Sandra Pérez

Sandra Pérez
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research

PhD

About

125
Publications
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Publications

Publications (125)
Article
Diclofenac (DCF) is a highly consumed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is excreted partially metabolized and is poorly removed during wastewater treatment. Previous findings demonstrated that DCF in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is partially removed to nitro/nitroso compounds. The reactive nitrogen species, that are microbially produc...
Article
Diclofenac (DCF) belongs to the class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which is one of the most consumed by population and detected in raw sewage. Several studies have reported variable removal rates by biodegradation of diclofenac in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study deals with the evaluation of the biodegradation of DCF by a...
Article
There is a worldwide growing use of chemicals by our developed, industrialized, and technological society. More than 100,000 chemical substances are thus commonly used both by industry and households. Depending on the amount produced, physical-chemical properties, and mode of use, many of them may reach the environment and, notably, the aquatic rec...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the fate and interaction of pharmaceuticals in soil-crop systems. It addresses the principles of their transport, uptake and metabolism and reviews methodologies for their analytical determination. It also discusses ecotoxicological effects arising from their presence and highl...
Article
Temporary rivers become dependent on wastewater effluent for base flows, which severely impacts river ecosystems through exposure to elevated levels of nutrients, dissolved organic matter, and organic micropollutants. However, biodegradation processes occurring in these rivers can be enhanced by wastewater bacteria/biofilms. Here, we evaluated the...
Article
A two years drip irrigation of lettuce and leek crops with treated municipal wastewater without and with spiking with fourteen wastewater relevant contaminants at 10 μg/L concentration level was conducted under greenhouse cultivation conditions to investigate their potential accumulation in soil and leaves and to assess human health related risks....
Article
Soil-dwelling earthworms are valuable sentinels in soil pollution monitoring and, in case of wastewater reuse for agricultural irrigation, they are continuously exposed to a multitude of organic micro-pollutants. In the present work, an analytical methodology for the determination of 50 wastewater-borne pollutants in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestri...
Article
Screening of a large number of chemicals of emerging concern is highly desirable for the control of crops irrigated with reclaimed water since it is considered an alternative water source of great value. This study describes a high resolution mass spectrometry approach for developing methods for quantification in lettuce leaves of 48 different wast...
Chapter
With the increasing use of wastewater for irrigation of farmland, and thus the potential uptake and translocation of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in crops, concerns about food safety are growing. After their uptake, plants are able to metabolize drugs to phase I, phase II, and phase III metabolites. Phase I reactions closely resemble those...
Chapter
The topic of this book is dedicated to the analysis, fate, metabolism, effects, and remediation of pharmaceutically active compounds in water-soil-biota systems. While the majority of readers are likely to already have a broad understanding of potential entry points, flows, transformation pathways, and temporary and permanent sinks of drugs in the...
Chapter
During the course of this book, we have witnessed how wastewater represents an important agronomic resource especially in areas of the world affected by drought or where availability is usually limited. However, this practice raises many fears not only in the environmental field but especially in the case of food safety. In fact, wastewater represe...
Article
Introduction: Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are 19-24 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through the inactivation of their messenger RNA. Previous studies have demonstrated the important role of some miRNAs in the development of cancer. Specifically, in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), miRNAs involved in lymphomagenesis were ident...
Article
use of advanced oxidation processes (AOP). Pulsed light (PL) is an emerging food processing technology that uses eco-friendly lamps and can potentially be adapted as light source of an UV-based AOP. In the present work, a PL/H2O2 process was tested for the decolourization of two azo dyes, and a pulsed light/ H2O2/ferrioxalate process was tested for...
Article
INTRODUCTION The standard first line treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) independently of cell origin subtype. Retrospective studies have shown that non-germinal center (NGC) subtype is associated with a worse progression free survival (PF...
Article
Due to the activities inherent to medical care units, the hospital effluent released contains diverse contaminants such as tensoactives, disinfectants, metals, pharmaceutical products and chemical reagents, which are potentially toxic to the environment since they receive no treatment or are not effectively removed by such treatment before entering...
Chapter
The chapter gives a general overview of liquid chromatography-based methods for the determination of emerging contaminants in environmental samples. Current trends and potentials for the trace analysis of several selected classes of emerging contaminants, including hormones and endocrine disrupting compounds, carbon-based nanomaterials, perfluoroal...
Article
Human presence in the Antarctic is increasing due to research activities and the rise in tourism. These activities contribute a number of potentially hazardous substances. The aim of this study is to conduct the first characterisation of the pharmaceuticals and recreational drugs present in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, and to assess the...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess uptake and metabolism of the epilepsy drug, carbamazepine and its consequent biological responses in marine clam (Ruditapes decussatus) a model non-target organism in ecotoxicology. Clams were exposed to two nominal concentrations (C1= 30 µg/L and C2= 50 µg/L) of CBZ for a maximum period of 14 days....
Article
Full-text available
The widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on exposed wildlife. Very little is currently known on exposure levels and clearance mechanisms of drugs in marine fish. Within this context, our research was focused on the identification of main metabolic reactions, generate...
Article
Full-text available
Polymers are used in high amounts in a wide range of applications from biomedicine to industry. Because of the growing awareness of the increasing amounts of plastic wastes in the aquatic environment during recent years, the evaluation of their biodegradability deserves special attention. In the past, most efforts were dedicated to studying the bio...
Article
The formation of 4-nitroso-sulfamethoxazole and 4-nitro-SMX, two transformation products (TPs) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated under batch soil slurry experiments and in a field study. Due to their low occurrence levels (ng/L) in environmental waters, a suitable analytical method based on liquid chromatography – high resolution – mass sp...
Article
Two of the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to sulfonamides in aquatic systems, spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) among the microbial community and in-situ bacterial sulfonamide degradation, were studied in mesocosms experiments using water and cobble biofilms from upstream (pristine waters) and downstream (polluted waters) from th...
Article
The increasing worldwide consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products such as ibuprofen (IBU) is leading to the widespread and persistent occurrence of these chemicals and their transformation products in soils and waters. Although at low concentrations, the continuous discharge of these micropollutants and the incomplete removal by th...
Article
Full-text available
Degradation of solid polymers in the aquatic environment encompasses a variety of biotic and abiotic processes giving rise to heterogeneous patterns across the surface of the material, which cannot be investigated using conventional Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) that only renders an “ave...
Article
Full-text available
Characterization of river ecosystems must take into consideration both structural and functional aspects. For the latter, a convenient and simple approach for routine monitoring is based on the decomposition of organic matter measured in terms of breakdown of natural organic substrates like leaf litter, wood sticks. Here we extended the method to a...
Chapter
pplications of Time-of-Flight and Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry in Environmental, Food, Doping, and Forensic Analysis deals with the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) in the analysis of small organic molecules. Over the past few years, time-of-flight (ToF) and Orbitrap MS have both experienced tremendous growth in a great number of analyti...
Article
The stability of lamotrigine (LMG) and its principal human metabolite, lamotrigine N2-glucuronide (LMG-N2-G), was studied as a function of pH (4–9). While LMG was stable across the entire pH range, under neutral-basic conditions, LMG-N2-G was converted to three transformation products (TPs) which were identified using high resolution mass spectrome...
Article
Diclofenac (DCF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are highly consumed pharmaceuticals and concentrated in effluents from conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) since they are not completely eliminated. Under microbial mediated nitrification/denitrification processes occurring in nitrifying activated sludge DCF biotransformed into its nitroso an...
Chapter
The present chapter provides a review of the occurrence, fate, and risk associated to different families or emerging and priority organic micropollutants in the rivers of Catalonia. Compounds belonging to diverse groups such as industrial compounds, perfluoroalkyl substances, pesticides, halogenated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and hormones, p...
Chapter
Pharmaceuticals and their related transformation products (TPs) are distributed into the aquatic environment. UPLC & HPLC combined with HRMS techniques are able to detect these emerging contaminants in environmental samples. However, due to the lack of commercially available standards for detection and quantification of TPs, suspect screening is ra...
Article
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a group of pharmaceuticals widely prescribed to lower blood pressure and treat heart diseases. They have been frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream river waters, thus inducing a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the behavior and fate o...
Article
Wastewater and surface water samples, extracted with four solid-phase extraction cartridges of different chemistries, were suspect-screened for the anticonvulsant lamotrigine (LMG), its metabolites, and related compounds. LMG, three human metabolites, and a LMG synthetic impurity (OXO-LMG) were detected. Preliminary results showed significantly hig...
Chapter
The presence of thousands of microcontaminants in wastewaters and their potential risks has drawn a large attention of the scientific community during the last years. The presence of these contaminants is especially controversial when wastewater is considered for reuse because a large number of microcontaminants are frequently not totally removed b...
Article
Considerable amounts of pharmaceuticals are used in human and veterinary medicine, which are not efficiently removed during wastewater and slurries treatment and subsequently entering continuously into freshwater systems. The intrinsic biological activity of these non-regulated pollutants turns their presence in the aquatic environment into an ecol...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is considered an increasing threat for the ecosystems and human health. Among PPCPs, a particular attention is paid to ibuprofen (IBU), one of the most diffused pharmaceuticals in surface waters and sediments. Concern about IBU presence in wastewater is rising also...
Article
This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC-HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, allowing their quantitation a...
Article
Full-text available
The determination of the real toxicity of sediments in aquatic ecosystems is challenging and necessary for an appropriate risk assessment. Different approaches have been developed and applied over the last several decades. Currently, the joint implementation of chemical, ecological and toxicological tools is recommended for an appropriate and succe...
Article
Pharmaceuticals and iodinated contrast media in a hospital waste-water: A case study to analyse their presence and characterise their environmental risk and hazard a b s t r a c t This work analyses the presence of twenty-five pharmaceutical compounds belonging to seven different therapeutic groups and one iodinated contrast media (ICM) in a Spanis...
Article
Pharmaceuticals and iodinated contrast media in a hospital waste-water: A case study to analyse their presence and characterise their environmental risk and hazard a b s t r a c t This work analyses the presence of twenty-five pharmaceutical compounds belonging to seven different therapeutic groups and one iodinated contrast media (ICM) in a Spanis...
Article
The objective of the study was to demonstrate the applicability of suspect screening for the detection of six iodinated contrast media (ICM) and their phototransformation products (TPs) in surface waters. First, a photodegradation study of ICM in surface water using a sunlight lab-scale simulator was performed. By means of a guided differential sam...
Article
In this study, four unapproved analogues of Sildenafil (SDF) were photodegraded under synthetic sunlight in artificial freshwater. Homosildenafil (H-SDF), hydroxyhomo-sildenafil (HH-SDF), norneosildenafil (NR-SDF) and thiosildenafil (T-SDF) were selected because they are frequently detected as adulterants in natural herbal products. Using UPLC-Orbi...
Article
Full-text available
Genomic analyses of fungal genome structure have revealed the presence of physically-linked groups of genes, termed gene clusters, where collective functionality of encoded gene products serves a common biosynthetic purpose. In multiple fungal pathogens of humans and plants gene clusters have been shown to encode pathways for biosynthesis of second...
Article
Background The persistence of microcontaminants through conventional wastewater treatments is a matter of concern and it suggests the implementation of advanced treatment steps. Although there is evidence that Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the most efficient treatment for the the removal of these compounds, it has the drawback of producing significant am...
Article
Synthetic progestogens represent a class of pharmaceuticals widely used in oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapies. They reach the aquatic environment through wastewater effluents; however, environmental concentrations and effects on non-target organisms are poorly known. Given the important role of progestogens regulating fish spa...
Article
Daphnia magna individuals were transplanted across 12 sites from three Spanish river basins (Llobregat, Ebro, Jucar) showing different sources of pollution. Gene transcription, feeding and biochemical responses in the field were assessed and compared with those obtained in re-constituted water treatments spiked with organic eluates obtained from wa...
Article
An analytical method was developed and validated for the first determination of five major human metabolites of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac as well as two microbial transformation products in wastewater. The method was based on the extraction of diclofenac and the chemically synthetized compounds by solid-phase extraction (S...
Article
Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLCIESI-QToF-MS) was used for the elucidation of the main transformation products (TPs) resulting from the degradation of diclofenac (DCF) and ibuprofen (IBP) during the application of various advanced oxidation processes in aqueous matrices. The examined processes were TiO2 photocatalysis dr...
Chapter
This chapter reviews several approaches used in the detection, identification and quantification of environmental transformation products of emerging pollutants in the environment. High resolution mass spectrometric instrumentation coupled to liquid chromatographic separation techniques as well as complementary techniques are described including a...
Chapter
Due to improvements in the instrumental analysis, research studies have allowed to determine the presence of a multitude of organic pollutants in environmental and food samples. Since the invention of atmospheric pressure ionization sources, liquid chromatography coupled to low resolution tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation is the workhorse fo...
Article
The Llobregat is a Mediterranean river that is severely impacted by anthropogenic pressures. It is characterized by high flow variability which modulates its chemical and biological status. The present work evaluates the effects of flow changes on the concentration of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and their relationship to cellular para...
Conference Paper
The attenuation of pharmaceutical residues contamination in the aquatic environment depends on various complementary processes such as dilution, sorption to sediments, and degradation (i.e. photodegradation and biodegradation). One of the environmental parameters driving the attenuation of pharmaceutical contamination is therefore water flow. Water...
Conference Paper
Llobregat River basin is heavily exploited by human activities, including urban, industrial and agricultural uses that transfer into both point and diffuse pollution. The biggest contamination comes from 59 WWTPs located throughout the Llobregat river basin. This river manifests typical Mediterranean hydrological pattern, characterized by acute flo...
Article
The antiviral zanamivir has been recently reported to occur in surface waters where its presence may lead to the selection of resistant strains of virus in aquatic fauna. In order to evaluate the fate of zanamivir in surface waters, its susceptibility to phototransformation was evaluated using simulated and natural sunlight. Upon exposure of aqueou...
Article
The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is...
Article
This study examines the degradation of the antiepileptic carbamazepine (CBZ) by sonolysis, TiO2-based heterogeneous photocatalysis under UV-A and simulated solar irradiation, and by the combined use of UV-A and ultrasound irradiation (i.e. sonophotocatalysis) in demineralized water, ground water and effluent wastewater. The processes were compared...
Article
The aerobic degradation of the blood lipid regulator clofibric acid (CLOF) was studied in a continuous bioreactor treatment using the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments in Erlenmeyer flasks with the compound at 30 μg L−1 showed that CLOF can be completely degraded at near environmentally relevant concentration after 4 days. The degra...
Article
Full-text available
This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton), for the degradation of the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFX) in various environmental matrices at a pilot-scale. All experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant in the presence of doses of H2O2 (2.5mgL(-1)) and at an initial F...
Article
One significant disadvantage of using reverse osmosis (RO) for reclamation purposes is the need to dispose of the RO retentates. These retentates contain a high concentration of micropollutants, effluent organic matter (EfOM) and other inorganic constituents, which are recalcitrant to biological treatment and may impact the environment. The occurre...
Article
Antibiotics are emerging contaminants, which wing to their bioactivity, may lead to short-term and long-term alterations of natural microbial communities in aquatic environment. We investigated the effects of antibiotics on biofilm bacterial communities in the Llobregat River (Northeast Spain). Three sampling sites were selected: two less polluted...
Chapter
Full-text available
Pharmaceutical compounds comprise a widely employed group of therapeutic agents now considered as emerging micropollutants. This chapter summarizes the state of the art in the degradation of pharmaceuticals by fungi in liquid matrices (with emphasis on white-rot fungi), including the use of both whole cells and fungal enzymes. The identification of...
Chapter
Studying the transformation of pharmaceuticals is becoming increasingly important with respect to understanding the overall fate of these bioactive compounds in the environment. The present chapter critically reviews and discusses three complementary approaches used for evaluating the degradation and transformation of human pharmaceuticals in the a...
Chapter
This chapter seeks to provide an unbiased comparison of the performance of Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry and (hybrid) time-of-flight mass spectrometry in combination with liquid chromatography for the analysis of small drug molecules and their (bio)transformation products. After a brief introduction to the fundamental principles of the Orbitrap...
Chapter
An overview of current analytical methodologies for the determination of dyes in environmental samples is presented. Analytical methods involving liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) are reviewed. The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with MS as a new alternative for the analysis and confirmation of polar compounds (and...
Article
The occurrence of 73 representative pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) was assessed in a sewage-impacted section of the Llobregat River (NE Catalonia, Spain). This Mediterranean river is characterized by flow rate fluctuations strongly influenced by seasonal rainfall. River flow variations increase the potential environmental risk posed by...
Chapter
Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) are resistant to breakdown, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which persist and may bioaccumulate through the food chain. In the recent years, increasing number of papers report high levels of PFC in blood, tissues, and breast milk from both occupationally and non-occupationally exposed human populat...
Article
Several groups of organic compounds have emerged as particularly relevant as environmental pollutants. These compounds, including new brominated flame retardants, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and their metabolites, hormones and other endocrine disrupting compounds, nanomaterials, perfluoroalkyl substances, pharmaceuticals and siloxanes...