Sandra Lavorel

Sandra Lavorel
CNRS · Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine

PhD

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461
Publications
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68,227
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Publications

Publications (461)
Article
Increasing plant diversity is often suggested as a way of overcoming some of the challenges faced by managers of intensive pasture systems, but it is unclear how to design the most suitable plant mixtures. Using innovative design theory, we identify two conceptual shifts that foster potentially beneficial design approaches. Firstly, reframing the g...
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Safeguarding Earth’s tree diversity is a conservation priority due to the importance of trees for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services such as carbon sequestration. Here, we improve the foundation for effective conservation of global tree diversity by analyzing a recently developed database of tree species covering 46,752 species. We q...
Article
Cultural ecosystem services can be challenging to simulate, leading to their under-representation in future scenario modelling to support decision-making. Here we use the density of landscape appreciation photographs uploaded to social media to parameterise an empirical model of landscape appreciation. We developed the model using over 150,000 phot...
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The trajectories of mountain socio-ecosystems are complex and influenced by numerous factors (climate, human practices, slope, etc.). This study combined methods used in palynology, ecology and history to produce complementary data to improve understanding of the trajectories of an alpine socio-ecosystem over the last 500 years. Past changes in veg...
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To better account for how social–ecological legacies of social and ecological systems jointly shape the current composition, the quality and quantity of nature’s contribution to people (NCPs), we integrate the concept of NCP co-production into social–ecological system thinking. Our expanded framework highlights how NCP co-production is frequently e...
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Human well-being depends on the Earth’s natural system. While there is awareness of the impact of human activities on the environment, the reverse – nature’s role in human well-being – is usually not as clear. For decision makers and people to recognize the role of nature in human well-being, we need scientific evidence and ways to monitor trends t...
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Context In climate-smart landscapes people manage land use for integrating sustainable production, climate change adaptation and mitigation. The spatial dimension of this multifunctionality remains to be formalised to increase effectiveness of nature-based solutions. Objectives We aimed to systematically analyse effects of fragmentation on multifu...
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Analyzing actions of climate change adaptation as envisaged by stakeholders enables to draw a shared vision or, conversely, alternative pathways imagined for a territory; and to question their inclusion in governance. This article focuses on the adaptation levers devised by 170 local stakeholders (state services, elected officials, agriculture, for...
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Social-ecological interactions have been shown to generate interrelated and reoccurring sets of ecosystem services, also known as ecosystem service bundles. Given the potential utility of the bundles concept, along with the recent surge in interest it is timely to reflect on the concept, its current use and potential for the future. Based on our ec...
Article
The devastating 2015 earthquakes in Nepal highlighted the need for effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) in mountains, which are inherently subject to hazards and increasingly vulnerable to extreme events. As multiple UN policy frameworks stress, DRR is crucial to mitigate the mounting environmental and socioeconomic costs of disasters globally....
Article
Mountain social-ecological systems (MtSES) are vital to humanity, providing ecosystem services to over half the planet's human population. Despite their importance, there has been no global assessment of threats to MtSES, even as they face unprecedented challenges to their sustainability. With survey data from 57 MtSES sites worldwide, we test a co...
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Nature’s contributions to people (NCP) do not flow automatically from ecosystems to society, but they result from a co-production process of interactions between societal and ecological systems. In this study, we used the collective capabilities approach to address the social dimensions of co-production of the material NCP of cheese. These are the...
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To the Editor — Wyborn and Evans argue that global priority maps for conservation have questionable utility and may crowd out local and more contextual research. While we agree with the authors’ central argument that effective and equitable conservation must be rooted at local scales, the assertion that “conservation needs to break free from global...
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Grasslands are under severe threat from ongoing degradation, undermining their capacity to support biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, grasslands are largely ignored in sustainable development agendas. In this Perspective, we examine the current state of global grasslands and explore the extent and dominant drivers of their...
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Scientists increasingly cross their disciplinary boundaries and connect with local stakeholders to jointly solve complex problems. Working with stakeholders means higher legitimacy and supports practical impact of research. Games provide a tool to achieve such transdisciplinary collaboration. In this paper, we explore the use of a game in a partici...
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Ecosystems support the adaptation of societies to global changes through their contributions to people's quality of life. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) implementation remains a challenge and will require changes of practices, structures and processes underpinning human and nature interactions, also considered as co-production of nature’s contrib...
Preprint
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Context – In climate-smart landscapes people manage land use for integrating sustainable production, climate change adaptation and mitigation. The spatial dimension of this multifunctionality remains to be formalised to increase effectiveness of nature-based solutions. Objectives – We aimed to systematically analyse effects of fragmentation on mult...
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Human actions have driven earth systems close to irreversible and profound change. The need to shift towards intentional transformative adaptation (ITA) is clear. Using case studies from the Transformative Adaptation Research Alliance (TARA), we explore ITA as a way of thinking and acting that is transformative in concept and objectives, but achiev...
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To ensure their quality of life, people adapt to multiple changes by maintaining or transforming the structure and functions of their socio-ecological systems (SES). A better understanding of mechanisms underpinning SES adaptation, especially the contribution of changes in human-nature interactions, is crucial to facilitate adaptation to future cha...
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Under global change, how biological diversity and ecosystem services are maintained in time is a fundamental question. Ecologists have long argued about multiple mechanisms by which local biodiversity might control the temporal stability of ecosystem properties. Accumulating theories and empirical evidence suggest that, together with different popu...
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It is increasingly common for developers to be asked to manage the impacts of their projects on biodiversity by restoring other degraded habitats that are ecologically equivalent to those that are impacted. These measures, called biodiversity offsets, generally aim to achieve ‘no net loss’ (NNL) of biodiversity. Using spatially-explicit modeling, d...
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There is an urgent need to protect key areas for biodiversity and nature's contributions to people (NCP). However, different values of nature are rarely considered together in conservation planning. Here, we explore potential priority areas in Europe for biodiversity (all terrestrial vertebrates) and a set of cultural and regulating NCP while consi...
Preprint
Global sustainability targets demand transformative changes. Nature-based solutions (NbS) are gaining traction in science and policy, but their potential for transformative change remains unexplored. We provide a framework to evaluate how NbS contribute to transformative change and apply it to 93 NbS from mountain social-ecological systems (SES). T...
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Transdisciplinary research is a promising approach to address sustainability challenges arising from global environmental change, as it is characterized by an iterative process that brings together actors from multiple academic fields and diverse sectors of society to engage in mutual learning with the intent to co-produce new knowledge. We present...
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Global sustainability targets demand transformative changes. Nature-based solutions (NbS) are gaining traction in science and policy, but their potential for transformative change remains unexplored. We provide a framework to evaluate how NbS contribute to transformative change and apply it to 93 NbS from mountain social-ecological systems (SES). T...
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Abstract The impacts of warming on communities and ecosystems are predicted to be significant in mountain ecosystems because physiological processes, including rates of carbon (C) cycling, are often more temperature‐sensitive in colder environments. Plant biodiversity can also influence C exchange, yet few studies integrate how biotic and abiotic f...
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Nature's contributions to human well-being within social-ecological systems have been widely studied using multiple conceptual frameworks, yet there is a growing need to better articulate how both humans and nature contribute to quality of life. We present an operationalization of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service...
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A key sustainability challenge in human-dominated landscapes is how to reconcile competing demands such as food production, water quality, climate regulation, and ecological amenities. Prior research has documented how efforts to prioritize desirable ecosystem services such as food and fiber have often led to tradeoffs with other services. However,...
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Background and Aims The acquisitive-conservative axis of plant ecological strategies results in a pattern of leaf trait covariation that captures the balance between leaf construction costs and plant growth potential. Studies evaluating trait covariation within species are scarcer, and have mostly dealt with variation in response to environmental g...
Preprint
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Both historical and contemporary environmental conditions determine present biodiversity patterns, but their relative importance is not well understood. One way to disentangle their relative effects is to assess how different dimensions of beta-diversity relate to past climatic changes, i.e., taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional compositional dis...
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Protected areas manage synergies and trade-offs associated with core missions of nature protection while supporting education, recreation and tourism. In this paper we demonstrate how spatial modelling co-produced with managers can support the assessment of interactions between two cultural services: outdoor recreation and iconic terrestrial verteb...
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Sensitivity of grassland biomass production to climate is critical to impacts on multiple ecological processes and ecosystem services. Understanding its climate determinants is essential for climate change adaptation. This requires long-term monitoring, using robust methods that are appropriated by stakeholders. We tested the sensitivity of easily...
Preprint
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Trees are of vital importance for ecosystem functioning and services at local to global scales, yet we still lack a detailed overview of the global patterns of tree diversity and the underlying drivers, particularly the imprint of paleoclimate. Here, we present the high-resolution (110 km) worldwide mapping of tree species richness, functional and...
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The end of the first working program of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) provided an opportunity to draw lessons from its work. This perspective paper captures insights from ecosystem services (ES) researchers and practitioners, largely drawing from the Europeancontext (referred to herein...
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Transformation of social-ecological systems due to climate change requires, transformative adaptation responses. We propose the concept of nature's contribution to adaptation (NCA; previously called adaptation services), to reveal properties of ecosystems that provide options for future livelihoods and adaptation to transformative change. Knowledge...
Preprint
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Although trees are key to ecosystem functioning, many forests and tree species across the globe face strong threats. Preserving areas of high biodiversity is a core priority for conservation; however, different dimensions of biodiversity and varied conservation targets make it difficult to respond effectively to this challenge. Here, we (i) identif...
Technical Report
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Ecosystems provide people with services that enable adaptation to climate change, which we refer to here as ‘adaptation services’. But adaptation services do not flow automatically: some input from people is needed. We identified five types of mechanisms that support the production of adaptation services. These mechanisms are related to: (i) multif...
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Ecosystems can sustain social adaptation to environmental change by protecting people from climate change effects and providing options for sustaining material and non-material benefits as ecological structure and functions transform. Along adaptation pathways, people navigate the trade-offs between different ecosystem contributions to adaptation,...
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The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is based on a suite of leaf traits related to plant functioning and ranges from resource‐conservative to resource‐acquisitive strategies. However, the relationships with root traits, and the associated belowground plant functioning such as N uptake, including nitrate (NO3⁻) and ammonium (NH4⁺), is still poorly know...
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Pollination is a critical ecosystem service given its essential role in sustaining food production, while pollinating insects are declining worldwide. Pollination capacity can be estimated through direct indicators characterising pollinator communities. Pollinators need feeding and nesting resources, so their presence can also be estimated through...
Article
Relationships between plants and nitrogen-related microbes may vary with plant growth. We investigated these dynamic relationships over three months by analyzing plant functional traits (PFT), arbus-cular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization, potential N mineralization (PNM), potential nitrification (PNA) and denitrification activities (PDA) in Da...
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Plain Language Summary Ecosystems and society are closely coupled and are both affected by climate change. Climate extremes are expected to occur more often and/or get more intense under climate change. We ask the following question: How can ecosystems and society, which can be described as so‐called social‐ecological systems, withstand climate ext...
Preprint
Full-text available
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is based on a suite of leaf traits related to plant functioning and ranges from resource-conservative to resource-acquisitive strategies. However, the relationships with root traits, and the associated belowground plant functioning such as N uptake, including nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+), is still poorly know...
Article
Full-text available
Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research sp...
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En 2015, un danger d’éboulement de la montagne conduit à couper la route départementale 1091 entre la Haute Romanche et Grenoble. Cette coupure provoque une crise sociale et économique à La Grave et Villar-d’Arêne, deux communes desservies par cette route ; crise qui perdure malgré le rétablissement de la circulation. Cet article propose une analys...
Article
Observed declines in pollinator populations due to human pressures is of critical concern because pollination is an essential regulating ecosystem service (ES). Pollination has a major role in human food production and in maintaining flowering plant diversity. Estimating the pollination ES and its trends is thus essential for informing policy and m...
Article
•In subalpine grasslands of the central French Alps, cessation of traditional mowing promotes dominance by Patzkea paniculata (L.) G.H.Loos (Poaceae) tussocks with high biomass but low fodder quality. Mowing limits P. paniculata abundance through the depletion of its water‐soluble carbohydrate (WSC) reserves which sustain early spring growth initia...
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1.Trait‐based approaches provide a framework to understand the role of functional biodiversity on ecosystem functioning under global change. While plant traits have been reported as potential drivers of soil microbial community composition and resilience, studies directly assessing microbial traits are scarce, limiting our mechanistic understanding...
Article
Full text: https://rdcu.be/bVy8H | https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-019-0412-1 | doi: 10.1038/s41893-019-0412-1 | Regional and global assessments periodically update what we know, and highlight what remains to be known, about the linkages between people and nature that both define and depend upon the state of the environment. To guide resear...
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The French national ecosystem assessment (NEA), called EFESE for « Evaluation nationale des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques » was launched in 2012 by the Ministry of Environment to comply both with European and national requirements. This paper reports on the design and implementation of the French NEA for high mountain systems, which (i...
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Physically and socially heterogeneous mountain landscapes support high biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services. But rapid landscape transformation from fast urbanisation and agricultural intensification around cities to abandonment and depopulation in higher and more remote districts, raises urgent environmental and planning issues. For antici...