Sandra C. Lindstrom

Sandra C. Lindstrom
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Department of Botany

Ph. D.

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94
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Publications

Publications (94)
Article
Since 2011 we have been documenting seaweed diversity and abundance along a poorly studied area of the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. This first installment focuses on the Chlorophyta. To date, 42 species have been recorded, and we have obtained DNA sequences for most. Although most of these species reportedly have wide distributions al...
Article
Coralline red algae in the non-geniculate genera Clathromorphum, Phymatolithon and Lithothamnion are important benthic ecosystem engineers in the photic zone of the Arctic and Subarctic. In these regions, the systematics and biogeography of Clathromorphum and Phymatolithon have mostly been resolved whereas Lithothamnion has not, until now. Seventy-...
Preprint
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Significant questions remain about how ecosystems that are structured by abiotic stress will be affected by climate warming. A well-supported hypothesis states that warming will cause species to shift along abiotic gradients, such that distributions track changing local conditions. Here, we investigated the impacts of a multi-year heatwave on commu...
Article
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Rhodoliths are important foundation species of the benthic photic zone but are poorly known and rarely studied in Alaska. A bed of Lithothamnion soriferum rhodoliths was discovered in 2008 in Kinzarof Lagoon, Alaska, a shallow-water embayment dominated by eelgrass ( Zostera marina ). Rhodolith spatial extent and biomass were estimated to assess tre...
Article
Full-text available
Rhodoliths are important foundation species of the benthic photic zone but are poorly known and rarely studied in Alaska. A bed of Lithothamnion soriferum rhodoliths was discovered in 2008 in Kinzarof Lagoon, Alaska, a shallow-water embayment dominated by eelgrass (Zostera marina). Rhodolith spatial extent and biomass were estimated to assess trend...
Article
One of the earliest described non-geniculate coralline algae from the Arctic is Kjellman’s 1877 Lithophyllum arcticum. It has been classified successively in Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum and currently is in Leptophytum, all based on morpho-anatomy. A 263 base-pair (bp) fragment of the rbcL gene was sequenced from the lectotype specimen, and it is...
Article
The number of species in the genus Symphyocladia was recently increased, with the majority of new species found in the Pacific Ocean. Based on molecular analysis, eight species of Symphyocladia formed a distinct clade sister to the clade containing the generitype Symphyocladia marchantioides. These eight species are transferred to a new genus Symph...
Article
Macroalgal life histories are complex, often involving the alternation of distinct free‐living life‐history phases that differ in morphology, longevity, and ploidy. The surfaces of marine macroalgae support diverse microbial biofilms, yet the degree of microbial variation between alternate phases is unknown. We quantified bacterial (16S rRNA gene)...
Article
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Cryptic species complexes are increasingly recognized in phycological research, obscuring taxonomy and raising questions about factors influencing speciation. A recent exploration of kelp genetic diversity on Haida Gwaii, British Columbia revealed the existence of a new species, Saccharina druehlii, which is cryptic with Saccharina sessilis. This s...
Chapter
Rhodophyta, or red algae, comprises a monophyletic lineage within Archaeplastida that includes glaucophyte algae and green algae plus land plants. Rhodophyta has a long fossil history with evidence of Bangia-like species in ca. 1.2 billion-year-old deposits. Red algal morphology varies from unicellular, filamentous, to multicellular thalloid forms,...
Article
Full-text available
We confirmed the monophyly of the Agaraceae based on phylogenetic analyses of 6 mitochondrial and 6 chloroplast gene sequences from Agarum, Costaria, Dictyoneurum and Thalassiophyllum species as well as representative species from other laminarialean families. However, the genus Agarum was paraphyletic, comprising two independent clades, A. clathra...
Chapter
Rhodophyta, or red algae, comprises a monophyletic lineage within Archaeplastida that includes glaucophyte algae and green algae plus land plants. Rhodophyta has a long fossil history with evidence of Bangia-like species in ca. 1.2 billion-year-old deposits. Red algal morphology varies from unicellular, filamentous, to multicellular thalloid forms,...
Article
We sequenced the rbcL gene in more than 100 collections of foliose Bangiales made in the Aleutian Islands and western Alaska Peninsula during the past 25 years. This work allows us to recognize four previously undescribed species, two in the genus Boreophyllum and two in Pyropia. Boreophyllum aleuticum appears to be endemic to the Aleutian Islands,...
Article
Full-text available
Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensi...
Article
Full-text available
Nothogenia fastigiata has been reported to exhibit great morphological variability and has been considered to be widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. To test its current circumscription, sequences from type material of N. fastigiata and other species currently synonymized with it were compared to those from recent collections of this and...
Conference Paper
El género Nothogenia, creado por Montagne en 1842, se encuentra sólo en el Hemisferio Sur, habitando preferentemente en aguas temperadas frías. Se distribuye en Sudáfrica, Nueva Zelanda, Australia, Perú, Chile y algunas Islas Subantárcticas como Kerguelen, Crozet, Auckland, Campbell y Falklands. Hasta ahora el género comprende 5 especies validades...
Article
Full-text available
Coralline red algae play a key role in the ecology of near shore marine ecosystems and are increasingly being used to study the effects of climate change in the marine environment. Corallines are very difficult to identify to species, and even to genus, using morpho-anatomy, likely complicating studies of their ecology, physiology, and biodiversity...
Article
Phycologists have hypothesized that the diminutive fronds produced by species in the genera Chiharaea and Yamadaia, which are composed of comparatively few genicula and intergenicula, represent morphological intermediates in the evolution of articulated corallines from crustose ancestors. We test this intermediate frond hypothesis by comparing rbcL...
Article
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations of the red algal genus Mastocarpus from the northeast Pacific resolved numerous cryptic species. Although species were clearly defined through genetic analyses, the correct names to apply to the species remained unclear due to both morphological variability within species and morphological similarity bet...
Article
Full-text available
The red algal order Bangiales has been revised as a result of detailed regional studies and the development of expert local knowledge of Bangiales floras, followed by collaborative global analyses based on wide taxon sampling and molecular analyses. Combined analyses of the nuclear SSU rRNA gene and the plastid RUBISCO LSU (rbcL) gene for 157 Bangi...
Article
Sequence data from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU), plastid large subunit of ribulose-1-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (COI-5P) were analyzed separately and in combination to assess monophyly of the red algal genera Dilsea and Neodilsea in the nor...
Article
Full-text available
Agarum is a perennial kelp genus that has a broad distribution from the northwest Pacific to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. In order to address questions regarding phylogenetic relationships and present-day distribution patterns of species within this genus, we analyzed the nuclear ITS2, mitochondrial cox1 and cox3, and plastid RuBisCO spacer from a...
Article
Full-text available
We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine the distribution of genotypes of Palmaria mollis (Setchell et Gardner) van der Meer et Bird, a red alga. We sampled populations along the Northeast Pacific coast from northern Washington to southwestern Alaska, an area extensively glaciated during the last ice age. Our objective was...
Article
Full-text available
Five pairs of putative sibling species of Porphyra are recognized between the boreal North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans on the basis of similarities in isozymes, morphology, and chromosomes. These pairs are North Atlantic P. amplissima and North Pacific P. miniata (recognized here as P. cuneiformis), North Atlantic P. "leucosticta" and North P...
Article
Full-text available
Starch gel electrophoresis of proteins of Porphyra species occurring in British Columbia and nearby areas has provided new data on species identities. One new species is described, Porphyra kurogii (formerly identified as North Pacific P. purpurea), and its eastern Pacific distribution limit is extended from northern to southern British Columbia. P...
Article
The benthic marine algal order Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) is introduced, and a key to the families found between Cross Sound, Alaska, and northern Washington is provided. The family Dumontiaceae is monographed. Ten of 16 currently recognized genera and 14 of some 48 recognized species are described and illustrated: Constantinea rosa-marina (Gmelin)...
Article
Aim This article reviews the history of seaweed collections in Southeast Alaska from the early Russian explorers to contemporary efforts. It summarizes other studies of Southeast Alaskan seaweeds from a biogeographical perspective, and compares the known seaweed flora near three population centres (Ketchikan, Sitka and Juneau) with those of other r...
Chapter
We sequenced the chloroplast rubisco large subunit (rbcL) gene in 236 samples of Porphyra sensu lato from the northeast Pacific. Comparisons of sequences within the study area as well as comparisons with published sequences revealed up to five cryptic species among the 22 named species: a species closely related to Porphyra abbottiae, a species pre...
Article
The Arctic is geologically and biogeographically young, and the origin of its seaweed flora has been widely debated. The Arctic littoral biogeographic region dates from the latest Tertiary and Pleistocene. Following the opening of Bering Strait, about 3.5 mya, the “Great Trans-Arctic Biotic Interchange” populated the Arctic with a fauna strongly do...
Article
Mastocarpus papillatus (C. Agardh) Kütz. is a common intertidal red alga occurring along the west coast of North America from Baja California to Alaska. Sequencing of both the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ∼200 specimens from California to Alaska revealed that M. papillatus is a...
Article
We sequenced the chloroplast rubisco large subunit (rbcL) gene in 236 samples of Porphyra sensu lato from the northeast Pacific. Comparisons of sequences within the study area as well as comparisons with published sequences revealed up to five cryptic species among the 22 named species: a species closely related to Porphyra abbottiae, a species pre...
Article
A previously unknown species of kelp was collected on Kagamil Island, Aleutian Islands. The species can be easily distinguished from any known laminarialean alga: the erect sporophytic thallus is composed of a thin lanceolate blade attaining ∼2 m in height and ∼0.50 m in width, without midrib, and the edge of the blade at the transition zone is thi...
Article
Molecular phylogenetic studies on the evolution of the red algae indicate that this ancient division has many lineages that have recently undergone radiations. One such example is the cold–temperate family Palmariaceae. In this study, sequences from the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions were compared among ten species in the Palmari...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in Porphyra mariculture in Alaska and a proscription against importing non-indigenous species or stock prompted us to investigate conditions that stimulate release of conchospores in local species of interest. Many of these species had been investigated previously using strains from Washington State. We observed at least one significant di...
Article
Photosynthesis and respiration of three Alaskan Porphyra species, P. abbottiae V. Krishnam., P. pseudolinearis Ueda species complex (identified as P. “pseudolinearis” below), and P. torta V. Krishnam., were investigated under a range of environmental parameters. Photosynthesis versus irradiance (P–I) curves revealed that maximal photosynthesis (Pma...
Article
We cultured a tubular marine green alga, originally identified as Capsosiphon groenlandicus (J. Agardh) K.L. Vinogradova, from Amaknak Island, Alaska. The alga had an alternation of heteromorphic generations in which tubular monoecious fronds produced quadriflagellate zoospores and/or biflagellate isogametes. The gametes fused to produce cysts or C...
Article
Despite their relatively complex morphologies, species in the genus Alaria Greville are notoriously difficult to identify with certainty. Morphological characters, often influenced by environmental factors, make individuals in similar habitats artificially appear related. Species identification would, therefore, benefit greatly from the application...
Chapter
A recent survey of seaweed specimens collected in Alaska over the past two centuries, together with the application of molecular techniques to recent collections, has revealed a surprisingly diverse flora given the history of glaciation, large areas of unsuitable habitat, and otherwise harsh environmental conditions. The number of recognized specie...
Article
We cultured and sequenced newly collected material of Percursaria dawsonii Hollenberg et I. A. Abbott, a poorly known epibiont of limpets found along the west coast of North America. Zoospores, parthenogametes, and zygotes exhibited empty-spore germination, which produced a prostrate system that expanded by stolon-like development. A dense carpet o...
Article
2005. The phylogeny of North American Urospora (Ulotrichales, Chlorophyta) based on sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal genes, introns and spacers. Phycologia 44: 194–201. Amplification of the ribosomal cistron of Urospora isolates from within the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene through the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S regions into t...
Article
A group IE intron at position 989 (Escherichia coli numbering) in the 18S rRNA gene is described for the first time from the green algae based on primary and secondary structure analysis of the intron. The intron occurred in Urospora neglecta Kornmann, U. wormskioldii (Mertens) Rosenvinge, and in an undescribed taxon closely allied with U. wormskio...
Article
ABSTRACTA new foliose red alga, common subtidally from British Columbia to the Aleutian Islands, is described and given the name Hommersandia maximicarpa. The lobed perennial thallus, which can reach a height of 23 cm, is distinguished by its vegetative structure and by its unique pattern of nonprocarpic carposporophyte development. In transverse s...
Article
Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL (chloroplast Rubisco large subunit) gene from 23 newly sequenced species of Porphyra, primarily from the north-east Pacific, one Bangia and previously published sequences from both genera resolve relationships among most species of Porphyra and reveal five clades of species with Porphyra-type morphologies among a n...
Article
An endophytic filamentous brown alga, growing in the red alga Orculifilum denticulatum Lindstrom, was collected from the north-east Pacific, near Juneau, Alaska. Within the host tissue, its branched filaments formed a network in the space between the filaments of the host tissues embedded in the host intercellular substances. Cells of the filaments...
Article
The red algal genus Stenogramme was described by Harvey (1840) for entities having flattened, dichotomously branched thalli with cystocarps borne in narrow, linear sori resembling an interrupted midrib on blades, and with isomorphic tetrasporophytes with scattered circular to irregular tetrasporangial nemathecia. In the current literature, the most...
Article
A large number of boreal seaweeds have either sibling species or conspecific populations of a single species in the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. This pattern is thought to have arisen from the dispersal between the two oceans through the Arctic Ocean after the opening of the Bering Strait in the mid-to-late Miocene or earliest Pliocene...
Article
The taxonomic and evolutionary relationships between Porphyra of the boreal North Pacific (NP) and North Atlantic (NA) are being examined using near full length sequences of rbcL and the rbcL rbcS spacer (∼1420 bp). Phylogenetic analysis openface> 20 recognized species produced clusters containing both NP and NA species: Porphyra carolinenesis (NA)...
Article
Small subunit (SSU) rDNA was sequenced for 25 species in 19 genera of the Gigartinales (Rhodophyta). As well, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced, and a data matrix of 36 morphological characters was constructed for 16 species of Dumontiaceae. Phylogenetic trees were calculated from a multiple alignment of the SSU sequence da...
Article
Full-text available
The leafy gametophytic phase of Porphyra torta Krishnamurthy(Rhodophyta), a candidate species for mariculture in Alaska, grows only inwinter and early spring and is restricted to the outer coast of southeastAlaska. To help determine specific environmental factors limiting theseasonal and geographic distribution of this species, culture experimentsw...
Article
We followed long-term dynamics of a conspicuous intertidal brown alga, Fucus gardneri, for seven years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. We compared percent cover of Fucus over time at sites that had been oiled, some of which were washed with high-pressure hot water, relative to sites that had experi...
Article
Full-text available
We followed long-term dynamics of a conspicuous intertidal brown alga, Fucus gardneri, for seven years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. We compared percent cover of Fucus over time at sites that had been oiled, some of which were washed with high-pressure hot water, relative to sites that had experi...
Article
Use of isozymes (including allozymes) in studies of population genetics and systematics of seaweeds has increased sufficiently in the last decade to allow some generalization. Only a single locus has been observed for about half the enzymes analysed in seaweeds, compared with 29% in vascular plants. Compared with higher plants, macroalgal species g...
Article
Use of isozymes (including allozymes) in studies of population genetics and systematics of seaweeds has increased sufficiently in the last decade to allow some generalization. Only a single locus has been observed for about half the enzymes analysed in seaweeds, compared with 29% in vascular plants. Compared with higher plants, macroalgal species g...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments were performed to determine the range and optima of environmental conditions under which indigenous species of Alaskan Porphyra can grow. Growth of the conchocelis phase of Porphyra abbottae, P. torta and P. pseudolinearis was measured, when cultured in enriched media, under long days (16 h light) and varying conditions of irradiance (2...
Article
Long-term sampling of the intertidal zone in southwestern Prince William Sound following the T/V Exxon VALDEZ oil spill provides the basis for a description of intertidal macroalgal community structure in the poorly studied protected waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Diagnostic species are described for three habitat types based on species abu...
Book
Full-text available
Seaweed Resources of The World (1998). Professor Masao Ohno, Kochi University, Japan is acknowledged for his tremendous contributions to phycology and particularly training and inspiring many students of seaweed cultivation and utilisation around the world. This book was first published in 1998; the text has information on 40 regions of the worl...
Article
We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine the distribution of genotypes of Palmaria mollis (Setchell et Gardner) van der Meer et Bird, a red alga. We sampled populations along the Northeast Pacific coast from northern Washington to southwestern Alaska, an area extensively glaciated during the last ice age. Our objective was...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eight years of quantitative biological and chemical data have been analyzed for trends in recovery of biota inhabiting beaches in Prince William Sound following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent shoreline treatments. Sampling has focused on biota at sheltered rocky and mixed-soft sites subjected to three degrees of disturbance (unoiled...
Book
This volume provides a selection of the most significant papers presented at the 15th International Seaweed Symposium in Valdivia, Chile, in January 1995. Plenary lectures featured seaweed research and utilization in Chile by Bernabé Santelices, ethnobotany of seaweeds by Isabella Abbott, host-virus interactions in marine brown algae by Dieter Müll...
Chapter
Isozymes, vegetative and reproductive morphology, seasonality, vertical and geographic distributions and chromosomes were compared for six pairs of putative sibling species of Porphyra (P. abbottae/P. torta, P.fallax subsp. fallax/P.fallax subsp. conwayae, P. amplissima/P. cuneiformis, P.fucicola/P. ‘leucosticta’, P. miniata/P. variegata, P. ‘umbil...
Article
Isozymes, vegetative and reproductive morphology, seasonality, vertical and geographic distributions and chromosomes were compared for six pairs of putative sibling species of Porphyra (P. abbottae/P. torta, P. fallax subsp. fallax/P. fallax subsp. conwayae, P. amplissima/P. cuneiformis, P. fucicola/P. leucostica, P. miniata/P. variegata, P. umbili...
Article
Starch gel electrophoresis of 17 proteins has provided data on inter- and intrapopulation genetic variation in 20 species ofPorphyra occurring in British Columbia and adjacent areas.P. cuneiformis andP. nereocystis showed no within species variation, even over ranges of more than 1000 km. Populations ofP. abbottae, P. fallax, P. fucicola, P. gardne...
Article
At present, twolanceolate species of the marine alga Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) are recognized to occur along the Pacific coast of North America from British Columbia to California: Porphyra lanceolata (Setchell et Hus in Hus) G.M. Smith in G.M. Smith et Hollenberg, and P. pseudolanceolata Krishnamurthy. Comparisons of specimens attributed to...
Article
Traditional morphological features have formed the basis for distinguishing species of Porphyra. Among these features are number of cell layers, number of chloroplasts per cell, arrangement of reproductive structures on the thallus, and overall morphology. Chromosome number and chromosome morphology have helped corroborate some species identities....
Article
Several monophyletic groups of taxa were produced by a cladistic analysis of all species belonging to the red algal family Dumontiaceae (Gigartinales). One of these groups is recognized here as the tribe Dumontieae. It consists of the species of Dumontia, Crypto siphonia, Hyalosiphonia, Masudaphycus gen. nov., Neodilsea, and Dilsea, all found in th...
Article
Orculifilum denticulatum gen. et sp. nov. is described from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. This rare alga resembles Leptocladia peruviana and some specimens of Farlowia mollis in its compressed, pinnately branched habit. Like Leptocladia and Farlowia, Orculifilum has a single dome-shaped apical cell that divides transversely and subapical cells th...
Article
The monogeneric family Acrosymphytaceae is proposed on the basis of unique female reproductive structures and post-fertilization events. The family is included in the order Gigartinales sensu lato.
Article
The monogeneric family Acrosymphytaceae is proposed on the basis of unique female reproductive structures and post‐fertilization events. The family is included in the order Gigartinales sensu lato.