Sandra J. McInnes

Sandra J. McInnes
British Antarctic Survey | BAS

PhD

About

74
Publications
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2,376
Citations

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
This paper is the fifth monograph of the series that describes the global records of limno-terrestrial water bears (Tardigrada). Here, we provide a comprehensive list of non-marine tardigrades recorded from Australasia, providing an updated and revised taxonomy accompanied by geographic co-ordinates, habitat, and biogeographic comments. It is hoped...
Article
Antarctica has been isolated and progressively glaciated for over 30 million years, with only approximately 0.3 % of its area currently ice-free and capable of supporting terrestrial ecosystems. As a result, invertebrate populations have become isolated and fragmented, in some cases leading to speciation. Terrestrial invertebrate species currently...
Article
Over the last two decades, Zootaxa has hosted nearly 200 papers concerning tardigrade taxonomy, systematics, phylogeny, and evolution. A total of 160 researchers from all continents (except the Antarctic) published descriptions of almost 200 new taxa, mostly species, but also genera and higher taxonomic ranks, such as families and superfamilies. Th...
Chapter
In this chapter we present an updated taxonomic review of the Tardigrada previously recorded from the Neotropical region and Antarctica as well as a dichotomous key to the genera. With the expansion of integrative studies using both molecular and morphological characters, the species of tardigrades are in a state of flux, often requiring the redesc...
Article
Full-text available
Tardigrades constitute one of the most important group in the challenging Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem. Living in various habitats, tardigrades play major roles as consumers and decomposers in the trophic networks of Antarctic terrestrial and freshwater environments; yet we still know little about their biodiversity. The Eutardigrada is a specie...
Article
Full-text available
Tardigrades are potentially dispersed by birds, but the extent of the interactions between birds and tardigrades is virtually unknown. We discovered nine tardigrades within feces of White-bellied Seedsnipe (Attagis malouinus) collected from high Andean tundra on Navarino Island, Chile. Eight of the tardigrade specimens began moving once rehydrated....
Article
The 14th International Symposium on Tardigrada took place in Copenhagen, Denmark from 30 July to 3 August 2018. Approximately 140 participants, representing 28 countries from five continents attended the meeting, and there were 58 talks and 74 posters of which 20 were selected for the Symposium Proceedings published in this special issue. The studi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research Infrastructures (RIs) are facilities, resources and services used by the scientific community to conduct research and foster innovation. LifeWatch ERIC has developed various virtual research environments, which include many virtual laboratories (vLabs) offering high computational capacity and comprehensive collaborative platforms that supp...
Article
Full-text available
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) commits its 196 nation parties to conserve biological diversity, use its components sustainably, and share fairly and equitably the benefits from the utilization of genetic resources. The last of these objectives was further codified in the Convention's Nagoya Protocol (NP), which came into effect in 201...
Chapter
We report on the history and the progress made towards understanding tardigrade biogeography. We have updated our data and provided new analyses of both limno-terrestrial and marine tardigrade faunas to show the limitations of the earlier techniques, demonstrated newer ideas and highlighted the regions requiring further study.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is the fourth monograph in a series that describes the global records of limno-terrestrial water bears (Tardigrada). Here, we provide a comprehensive list of non-marine tardigrades recorded from Africa, providing an updated and revised taxonomy accompanied by geographic co-ordinates, habitat, and biogeographic comments. It is hoped this...
Article
Full-text available
The origin of the Antarctic continental extant fauna is a highly debated topic, complicated by the paucity of organisms for which we have clear biogeographic distributions and understanding of their evolutionary timescale. To shed new light on this topic, we coupled molecular clock analyses with biogeographic studies on the heterotardigrade genus M...
Article
Zoogeographical studies on Tardigrada are limited by the extent of our knowledge on tardigrade taxonomy and faunistics. In this paper we analyse the relationships between the tardigrade fauna of North, Central and South America (Nearctic and Neotropical regions) and provide the first test of whether the tardigrade fauna of the Americas has undergon...
Article
This paper is the third monograph of the series that describes the global records of limno-terrestrial water bears (Tardigrada). Here, we provide a comprehensive list of non-marine tardigrades recorded from the North America, providing an updated and revised taxonomy accompanied by geographic co-ordinates, habitat, and biogeographic comments. It is...
Article
Antarctica is an ice-dominated continent and all its terrestrial and freshwater habitats are fragmented, which leads to genetic divergence and, eventually, speciation. Acutuncus antarcticus is the most common Antarctic tardigrade and its cryptobiotic capabilities, small size and parthenogenetic reproduction present a high potential for dispersal an...
Presentation
Full-text available
According to the most widely accepted opinion, Central America owes its high biodiversity to the mixed influence of zoogeographical elements of neighbouring South and North Americas. Approximately three to five million years ago a corridor, connecting previously isolated Neotropical and Nearctic faunas, allowed a rapid interchange between species;...
Article
Full-text available
Antarctica contains some of the most challenging environmental conditions on the planet due to freezing temperatures, prolonged winters and lack of liquid water. Whereas 99.7% of Antarctica is permanently covered by ice and snow, some coastal areas and mountain ridges have remained ice-free and are able to sustain populations of microinvertebrates....
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance and regular occurrence of tardigrades in the Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem, taxonomic studies of, in particular, continental Antarctica species have advanced very slowly. During a large survey to study tardigrade biodiversity along the Victoria Land coastal line, a new species was found belonging to the rare heterotardigrad...
Article
Full-text available
Tardigrades are important members of the simple terrestrial ecosystems in the extreme environments in Antarctica. This study provides a baseline description of tardigrade species diversity and distribution pattern within the terrestrial and lake environments of the coastal regions around Syowa Station and the neighbouring inland Sør Rondane Mountai...
Article
Dividing the world into nine regions, this first paper describes literature records of the limno-terrestrial tardigrades (Tardigrada) reported from Central America. Updating previously published species lists we have revised the taxonomy and provided additional habitat, geographic co-ordinates, and biogeographic comments. It is hoped this work will...
Article
Dividing the world into nine regions, this first paper describes literature records of the limno-terrestrial tardigrades (Tardigrada) reported from Central America. Updating previously published species lists we have revised the taxonomy and provided additional habitat, geographic co-ordinates, and biogeographic comments. It is hoped this work will...
Article
Tardigrades are important members of the Antarctic biota yet little is known about their role in the soil fauna or whether they are affected by anthropogenic factors. The German Federal Environment Agency commissioned research to assess the impact of human activities on soil meiofauna at 14 localities along the Antarctic peninsula during the 2009/2...
Article
Clark Wayne Beasley was born in Pittsburg, Kansas, USA on 6 June 1942. He graduated from Kansas State College of Pittsburg in 1964 and went on to successfully defend his PhD on the tardigrades of Oklahoma in 1968 at the University of Oklahoma. Clark moved to McMurray College in 1969 to become an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology, acc...
Article
A new species of eutardigrade, Hebesuncus mollispinus sp. nov. is described from Charcot Island, maritime Antarctica. The three known species of Hebesuncus are either widespread with questionable reports from the Antarctic (H. conjungens) or endemic to maritime and continental Antarctica (H. ryani and H. schusteri). Hebesuncus mollispinus sp. nov....
Article
Full-text available
The number of described species on the planet is about 1.9 million, with ca. 17,000 new species described annually, mostly from the tropics. However, taxonomy is usually described as a science in crisis, lacking manpower and funding, a politically acknowledged problem known as the Taxonomic Impediment. Using data from the Fauna Europaea database an...
Data
Cumulative number of valid species of terrestrial and freshwater multicellular animals recorded in Europe. Numbers of valid species described since Linnaeus (1758) are plotted against the description year for selected phyla, major classes and major insect orders. These groups are not of equivalent taxonomic rank but were divided as such to demonstr...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have suggested that some resident Antarctic biota are of ancient origin and may have been isolated for millions of years. The phylum Tardigrada, which is part of the Antarctic terrestrial meiofauna, is of particular interest due to an impressive array of biochemical abilities to withstand harsh environmental conditions. Tardigrades a...
Article
Full-text available
Zoologists always hope to find unusual and interesting new animals in exotic places. Over the last few centuries, scientific expeditions in remote places outside Europe and North America have indeed discovered new species and even higher taxa of vertebrates, insects and other macroscopic animals, completely different from the ones previously known...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the available morphological evidence to see if this corroborates the paraphyly in the Parachela (Tardigrada) as suggested by recent molecular data. We reconcile molecular phylogenetics with alpha morphology, focusing on claw and apophysis for the insertion of the stylet muscles (AISM). We combine molecular and morphological evidence to...
Article
The pycnogonids of the Southern Ocean have been studied for almost two centuries and have played a key role in shaping previous biogeographic regions for the Antarctic benthos. The aim of this study was to assess the biogeographic patterns derived from the most current sample records of pycnogonids from the Southern Ocean and neighbouring areas. 33...
Article
Full-text available
Non-professional taxonomists have been responsible for describing more than half of the animal species discovered in Europe from 1998 to 2007 (see also Nature 467, 788; 2010). The extraordinary current rate of description of new species makes Europe an unexpected frontier for biodiversity exploration. The Fauna Europaea database (www.faunaeur.org),...
Article
Very little is known about the higher latitude inland biology of continental Antarctica. In this paper we describe the limnology and biology of the Dufek Massif, using a range of observational, microscopic and molecular methods. Here two dry valleys are home to some of the southernmost biota on Earth. Cyanobacteria were the dominant life forms, bei...
Article
Echiniscus corrugicaudatus sp. nov., (Heterotardigrada; Echiniscidae) was found in the limited vegetation from the inland nunataks of Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica. The tardigrade fauna of this a rarely explored region shows limited overlap with the fauna from the maritime or coastal continental Antarctic. This species is placed within the Echini...
Article
Abstract Phylum Tardigrada consists of ∼1000 tiny, hardy metazoan species distributed throughout terrestrial, limno-terrestrial and oceanic habitats. Their phylogenetic status has been debated, with current evidence placing them in the Ecdysozoa. Although there have been efforts to explore tardigrade phylogeny using both morphological and molecular...
Data
Sample information. Sample information provided includes taxonomic identification, location, sample type and GenBank accession numbers.
Chapter
Full-text available
Tardigrada is a phylum closely allied with the arthropods. They are usually less than 0.5 mm in length, have four pairs of lobe-like legs and are either carnivorous or feed on plant material. Most of the 900+ described tardigrade species are limnoterrestrial and live in the thin film of water on the surface of moss, lichens, algae, and other plants...
Article
Full-text available
Meiofauna - multicellular animals captured between sieve size 45 mum and 1000 mum - are a fundamental component of terrestrial, and marine benthic ecosystems, forming an integral element of food webs, and playing a critical roll in nutrient recycling. Most phyla have meiofaunal representatives and studies of these taxa impact on a wide variety of s...
Article
Full-text available
Remains of tardigrades have rarely been reported to preserve in sediments, resulting in the absence of important ecological and biogeographic information that they could provide. However, a study of faunal microfossils in Antarctic lake sediment cores has shown that tardigrade eggs and occasionally exuvia can be abundant. Eggs from at least five ta...
Article
Phylum Tardigrada consists of 1000 tiny, hardy metazoan species distributed throughout terrestrial, limno-terrestrial and oceanic habitats. Their phylogenetic status has been debated, with current evidence placing them in the Ecdysozoa. Although there have been efforts to explore tardigrade phylogeny using both morphological and molecular data, lim...
Article
Full-text available
The European Union has adopted the ambitious target of halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010. Several indicators have been proposed to assess progress towards the 2010 target, two of them addressing directly the issue of species decline. In Europe, the Fauna Europaea database gives an insight into the patterns of distribution of a total dataset...
Article
Full-text available
The preservation of tardigrade eggs and exuviae in Antarctic lake sediments provided an opportunity to assess post-glacial colonisation and Holocene tardigrade dynamics on the southern continent. Tardigrade eggs were recovered from five lakes, two from the maritime Antarctic and three from continental Antarctica. Eggs were identified from the follo...
Article
Full-text available
The major increase in distribution records of limno-terrestrial tardigrades over the last ten years has enabled us to reassess the global biogeography of the Tardigrada using cluster analysis, principal components analysis and parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE). Although the new clustergram topology shows a close correlation with those we origina...
Preprint
The preservation of tardigrade eggs and exuviae in Antarctic lake sediments provided an opportunity to assess post-glacial colonisation and Holocene tardigrade dynamics on the southern continent. Tardigrade eggs were recovered from five lakes, two from the maritime Antarctic and three from continental Antarctica. Eggs were identified from the follo...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of the liverwort Cephaloziella varians was collected on 1 January 1999 at Rothera Point on the Wright Peninsula, Adelaide Island, western Antarctic Peninsula and was partially dried and then frozen at -80 degree C. The sample was rapidly defrosted to c. 10 degree C after six years and two months of storage at this temperature. Nematodes, t...
Article
The maritime Antarctic South Sandwich Islands are an isolated oceanic archipelago of volcanic origin lying between 56°18′S, 27°34′W and 59°27′S, 27°22′W. All the islands are of recent origin (maximum ages 0.5-3 million years) with many still exhibiting some form of volcanic activity. The islands are part of the Scotia Arc, lying on a crustal upwarp...
Article
A new species, Hypsibius heardensis sp. nov. (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae) is described from samples collected during the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) 1986-87 expedition to Heard Island, in the southern Indian Ocean. The new species belongs to the dujardini group and differs from similar species of Hypsibius...
Article
We describe a terrestrial faunal community including only Tardigrada and Rotifera, present on inland nunataks of Ellsworth Land, Antarctica (∼75°-77° S, 70°-73° W). The fauna is exceptional in its simplicity, including five tardigrade species (three new to science) and at least two rotifer species, which comprise two consumer trophic levels. Nemato...
Article
Lecophagus antarcticus, described as a new species of predaceous Hyphomycete of rotifers and tardigrades, was collected from cyanobacterial mats and sediments at shallow lake margins on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. The new species differs from similar Lecophagus species by larger, more robust vegetative hyphae and by producing se...
Article
The Tardigrada is a cosmopolitan phylum of pre-Pangaean origin, yet tardigrade families and genera show distinct biogeographic components isolated by two major geological events. Separate Laurasian and Gondwanan familial clusters correlate with the Triassic disintegration of Pangaea, while discrete Antarctic, Australian and New Zealand familial/gen...
Article
How true is the statement: “The camera never lies”? Trick photography has a long and varied history, and good fakes are extremely difficult to refute. Now computer software makes it possible to move beyond the ‘grab image’ function to assist biological illustration in line drawing and/or extensive manipulation of a photographic original. The comput...
Article
The meiofaunal tardigrades Milnesium cfr. tardigradum, Echiniscus sp., and Macrobiotus sp. were extracted from high altitude moss and volcanic scoria samples on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Gut contents of mounted Milnesium provided forensic evidence of a previously ignored diverse and abundant meiofauna including trophi of bdelloid rotifers, mouth...
Article
Full-text available
A small collection of samples from terrestrial and fresh-water habitats on Deception Island in the Maritime Antarctic South Shetland archipelago yielded 14 invertebrate taxa, including four species, which are new to the island. The database of the total Deception fauna contains 57 invertebrate taxa. These, like the flora, show evidence of posterupt...
Article
The tardigrade faunas of six Arctic sites (Canadian Axel Heiberg I., east and west coasts of Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and the Russian Taimyr Peninsula) form, with those of northern North America, a coherent “Nearctic-Arctic” biogeographic cluster. This cluster is distinct from that of “Northern and Alpine Europe”. Few, if any, Ar...
Article
Full-text available
lntroduction Tarciigrades (water bears) are microscopic animals that live in mosses and other wet habitats which, along with their small spherical eggs ornamented with spines or papillae, have an extraordinary ability to withstand hostile conditions. The present study examines the effect of relative humidity (RH) changes on eggs of Dactylobiotus am...
Article
Seventeen species of Tardigrada from lakes and catchments on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, are described. Two species, Echiniscus punctus and Isohypsibius laevis are new to science, and two, Oreella minor and Pseudechiniscus suillus , are new to the Signy Is. records.
Article
The literature on terrestrial and freshwater Tardigrada is relatively limited, being concerned with 617 species world wide. Many of the references are in obscure publications. This paper attempts to bring this information together, tabulating the numbers of tardigrade species recorded from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in various countries an...
Article
Full-text available
Recent investigations at South Georgia have revealed a small number of specimens of a Heterotardigrada formally described as Echiniscus macronyx Richters, 1907. Taxonomic confusion resulted from the inadequately described original specimen. Using the new material the species is redescribed and its taxonomic status within the genus Testechiniscus is...
Article
Full-text available
The data set discussed here was obtained from a transect across a depth profile in Sombre Lake (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands). The fauna, composed of benthonic micro-invertebrates, was readily observed grazing on the surface of the cyanobacterial mats that form a thin cover on the surface of the sediments. Algal mat composition varied in resp...
Article
A total of 101 verified species and eight ordinal taxa represent the non-marine Crustacea on Antarctica and the islands of the Southern Ocean. The largely terrestrial Isopoda and Amphipoda are confined to some sub-Antarctic and cool temperate islands while the predominantly freshwater Anostraca, Anomopoda, Copepoda (=Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacti...

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Projects (3)
Project
This research addresses the importance of bryophytes in the diet of birds in the Sub-Antarctic Magellanic Ecoregion of Chile, and the potential for birds to disperse bryophytes.
Project
The aim of the project is to summarise and review all literature records of limno-terrestrial water bears (Tardigrada). We have been publishing the results in a series of Zootaxa monographs. Each part describes an updated and revised tardigrade taxonomy that is accompanied by geographic co-ordinates, habitat, and biogeographic comments for a given geographic region (typically a continent). It is hoped this work will serve as a reference point and background for further zoogeographical and taxonomical studies.
Archived project
Fauna Europaea brings together the scientific names of all European land and freshwater animals in one authoritative database (http://www.faunaeur.org).