Sandro Carbonari

Sandro Carbonari
Università Politecnica delle Marche | Università degli Studi di Ancona · Department of Construction, Civil Engineering and Architecture (DICEA)

Civil Engineer, PhD

About

123
Publications
18,080
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875
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Additional affiliations
January 2008 - present
Università Politecnica delle Marche
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Full-text available
The seismic assessment of existing bridges is of the utmost importance to characterise the main structural deficiencies, estimate the risk, prioritise retrofit interventions, or estimate losses and repair costs in case of earthquakes. The above tasks require information on the damage mechanisms likely to occur as well as on the damage extent over t...
Article
Full-text available
Scour is the prevailing cause of bridge failure worldwide, leading not only to traffic disruption, but also to social and economic losses and even to casualties. Many vibration-based monitoring techniques have been proposed for identifying the scour location and extent, based on the evaluation of the changes of the bridge modal properties due to sc...
Article
This paper presents the results of a study on the dynamic and seismic response of the support structures of three reference Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT) of increasing rated power, founded to the seabed through monopile foundations. Thus, the structural behaviour of the NREL 5 MW, IEA Wind 10 MW and IEA Wind 15 MW reference OWTs under seismic input...
Article
The paper presents a Winkler‐based numerical model for the analysis of the dynamic response of caisson foundations. The model allows the evaluation of the impedance functions and of the foundation input motion (FIM), which can be used in the framework of the substructure approach to compute inertial soil‐foundation superstructure interaction analys...
Article
Full-text available
Soil-structure interaction is a complex problem to address in structural design due to difficulties related to the modelling of the soil-foundation behaviour, which is frequency-dependent and affected by uncertainties. The substructure method is an efficient approach to include the soil-foundation behaviour in the superstructure response, since it...
Article
Beam-column joints in reinforced concrete frame buildings are very important elements whose design must be done with particular attention to guarantee the development of full strength and ductility of structural elements, as well as the respect of the hierarchy principles. Nowadays many codes worldwide require the evaluation of the beam-column join...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results and interpretations of static and dynamic tests that were executed on a newly built cable-stayed steel-concrete composite bridge during the final proof testing. A brief description of the structure, the testing methodology, and the used instrumentation are presented. Then, the test results are widely discussed and in...
Article
A methodology for the identification of the physical parameters of a model describing the transverse dynamics of soil-foundation-pier systems founded on piles is presented in this paper, starting from identified state-space models of the systems obtained from results of dynamic experimental tests and identification techniques available in the liter...
Article
Full-text available
Tests on infill masonry walls have been widely performed by many researchers and for a long time with the main purpose of characterising the infill performance under earthquake-type excitations. However, most of these works deal with laboratory tests on purpose-built specimens. More recently, vibration-based tests have been also adopted to investig...
Article
Earthquake and scouring are the leading causes of bridge failure worldwide, resulting not only in casualties and fatalities but also in enormous societal and economic losses. A great number of bridges in earthquake-prone countries cross rivers and have shallow foundations, which renders them highly vulnerable to the combined effects of earthquake a...
Chapter
The evaluation of the residual efficiency of post-tensioned cables in existing prestressed concrete bridges is a very challenging and important task for the structural safety assessment. Indeed, some collapses of this kind of bridges occurred recently in Italy were attributed to the failure of cables. However, non-destructive tests for the damage d...
Chapter
In case of bridges, static proof tests are mandatory to certify the compliance of the structural performance with that expected from the design model before the opening to traffic. Tests consist in progressively increase the load (by using fully loaded trucks) on one or more bridge spans and to monitor the structural response in terms of displaceme...
Chapter
This work focuses on the fragility assessment of reinforced concrete multi-span continuous bridges, which is a widespread structural typology in Italy, with the aim of investigating the peculiar vulnerabilities of the bridge class under investigation, the reinforced concrete link slab jointless bridges. The need for a deeper study on the topic deri...
Chapter
During the 60s and 70s many highway viaducts were built in Italy using simply supported prestressed beams, often adopting low shear reinforcement quantities following the prescriptions of the code in force at that time. Nowadays, according to the current assessment procedures at Ultimate Limit State (ULS), based on new criteria and increased traffi...
Article
The paper discusses the usefulness of the dynamic characterization of buildings based on the use of ambient vibration tests at different construction phases. The proposed experimental procedure, integrated with more conventional non-destructive in-situ tests for the estimation of the material mechanical properties, foresees the monitoring of the ev...
Chapter
The importance of assessing the overall behaviour of buildings considering the contribution of non-structural infills has been nowadays widely recognised. Indeed, infills can trigger fragile mechanisms of structural members preventing the evolution of dissipative mechanisms and can play an important role in the verifications at damageability limit...
Chapter
Results of the dynamic monitoring carried out on a school building located in central Italy during the seismic sequence following the main shock of 2016 Central Italy earthquake are presented in this work. The building, located in the historical centre of Camerino (Marche Region), consists of a reinforced concrete frame structure with masonry infil...
Article
This paper presents results from the dynamic monitoring of a reinforced concrete school building located in Camerino (central Italy) during the seismic swarm following the first main shock of the Central Italy earthquake occurred in August 2016. After the main shock of August 24th, ambient vibration tests were executed on the building to identify i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents finite elements for a higher order steel–concrete composite beam model developed for the analysis of bridge decks. The model accounts for the slab–girder partial interaction, the overall shear deformability, and the shear-lag phenomenon in steel and concrete components. The theoretical derivation of the solving balance condition...
Article
The paper deals with the dynamic characterization of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame school building in central Italy before and after the seismic retrofitting, obtained by coupling the building with an innovative patented seismic dissipative protection system. Before the retrofit, ambient vibration tests were performed to evaluate frequencies and...
Article
In this paper a procedure to experimentally estimate the stiffness of masonry internal partitions and infill walls is proposed with the aim of providing a practical tool to reduce uncertainties in the finite element modelling of frame buildings when partitions and infills must be included. The proposed methodology, based on in-situ impact load test...
Article
The paper presents a review of the analytical and numerical procedures developed by the authors for the dynamic analysis of soil-pile foundation systems subjected to the propagation of seismic waves in the soil. Inclined and vertical single piles and groups constituted by piles with a generic inclination are addressed. For the former, an analytical...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results of an extensive experimental campaign carried out during the construction phases of a base-isolated bridge across the Potenza river in central Italy. The structure is constituted by a half-through steel arch bridge composed by two coupled weathering steel tubular arches sustained by thirty couples of hangers and by two a...
Article
This paper studies the effects of the use of inclined pile foundations on the seismic response of bridges, and shows that this type of foundation is able to promote significant reductions in the ductility demand of reinforced concrete piers. To this end, a set of nine multi-span roadway viaducts with different pier heights and span lengths is defin...
Chapter
In recent years, Italy has been hit by earthquakes, causing significant damage to masonry and reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Especially, common buildings and ordinary structures in many small historical towns of Italian central regions, such as Marche, have suffered dramatic consequences and destruction. Dynamic analysis and seismic structura...
Chapter
We discuss the research that is being carried out at the Department of Civil and Building Engineering and Architecture (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Architettura, DICEA) of the Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM). Over the years the DICEA has steadily focused its attention on resilient environments and buildings, making a gro...
Article
An extensive experimental in-situ campaign of dynamic tests carried out on a full-scale 2 x 2 group of inclined injected micropiles in alluvial soils is described in this paper. The campaign includes ambient vibration and impact load tests to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the soil-micropile system in the small strain range, and forced vibrat...
Article
This paper analyses the observational damage from post-earthquake investigations carried out on churches of the Marche Region struck by the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence. Such seismic activity seriously damaged many historical buildings and particularly churches, due to their intrinsic inability to develop an efficient box-like resisting mech...
Conference Paper
The paper presents a simplified procedure for the time domain soil-structure interaction analysis of piled structures, based on the use of a lumped parameter model for the approximation of the frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness of foundations. The lumped model can be implemented in commercial software to perform linear or nonlinear dynamic analy...
Conference Paper
In the soil-structure interaction framework, among the results of the soil-foundation system analysis (kinematic analysis) the dynamic impedance functions represent the force-displacement relationships of the compliant restraint for the superstructure. The intrinsic variability of soil parameters and of design materials represents an uncertainty so...
Article
Full-text available
The seismic sequence that struck central Italy from August to October 2016 caused severe damage to many historical and artistic buildings. In particular, churches were widely affected due to the intrinsic peculiarities of their structural system, unable to develop an efficient box-like resisting mechanism. After the seismic events, teams of experts...
Data
This spreadsheet evaluates the parameters of the Lumped Parameter Model proposed in Carbonari et al. (2018) and Morici et al. (2019). The LPMs refer to floating and end-bearing single piles and pile groups with square layout embedded in homogeneous soil deposits. The LPMs can be implemented in commercial software to perform linear or nonlinear dyna...
Article
The scope of this research was to identify the significance of soil-structure interaction and site response on the dynamic behaviour of continuous multispan reinforced concrete viaducts, based on ambient vibration measurements and numerical simulations, using finite element models. For this purpose, an 875 m long bridge, located in Central Italy, f...
Article
The paper presents simple formulas to evaluate parameters of a lumped system reproducing the frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness of end-bearing pile foundations. The model can be implemented in commercial finite element software and allows performing inertial soil-structure interaction analyses of structures considering the coupled roto-translati...
Article
This paper presents a wide parametric study aimed at elucidating the influence, on the computed seismic response of bridge piers, of two related aspects of the model: (1) the adoption of the classical hysteretic or the causal Biot's damping models for the soil and (2) the use of two different lumped parameter models of different complexity and accu...
Article
The paper presents a performance-based approach for the design of flexible breasting dolphins equipped with marine fenders, often used in jetties belonging to offshore oil terminals. Since the distance of the breasting system to the mooring one and to the oil terminal is generally limited for serviceable and operational issues, the proposed design...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with an extensive experimental campaign of dynamic tests performed on full-scale vertical injected and not injected micropiles embedded in alluvial soils. The experimentation includes ambient vibration and impact load tests to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the soil-micropile system in very small and smallmedium strain ranges,...
Conference Paper
This paper presents and discusses results of the dynamic tests performed on the Moscosi Bridge in Cingoli (Italy). The main scope of the tests is to evaluate the dynamic parameters of the bridge, such as the eigenfrequencies, the mode shapes and the relevant modal damping ratios, in order to characterize the structural behaviour before the executio...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse the effect of temperature and wind velocity on the natural frequencies and modal damping ratios of the Faculty of Engineering Tower at the Università Politecnica delle Marche, a 10-story reinforced concrete frame building, permanently monitored with low-noise accelerometers. The data recorded over the first 5 months of monitoring demonst...
Data
The excel spreadsheet evaluates parameters of the Lumped Parameter Model presented in the paper. The model can be implemented in commercial software to perform linear or nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures founded on piles, taking into account the frequency‐dependent coupled roto‐translational, vertical, and torsional behaviour of the soil‐fou...
Article
The paper presents a lumped parameter model for the approximation of the frequency‐dependent dynamic stiffness of pile group foundations. The model can be implemented in commercial software to perform linear or nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures founded on piles taking into account the frequency‐dependent coupled roto‐translational, vertical,...
Chapter
This paper investigates local problems involved in the transfer mechanisms of inertia forces acting at the level of the concrete slab of typical steel-concrete composite bridge decks. In detail, the behaviour of the shear connection, usually designed with only reference to non-seismic loads at the ultimate limit state, is studied considering shear...
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on the contribution of the soil-foundation compliance on the measured dynamic response of the Chiaravalle viaduct subjected to ambient excitations. The viaduct, linking the SS76 with the airport of Ancona (in Central Italy), is 875 m long and is constituted by four kinematic chains separated by expansion joints. The r.c. deck is...
Article
Full-text available
Thanks to their ease of installation, even in access-restricted spaces, micropiles are increasingly adopted for the seismic rehabilitation of existing structures. Moreover, both vertical and inclined micropiles are often used as foundation system for new constructions, ground improvements and many other applications. In order to deepen the knowledg...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the dynamic behaviour of a 1960s school building in Camerino subjected to moderate earthquakes belonging to the after-shock sequence of the 2016 Central Italy earthquake. The school structure, constituted by RC frames, was seismically retrofitted by means of "Dissipative Towers", an innovative system based on the use of extern...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents first results of an on-going research focused on the effects of piles layout and inclination on the nonlinear seismic response of bridge piers. The analysis methodology, based on the substructure approach, is firstly presented. The soil-foundation system is studied in the frequency domain according to a numerical model developed...
Article
Full-text available
This work investigates the effects of soil-structure interaction and spatial variability of seismic motion due to nonlinear site amplification on the seismic behaviour of long multi-span bridges founded on piles. An analysis framework able to include the spatial variation of ground motion induced by specific geological and geomorphological scenario...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the seismic response of bridge piers founded on inclined pile groups in different soil deposits, evaluating effects of soil-structure interaction induced by different pile group geometries and piles inclinations. Analyses are performed in the frequency domain by means of the direct approach taking advantage of a numerical mo...
Article
Full-text available
In urban areas, engineers often need to assess tunnelling-induced displacements of piled structures and the resulting potential for damage. This paper presents an elastic study of tunnel-pile-structure interaction through Winkler-based Two-Stage Analysis Methods (TSAMs), focusing on structural displacements resulting from tunnel excavation beneath...
Article
This paper presents a simple physical model for the numerical simulation of the behavior of buckling-type marine fenders. The proposed model is characterized by four parameters and is derived starting from similarities between the unstable behavior of marine fenders and shallow arches. In this model, the large displacements solution expressing the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an analytical model, based on the beam-on-dynamic Winkler foundation approach, for the evaluation of impedances and kinematic response of single inclined piles. The pile is modelled as a Euler–Bernoulli beam having a generic inclination and the soil–pile interaction is captured by defining soil impedances according to expression...
Conference Paper
This paper describes some notable aspects regarding the dynamic monitoring planned for the Chiaravalle viaduct, linking SS76 and airport of Ancona in Falconara, in Italy. The viaduct is 875 m long and consists of four r.c. kinematic chains separated by joints. The deck is constituted by three beams supported by column bent piers constituted by two...
Conference Paper
In the present work, first steps of an extensive experimental study carried out on two vertical micropiles in alluvial silty soil are presented. One of the vertical micropiles is injected throughout valves a-manchettes placed along the steel core of the shaft, while the other one is grouted with a unique global injection. Both of them are instrumen...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a novel interdependent interpolation finite element for a higher order beam model capable of capturing the shear-lag phenomenon and the overall shear deformability of composite beams. After a brief overview of the beam kinematics and of the differential solving equations, the stiffness matrix and the nodal forces to be used in a...
Conference Paper
The paper presents an analytical solution, based on the beam-on-dynamic Winkler foundation approach, for the evaluation of the dynamic impedances of inclined single piles. The Euler-Bernoulli beam model is adopted for the pile whereas analytical expressions available in literature for viscoelastic layers undergoing harmonic vibrations of a rigid di...