Sandra L Siedlak

Sandra L Siedlak
Case Western Reserve University | CWRU · Department of Pathology (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)

B.S.

About

217
Publications
20,240
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14,105
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
4223 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800

Publications

Publications (217)
Article
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated with neurodegeneration (MPAN) is a rare genetic disease characterized by aggressive neurodegeneration and massive iron accumulation in patients’ brains. Genetics studies identified defects in C19orf12 locus being associated with MPAN which likely caused loss of function although underlying pathogenic mechan...
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Background N6-methyladenosine (m ⁶ A) modification of RNA influences fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism and m ⁶ A dysregulation is implicated in various human diseases. In this study, we explored the potential role of RNA m ⁶ A modification in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods We investigated the m ⁶ A modification and the exp...
Article
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Traumatic brain injury caused by blast is associated with long-term neuropathological changes including tau phosphorylation and pathology. In this study, we aimed to determine changes in initial tau phosphorylation after exposure to a single mild blast and the potential contribution of oxidative stress response pathways. C57BL/6 mice were exposed t...
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D620N mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene causes late‐onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and contributes to idiopathic PD. However, how D620N mutation leads to PD‐related deficits in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, we thoroughly characterized the biochemical, pathological, and behav...
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It is believed that mitochondrial fragmentation cause mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal deficits in Alzheimer’s disease. We recently reported that constitutive knockout of the mitochondria fusion protein mitofusin2 (Mfn2) in the mouse brain causes mitochondrial fragmentation and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and cortex. Here, we utilize...
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The canonical Wnt pathway is critical for both the development and adulthood survival and homeostatic maintenance of the midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Expanding evidence has demonstrated that genetic factors associated with familial Parkinson disease (PD) deregulate this important pathway, suggesting that a disturbed canonical Wnt pathway is...
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Background Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for energy metabolism and have a direct impact on neuronal function and survival. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been well characterized in Alzheimer Disease (AD). It is believed that mitochondrial fragmentation, due to impaired fission and fusion balance, likely causes mitochondrial dysfunct...
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Disturbed neuronal cholesterol homeostasis has been observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) and contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. As the master switch of cholesterol biosynthesis, the sterol regulatory element‐binding protein 2 (SREBP‐2) translocates to the nucleus after cleavage/activation, but its expression and activation have not been studied i...
Article
Skeletal muscles undergo atrophy in response to diseases and aging. Here we report that mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) acts as a dominant suppressor of neuromuscular synaptic loss to preserve skeletal muscles. Mfn2 is reduced in spinal cords of transgenic SOD1G93A and aged mice. Through preserving neuromuscular synapses, increasing neuronal Mfn2 prevents skele...
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, characterized by neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), senile plaques (SPs), and a progressive loss of neuronal cells in selective brain regions. Rab10, a small Rab GTPase involved in vesicular trafficking, has recently been identified as a novel protein associated with AD. Interes...
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Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early prominent feature in susceptible neurons in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease which likely plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of disease. Increasing evidence suggests abnormal mitochondrial dynamics as important underlying mechanisms. In this study, we characterized marked mitochondrial frag...
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Transmembrane Protein 230 (TMEM230) is a newly identified protein associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) found in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites of patients with PD or dementia with Lewy body disease. However, TMEM230 has not yet been investigated in the most common neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we demonstrate that th...
Article
Mitochondrial dynamics and quality control plays a critical role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and function. Pathogenic mutations of many genes associated with familial Parkinson's disease (PD) caused abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting a likely involvement of disturbed mitochondrial fission/fusion in the pathogenesis of P...
Article
Dominant missense mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 represents a pathological hallmark in ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD). Behavioral investigation of the transgenic mouse model expressing the disease-causing human TDP-43 M337V mutan...
Article
Young onset dementias present significant diagnostic challenges. We present the case of a 35-year-old Kuwaiti man with social withdrawal, drowsiness, irritability, anxiety, aphasia, memory loss, hypereflexia, and Parkinsonism. Brain MRI showed bilateral symmetric gradient echo hypointensities in the globi pallidi and substantiae nigrae. Left cortic...
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Genetic mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP, also known as TDP-43) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and an increase in the presence of TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP) in the cytoplasm is a prominent histopathological feature of degenerating neurons in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TD...
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Aims: Neuroinflammation and redox dysfunction are recognized factors in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis; and diabetes is implicated as a potentially predisposing condition. Remarkably, upregulation of glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1) is implicated in regulation of inflammatory responses in various disease contexts, including diabetes. Here we investigat...
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At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI). The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may al...
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The female predominance for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) suggests the involvement of gender specific factor(s) such as a reduced estrogen-estrogen receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of AD. The potential role of ERα in AD pathogenesis has been explored by several groups with mixed results. We revisited this issue of expression and distribut...
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The cellular prion protein (PrPC), a protein most noted for its link to prion diseases, has been found to play a protective role in ischemic brain injury. To investigate the role of PrPC in the kidney, an organ highly prone to ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, we examined wild-type (WT) and PrPC knockout (KO) mice that were subjected to 30-min of r...
Article
Proper transportation of mitochondria to sites with high energy demands is critical for neuronal function and survival. Impaired mitochondrial movement has been repeatedly reported in motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and indicated as an important mechanism contributing to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Miro1, a RhoGT...
Article
Background In Alzheimer disease (AD), hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins results in microtubule destabilization and cytoskeletal abnormalities. Our prior ultra-morphometric studies documented a clear reduction in microtubules in pyramidal neurons in AD compared to controls, however, this reduction did not coincide with the presence of paired heli...
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Ku70 (Lupus Ku autoantigen p70) is essential in nonhomologous end joining DNA double-strand break repair, and ku70−/− mice age prematurely because of increased genomic instability and DNA damage responses. Previously, we found that Ku70 also inhibits Bax, a key mediator of apoptosis. We hypothesized that Bax-mediated apoptosis would be enhanced in...
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There are errors in the author affiliations for Fan Zhang. The affiliations should appear as shown here: Fan Zhang2, 13, 15 2 Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America, 13 Department of Neurosurgery, Shandong University, Shandong provincial hospital...
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Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in glutamate-evoked neuronal excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics are essential for mitochondrial morphology and function. Here we establish a novel mechanistic linker among glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial dysfunction in spinal cord motor neurons....
Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Although the etiology of PD remains incompletely understood, oxidative stress has been implicated as an important contributor in the development of PD. Oxidative stress can lead to oxidation and functional perturbation of proteins critical to neuronal survi...
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Cell cycle re-entry in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has emerged as an important pathological mechanism in the progression of the disease. This appearance of cell cycle related proteins has been linked to tau pathology in AD, but the causal and temporal relationship between the two is not completely clear. In this study, we found that hyperphosphorylate...
Article
Intraneuronal amyloid-β (iAβ) accumulation has been demonstrated in Alzheimer disease (AD). Although extracellular amyloid plaques composed primarily of aggregated amyloid-β are one of the main pathological features of AD, functional characterization of iAβ is still lacking. In this study, we identified the normal distribution of iAβ through an ana...
Article
The human beta-defensins (hBDs) are a highly conserved family of cationic antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides expressed primarily by epithelial cells in response to invasion by bacteria, fungi and some viruses. To date, the most studied members of this family of peptides are hBD-1, -2, and -3. Expression of hBD-1 and -2 has been demonstrate...
Article
Leptin signaling has received considerable attention in the Alzheimer disease (AD) field. Within the past decade, the peptide hormone has been demonstrated to attenuate tau hyperphosphorylation in neuronal cells and to be modulated by amyloid-β. Moreover, a role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis within the hippocampus has been shown in animal mod...
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While Alzheimer disease (AD) is considered a neurodegenerative disorder, the importance of chromosome instability in non-neuronal cells is equally important, not only for shedding light on the etiology of the disease, but also for possible diagnostic purposes and monitoring the progress of the disease. Here, we evaluated the frequency of DNA damage...
Article
We have previously shown that estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-mediated up-regulation of quinone reductase (QR) is involved in the protection against estrogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Our present study provides evidence that the ERβ agonist, 2,3-bis-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN), and the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (Tam)...
Article
A recently developed bivalent ligand BMAOI 14 (7) has been evaluated for its capability to label and detect aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide as a fluorescent probe. This probe contains curcumin as the Aβ recognition moiety and cholesterol as an anchorage to the neuronal cell membrane/lipid rafts. The results demonstrate that 7 binds to the monomer...
Conference Paper
Genome wide association studies revealed genetic evidence for involvement of cholesterol metabolism in the etiology of Alzheimers disease (AD). The present study used gene expression profiles on human Cornu Ammonis 1(CA1) for subjects with severe AD and an age-matched group to determine the enzyme reaction rate constants for 16 core metabolic pathw...
Article
The phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6) is associated with the 40S ribosomal subunit in eukaryotes and is thought to have a role in RNA storage, degradation, and re-entry into translation. In this study, we found pS6 localized to granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) within the pyramidal neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis found that nearly 20...
Article
Lipid peroxidation generates reactive aldehydes, most notably hydroxynonenal (HNE), which covalently bind amino acid residue side chains leading to protein inactivation and insolubility. Specific adducts of lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated in intimate association with the pathological lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), suggesting that oxid...
Article
Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is a ubiquitous 928-amino acid cell cycle regulatory molecule with diverse biologic activities. One critical function of pRb is the control of the G1-to-S phase checkpoint of the cell cycle. In the hypophosphorylated state, pRb suppresses the activity of E2F transcription factors thereby inhibiting transcription of cell...
Article
The authors had validated a proprietary method, Transcriptome-To-Metabolome™ (TTM™) Biosimulation, for using the transcriptome to determine parameters for kinetic biosimulation of 16 core metabolic pathways. In vivo and in silico evidence confirmed that hippocampal cholesterol metabolism decreases with aging and increases with Alzheimer’s disease (...
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Post-mitotic neurons are typically terminally differentiated and in a quiescent status. However, in Alzheimer disease (AD), many neurons display ectopic re-expression of cell cycle-related proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11) mRNA produces a 110-kDa protein (CDK11(p110)) throughout the cell cycle, a 58-kDa protein (CDK11(p58)) that is speci...
Chapter
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Recent advances have shown oxidative damage as one of the hallmark characteristics in neurons in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Importantly, such damage is present at the very earliest stages of disease, including mild cognitive impairment, and persists throughout the course of the disease. Therefore, oxidative imbalance is likely important not only as...
Article
Since Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of senile dementia in the USA, affecting 15% of people over the age of 65 years and almost 50% of those aged over 85 years, the need for an adequate and early diagnosis as well as preventative measure against disease onset and progression is increasing. Epidemiological and molecular studies sugges...
Chapter
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which begins with insidious deterioration of higher cognition and progresses to severe dementia. Clinical symptoms typically involve impairment of memory and at least one other cognitive domain. Owing to the exponential increase in the incidence of AD with age, the aging population...
Article
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which begins with insidious deterioration of higher cognition and progresses to severe dementia. Clinical symptoms typically involve impairment of memory and at least one other cognitive domain. Because of the exponential increase in the incidence of AD with age, the aging population...
Article
Full-text available
Chromosomal alterations are a feature of both aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study examined if premature centromere division (PCD), a chromosomal instability indicator increased in AD, is correlated with aging or, instead, represents a de novo chromosomal alteration due to accelerating aging in AD. PCD in peripheral blood lymphocytes was...
Article
Oxidative stress is implicated as a pathogenic factor in a spectrum of chronic diseases, notably, neurodegenerative disease. Noteworthy in this regard is that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in oxidative stress, leading to systemic complications of T1DM. We hypothesized that oxidative stress associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) of T1...
Article
Tryptophan metabolism, through the kynurenine pathway, produces neurotoxic intermediates that are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In particular, oxidative stress via 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and its cleaved product 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) significantly damages neuronal tissue and may potentially contribute to a cy...
Article
Traditionally, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and histoblot have been used to detect protein in tissue samples. However, each of these techniques has a number of disadvantages. The sensitivity of protein detection in immunohistochemistry is lost due to fixation or paraffin embedding methods that modify antigenic sites. The anatomical resolut...
Article
Biological Sciences SymposiaHydroxynonenal-Generated Crosslinking Fluorophore and Mitochondria-derived Lipoic Acid Accumulation in Alzheimer Disease Reveal a Dichotomy of Protein TurnoverArticle author querycastellani r [PubMed] [Google Scholar]moreira p [PubMed] [Google Scholar]aliev g [PubMed] [Google Scholar]shenk j [PubMed] [Google Scholar]...
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Aging is a multi-factorial process, however, it is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are significant contributors. Mitochondria are important players in the aging process because they produce most of the cellular ROS. Despite the strength of the free-radical hypothesis, the use of free radical scavengers to delay aging has gener...