss, bariatric surgery can result in improvements in mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and, consequently, work capacity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate changes to employment impairment (EI) a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Given the increasing evidence and expansion of integrated care (IC) in healthcare, new IC curricula introduced early in undergraduate medical education (UME) are needed. Building on a pilot IC simulation called "Getting to Know Patients' System of Care" (GPS-Care), we aimed to explore students' understanding of patients' complex physic...
Article
Objective: Although bariatric surgery is a durable treatment for patients with severe obesity, it does not directly address behavioural and psychological factors that potentially contribute to weight regain post-surgery. Psychological interventions, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), can be challenging to access due to physical limitatio...
Article
Objectives: Despite the established clinical and cost-effectiveness of integrated care (IC) models for patients with comorbid mental and physical illness, little is known about whether t