Sandra Simpkins

Sandra Simpkins
University of California, Irvine | UCI · School of Education

30.99
 · 
PhD Developmental Psychology

About

74
Publications
25,396
Reads
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3,180
Citations
Research Experience
December 2004 - July 2015
Arizona State University
Position
  • Associate Professor

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
This study examined the associations between parental involvement in adolescents’ organized after-school activities and adolescents’ motivational beliefs. Data were reported by 231 Mexican-origin and European American adolescents who participated in an organized after-school activity (57% female, Mage = 12.37, SD = .54) and their parents. Overall p...
Article
High school underrepresented minority students in the US are at an increased risk of dropping out of the STEM pipeline. Based on expectancy-value theory, we examined if Latino students’ perception of support from parents, siblings/cousins, teachers, and friends in 10th grade predicted their science ability self-concepts and values, which in turn pr...
Article
Grounded in bioecological theories, this mixed-method article examines aspects of culturally responsive organized activities. Study 1 used path analysis to quantitatively test relations between ethnic cultural features of activities (ways of integrating ethnic culture) and concurrent experiences ( N = 150 Latino adolescents). Findings were mixed, s...
Article
Full-text available
Science motivational beliefs are crucial for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) performance and persistence, but these beliefs typically decline during high school. We expanded the literature on adolescents’ science motivational beliefs by examining: (1) changes in motivational beliefs in three specific science subjects, (2) how gend...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores ways to support girls of color in forming their senses of selves in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) during the middle school years. Guided by social practice theory, we analyzed a large data set of survey responses (n = 1,821) collected at five middle schools in low‐income communities across four states in the...
Article
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Cultural responsiveness is a key aspect of the quality of organized activities, yet has rarely been examined. Based on developmental theories and a theoretical framework for culturally responsive activities, the current study investigated the prevalence and correlates of two ethnic cultural features (i.e., ethnic cultural content & ethnic cultural...
Chapter
High school extracurricular activities (ECAs) can bring diverse adolescents together and promote friendships that reduce outgroup prejudices. This chapter examines two seemingly contradictory processes and explain how, in fact, they can occur in tandem. At the macro level, ECAs can promote homophily (i.e., in-group friendship) by homogenizing the p...
Article
Overweight youth are often socially marginalized and have fewer friends than their nonoverweight peers. Participation in organized activities may be one way to promote friendships for overweight youth. In this study, we used a large nationally representative sample to test whether two aspects of participation promoted friendships, namely the number...
Preprint
Racial/ethnic friendship segregation among adolescents has negative consequences throughout the life course. Extracurricular activities (ECAs) within high schools offer the capacity to bring diverse adolescents together and promote friendships that reduce outgroup prejudices. Despite their promise, only a few researchers have tested the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
The limited understanding on why Latino parents endorse organized activities is problematic given that these beliefs can help elucidate why they overcome barriers to support their children’s participation. In this study, we analyzed interviews from a diverse group of 34 Mexican-origin parents who resided in Arizona. Results of the study indicate th...
Article
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Organized after-school activities promote positive youth development across a range of outcomes. To be most effective, organized activities need to meet high-quality standards. The eight features of quality developed by the National Research Council’s Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth have helped guide the field in this regard. Howeve...
Article
Grounded in the Eccles' expectancy-value model, we review the literature on how families socialize youths' motivational beliefs and choices. Parental beliefs and behaviors are important precursors to youths' motivation. Parents' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by child characteristics, such as gender, and family characteristics, such as income. Fo...
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Organized activities have been found to provide positive experiences for Latino adolescents to develop confidence and learn critical life skills; however, these programs are sometimes a context where youth encounter negative experiences related to ethnic/racial microaggressions (ERMs). This qualitative study explores the types of ERMs that Mexican-...
Article
Respect is crucial for promoting participation and positive experiences in organized activities, especially among ethnically diverse youth. However, little is known regarding how Mexican-origin adolescents conceptualize respect and specifically how to promote respect in activities. Guided by theory and previous research, we used qualitative content...
Article
Families are theorized to influence adolescents’ participation in skill-based after-school activities, but research has focused on the role of parents while neglecting the role of siblings. Siblings might be especially critical for Mexican-origin youth, the fastest growing youth population in the United States, due to a high value of family as well...
Article
Full-text available
Are Latino adolescents' friendships an untapped resource for academic achievement or perhaps one of the reasons why these youth struggle academically? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6782; 7th through 12th graders; 52.9 % female), we examined whether the process of Latino students' school belonging mediated...
Article
Individuals are at an increased risk to drop out of the STEM pipeline if they are female or Latino, and during certain periods including high school. Families are a potential untapped resource of support for high school students. Based on the expectancy-value model, we examined if a variety of parental behaviors predicted students' ability self-con...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we review the research on the development of children's motivation and engagement. We organize our review into four major sections: the development of children's achievement motivation; gender, cultural, and ethnic differences in children's motivation; socialization of motivation in the family; and socialization of motivation in sch...
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Increasing ethnic diversity among American youth, in combination with funding priorities often targeting underserved populations, has increased the number of diverse youth attending afterschool programs (ASPs). At present, there is little guidance on how to best design ASPs and prepare staff to support the development of these diverse youth. The fi...
Article
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Objectives: We used social network analysis to examine how weight status affects friend selection, with an emphasis on homophily and the social marginalization of overweight youths. Methods: We used an exponential random graph model to assess the effects of body mass index (BMI) on friend selection while controlling for several alternative selec...
Article
Bioecological theory suggests that adolescents' health is a result of selection and socialization processes occurring between adolescents and their microsettings. This study examines the association between adolescents' friends and health using a social network model and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,896, mea...
Article
Involvement in physically active pursuits, such as sports, contributes to achieving and maintaining good emotional and physical health. The central goal of this article was to examine the longitudinal relationships between participation (i.e., time spent in the activities) in organized and informal sports contexts and motivational beliefs, and fact...
Article
The goal of this volume is to show how organized activities provide an ideal setting for developing a deeper understanding of peer relations, as well as offering a context for a more positive study of peers. The chapters in this volume focus on youth 10 to 18 years of age. In this introductory chapter we first describe the reasons why organized act...
Article
Little is known about how adolescents' peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and teammates ha...
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International studies suggest that the U.S. ranks below many Asian and European countries in the 21 st century in terms of mathematics and science achievement. Few have looked beyond the classroom to understand these differences. Absolute and relative time spent in various out-of-school time (OST) activities may provide one explanation. This study...
Article
Adolescents who participate in school-based extracurricular activities have higher adjustment than adolescents who do not participate. A critical, but often overlooked, question is what are the predictors of adolescents' participation in activities? The purpose of this study was to test whether school friends' activities predicted adolescents' acti...
Article
We describe Mexican American 7(th) graders' expectations for future work and family roles and investigate links between patterns of future expectations and adolescents' cultural experiences and adjustment. Adolescents participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Five unique patterns of adolescents' future expectations...
Article
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The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms b...
Article
The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This in...
Data
Full-text available
Adolescents who participate in school-based extracurricular activities have higher adjustment than adolescents who do not participate. A critical, but often overlooked, question is what are the predictors of adolescents' participation in activities? The purpose of this study was to test whether school friends' activities predicted adolescents' acti...
Article
Motivation theories suggest that parents are an integral support for adolescents' participation in organized activities. Despite the importance of parents, the field knows very little about how parents' own experiences in activities influence the participation of their adolescent children. The goals of this study were to examine (a) the patterns of...
Article
Abstract— Youth participation in organized after-school activities provides opportunities for positive growth and development. Unfortunately, ethnic minority youth, especially those living in low-income communities, participate in these activities at lower rates and less consistently than nonminority youth. This article reviews the research on the...
Article
Full-text available
Extracurricular activities are settings that are theorized to help adolescents maintain existing friendships and develop new friendships. The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine whether coparticipating in school-based extracurricular activities supported adolescents' school-based friendships. We used social network methods...
Article
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Latino adolescents often are less likely to participate in extracurricular activities compared to youth from other ethnic groups. This descriptive study examined the differences in activity participation by family resources and markers of cultural orientation for the four largest Latino ethnic groups in the U.S. Findings were based on secondary dat...
Article
This study examined associations between multiple parental behaviors and children's participation in out-of-school math, science, and computer activities for children in 2nd (n = 125), 3rd (n = 123), and 5th grade (n = 200). Mothers and fathers reported how often they encouraged their children's activities, participated in activities with their chi...
Article
Objective. This study examined the associations between trajectories of parents' behaviors and trajectories of children's sport and music motivational beliefs (i.e., self-concepts of abilities and values). Design. Mothers and fathers (N = 589) reported their modeling, provision of activity-related materials, encouragement, and parent–child coactivi...
Article
In this study, children's participation (N = 1,420) in activities outside of elementary school was examined as a function of disparities in family income using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement. Children's neighborhood and home environments were investigated as mechanisms linking income disparities and parti...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of our chapter is to highlight central issues and emerging areas of research conducted over the past three decades that has been concerned with adolescents ’ (ages 12 – 18) out-of-school activities and development. Elucidating those areas where research is especially rich or exemplary, where limited empirical knowledge exists, and where...
Article
This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents' participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year per...
Article
In this study, we identified unique clusters of parenting behaviors based on parents' school involvement, community involvement, rule-setting, and cognitive stimulation with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics—Child Development Supplement. In early (n=668) and middle adolescence (n=634), parents who provided high cognitive stimulation (i.e...
Article
This investigation addresses the mediational role of friends' characteristics between adolescents' activity breadth (i.e., variety in activity participation) and their later adjustment. Data were drawn from 2 longitudinal studies: the Childhood and Beyond (CAB; N = 925) study and the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS; N = 1,3...
Article
Full-text available
Youth out-of-school time (OST) programs and activities can provide developmental benefits for participating youth. Yet little research has examined the contextual predictors of youth OST participation. To address this issue, we examined a collection of child-, family-, school-, and neighborhood-level characteristics as predictors of OST participati...
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal data from kindergarten to 5th grade on both family involvement in school and children's literacy performance were examined for an ethnically diverse, low-income sample (N = 281). Within families, increased school involvement predicted improved child literacy. In addition, although there was an achievement gap in average literacy perfor...
Article
Similarities between adolescents are often the cornerstone of a friendship; yet researchers know little about the similarities in friends’ perceptions of the relationship. In the current study, the authors examine similarities in friends’ perceived friendship qualities during the transition into early adolescence (n = 77 third graders, 110 fourth g...
Article
Full-text available
Participation in structured out-of-school time (OST) activities is of growing interest to families, youth practitioners, and policymakers. OST activities benefit youth socially, emotionally, and academically, especially at-risk youth. Yet, little research has explored the characteristics of youth participants. This study examines whether demographi...
Article
Objective. This investigation addresses the moderating effect of mother - child warmth and conflict on associations between family involvement in children's education and kindergartners' mathematics and literacy achievement. Design. One hundred seventy-five kindergartners and their mothers from low-income families completed questionnaires and asses...
Article
Full-text available
This study addresses the longitudinal associations between youths' out-of-school activities, expectancies-values, and high school course enrollment in the domains of math and science. Data were collected on 227 youth who reported on their activity participation in 5th grade, expectancies-values in 6th and 10th grade, and courses taken throughout hi...
Article
With support from the William T. Grant Foundation, Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) is conducting a research study on the factors associated with whether children and youth participate in out-of-school time (OST) programs and activities. Building on our previous work, we are using national data to examine the many factors and contexts in chil...
Article
There is growing evidence that participating in extracurricular and out-of-school activities during adolescence is associated with both short- and long-term indicators of positive development (e.g., Eccles & Barber, 1999; Eccles & Templeton, 2002; Mahoney, 2000). Yet, few researchers have questioned whether these relations are solely the result of...
Article
Many adolescents, particularly female and minority students, choose not to pursue careers in math, science, and technology.
Article
This chapter addresses how critical choices in the math and science pipeline can be traced back to adolescents' self-concepts of abilities and values at the beginning of high school.
Article
The majority of research on out-of-school-time activity participation has focused on its relation to academic and social development, presumed to be consequences of participation, rather than on antecedents or predictors of participation. Understanding who participates in these programs can assist program directors in improving and sustaining youth...
Article
Evidence is emerging that youth who attend out-of-school-time (OST) programs more frequently and for longer periods of time benefit more than youth who attend less frequently or do not attend at all. It is also increasingly clear that children and youth will not reap the benefits of programs if they do not attend regularly. Collecting attendance da...
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal data for 167 low-income children were analyzed to examine associations between family educational involvement during kindergarten, children's feelings about literacy, and children's literacy achievement from kindergarten through fifth grade. The promotive effect of family educational involvement for feelings about literacy and literacy...
Chapter
Managing the external environment: The parent and child as active agents in the system Parents are assumed to have their major influence on their children's development through their patterns of interaction, as exemplified by child-rearing practices. In the past decade, a broader conceptualization of the role of parents has emerged, one that recogn...
Article
Full-text available
Maternal monitoring and play rules were examined as correlates of children's friendship quality, social behavior, and depression in 6th grade (N = 88). Maternal reports of rules were categorized into three types: supervision rules, peer rules, and restriction rules. Each type of rule was characterized by the number of rules mothers established. Res...
Article
Children behave differently with friends and nonfriends. The goal of the current study was to examine these differences more closely with effect sizes and the Social Relations Model (SRM). One hundred twenty-three triads (target children, friends, and unacquainted peers) participated in a round-robin design during 4th grade with partial replication...
Article
The relations between the quality of mothers' and fathers' friendships and that of their children's friendships was examined. One hundred twenty-five fourth-grade children (9 year olds) completed the Friendship Quality Questionnaire. Observational measures of the target children playing with their self-selected friend were also collected. Mothers a...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California, Riverside, 2000. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 108-121).

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Project (1)
Project
Most of this published research explores how and under which circumstances structured out-of-school programs promote youth development.